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PERCEPTION (PowerPoint)

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									PERCEPTION



            Perception PPT for PGDM( RM)
    Organizational Behavior
                           2010            11
When you change
the way you look
  at things, the
 things you look
   at change.


              Perception PPT for PGDM( RM)
      Organizational Behavior
                             2010            22
What is Perception?
 A process by which individuals organize and
  interpret their sensory impressions in order to
  give meaning to their environment.
 People’s behavior is based on their perception
  of what reality is, not on reality itself.
 The world as it is perceived is the world that is
  behaviorally important.




                     Perception PPT for PGDM( RM)
             Organizational Behavior
                                    2010              33
Perception
 What is Perception?
   How we view and interpret the events
    and situations in the world about us.


 Why is it Important?
   Because people’s behavior is based on
    their perception of what reality is, not
    on reality itself.


                   Perception PPT for PGDM( RM)
           Organizational Behavior
                                  2010            44
Factors that Influence Perception




                   Perception PPT for PGDM( RM)
           Organizational Behavior
                                  2010            55
PERCEPTUAL PROCESS

Input               Organisation                   Outputs

          Selection               Interpretation




                Perception PPT for PGDM( RM)
        Organizational Behavior
                               2010                          66
PRINCIPLES OF ORGANISATION
   Figure and Ground
   Principle of Similarity
   Principle of Proximity
   Principle of continuity
   Principle of Closure
   Principle of Symmetry



                 Perception PPT for PGDM( RM)
         Organizational Behavior
                                2010            77
                                   Figure and ground

Figure and ground



                     Perception PPT for PGDM( RM)
             Organizational Behavior
                                    2010               88
  Gestalt
Approach

  Figure

  Ground




                Perception PPT for PGDM( RM)
        Organizational Behavior
                               2010            99
                                                      Continuity
Similarity                         Proximity




               Closure                              Symmetry
                     Perception PPT for PGDM( RM)
             Organizational Behavior
                                    2010                       10
                                                                10
  The Vertical lines are both the same
                 length.




The center circles are both the same size.




              Perception PPT for PGDM( RM)
      Organizational Behavior
                             2010            11
                                              11
Perception PPT for PGDM( RM)
Organizational Behavior
2010Organizational Behavior    12
PERCEPTUAL AMBIGUITY




                   Perception PPT for PGDM( RM)
         Organizational Behavior 2010             13
                                                   13
              Word Color Test

 In this test DO NOT READ the words,
   say aloud the COLOR of each word.



YELLOW BLUE ORANGE
  BLACK RED GREEN
 PURPLE YELLOW RED
ORANGE GREEN BLACK
  BLUE RED PURPLE
 GREEN BLUE ORANGE
            Perception PPT for PGDM( RM)
    Organizational Behavior
                           2010            14
                                            14
       Wavy Squares? No!
The background of concentric circles
 makes the squares appear distorted.




           Perception PPT for PGDM( RM)
   Organizational Behavior
                          2010            15
                                           15
What is attribution theory?

 Attribution theory aids in perceptual
  interpretation by focusing on how people
  attempt to:
   Understand the causes of a certain event.
   Assess responsibility for the outcomes of the
    event.
   Evaluate the personal qualities of the people
    involved in the event.


                    Perception PPT for PGDM( RM)
            Organizational Behavior
                                   2010            16
                                                    16
        Attribution Theory: Judging Others
   Our perception and judgment of
    others is significantly influenced
    by our assumptions of the other
    person’s internal state.
    When individuals observe behavior, they
    attempt to determine whether it is internally or
    externally caused.
         Internal causes are under that person’s
          control
         External causes are not – person forced to
          act in that way
   Causation judged through:
       Distinctiveness -Shows different behaviors in
        different situations.
                         Perception PPT is the same as others to
        Consensus - Response for PGDM( RM)
                  Organizational Behavior
                                         2010                       17
        same situation.                                              17
Elements of Attribution Theory




              Perception PPT for PGDM( RM)
      Organizational Behavior
                             2010            18
                                              18
Causes of Behavior
 Internal factors –
  Personal
  characteristics that
  cause behavior
  (e.g., ability, effort)
 External factors –
  Environmental
  characteristics that
  cause behavior
  (e.g., task
  difficulty, good/bad
  luck)
                        Perception PPT for PGDM( RM)
                Organizational Behavior
                                       2010            19
                                                        19
Kelley’s Attribution Model
 Consensus – Involves the comparison of an
  individual’s behavior with that of his or her
  peers      Low                     High




         A   B   C    D   E                      A    B     C   D   E
             People                                    People


                             Perception PPT for PGDM( RM)
                     Organizational Behavior
                                            2010                        20
                                                                         20
Kelley’s Theory of Attribution
 Distinctiveness is determined by comparing
  a person’s behavior on one task with his or
  her behavior on other tasks.
            Low                                            High




       A   B C      D   E                        A    B C         D   E
            Tasks                                      Tasks


                            Perception PPT for PGDM( RM)
                    Organizational Behavior
                                           2010                           21
                                                                           21
Kelley’s Theory of Attribution
 Consistency is determined by judging if the
  individual’s performance on a given task is
  consistent over time.
           Low                                      High




          Time                                   Time

                         Perception PPT for PGDM( RM)
                 Organizational Behavior
                                        2010               22
                                                            22
How Kelley’s Model Works
                           External Attribution
                             High consensus
                             High
                              distinctiveness
                             Low consistency

                           Internal Attribution
                             Low consensus
                             Low
                              distinctiveness
                             High consistency
                 Perception PPT for PGDM( RM)
         Organizational Behavior
                                2010               23
                                                    23
Test Your Knowledge
 Nadia’s performance is declining. Her peers
  performance hasn’t changed, it is occurring on
  several tasks, and has occurred for the past six
  months.
 This represents:
 1. High (A) or Low (B) consensus
 2. High (A) or Low (B) distinctiveness
 3. High (A) or Low (B) consistency
 4. The attribution her supervisor is likely to
    make is…
   a. Internal
   b. External
                        Perception PPT for PGDM( RM)
                Organizational Behavior
                                       2010            24
                                                        24
Errors and Biases in Attributions
   Fundamental Attribution Error
       The tendency to underestimate the
        influence of external factors and
        overestimate the influence of internal
        factors when making judgments about the
        behavior of others
       We blame people first, not the situation

   Self-Serving Bias
       The tendency for individuals to attribute
        their own successes to internal factors
        while putting the blame for failures on
        external factors
                         Perception PPT for PGDM( RM)
                                        but
        It is “our” success2010 “their” failure
                 Organizational Behavior
                                                        25
                                                         25
Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others



       Selective Perception - People selectively
        interpret what they see on the basis of their
        interests, background, experience, and attitudes
       Halo Effect- Drawing a general impression about
        an individual on the basis of a single characteristic
       Contrast Effects - Evaluation of a person’s
        characteristics that are affected by comparisons
        with other people recently encountered who rank
        higher or lower on the same characteristics



                             Perception PPT for PGDM( RM)
                     Organizational Behavior
                                            2010            26
                                                             26
    Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging
    Others
   Projection: The tendency to attribute
    one’s own characteristics to other
    people.

   Stereotyping - Judging someone on
    the basis of one’s perception of the
    group to which that person belongs – a
    prevalent and often useful, if not
    always accurate, generalization

                        Perception PPT for PGDM( RM)
                Organizational Behavior
                                       2010            27
                                                        27
Specific Shortcut Applications in Organizations
   Employment Interview
      Perceptual biases of raters affect the accuracy of
       interviewers’ judgments of applicants
      Formed in a single glance – 1/10 of a second!

   Performance Expectations
      Self-fulfilling prophecy (Pygmalion effect): The
       lower or higher performance of employees
       reflects preconceived leader expectations about
       employee capabilities
   Performance Evaluations
      Appraisals are often the subjective (judgmental)
       perceptions of appraisers of another employee’s
       job performance
      Critical impact on employees



                   Perception PPT for PGDM( RM)
           Organizational Behavior
                                  2010                  28
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