The Progressives 1880-1916 01. Which of the following was not included among the concerns of religious leaders muckrakers and radicals in the early 1900s? (A) reforms in state constitutions (B) crooked politicians (C) gains in worker’s wages (D) special privileges given to big business. 02. Progressives labeled Taft a reactionary (A) so Taft began to support big business (B) even though he sponsored more antitrust suits than Roosevelt (C) because he was a tool of big business (D) because they strongly approved of his actions as president. 03. The system that allows the public to choose their political party candidates is the (A) referendum (B) closed primary (C) open caucus (D) direct primary. 04. The election of 1896 (A) revealed that Bryan had carried the urban labor vote (B) was an extremely narrow win for McKinley (C) indicated that sectional differences were gone (D) revealed considerable class conflict. 05. Western farming was most aided by the (A) Carey Act (B) Newlands Act (C) Agricultural Extension Act (D) Federal Highway Act. 06. The free-silver issue faded primarily because of (A) an increase in the world supply of gold (B) Mark Hanna’s propaganda (C) Bryan’s defeat in 1900 (D) the world-wide adoption of bimetallism. 07. The only reform legislation not enacted during Roosevelt’s presidency dealt with (A) unsanitary meat and patent medicine (B) railroad rebates, passes and bookkeeping (C) forest reserves and national parks (D) the graduated income tax. 08. Which of the following was not aimed at controlling the railroads? (A) Mann Act (B) Hepburn Act (C) Northern Securities litigation (D) Elkins Act. 09. The Wilson-Gorman Tariff (A) fully redeemed Democratic campaign promises (B) was vetoed by Cleveland (C) contained an income tax provision (D) generally increased the McKinley Tariff rates. 10. Which of the following authors did not stress as a theme in his work the importance of class struggle and conflict? (A) Charles Beard (B) Thorstein Veblen (C) Jack London (D) all of the above. 11. Roosevelt’s greatest accomplishment as a trust buster was in (A) dissolving Standard Oil (B) expanding the Interstate Commerce Commission (C) reactivating the Sherman Anti-Trust Act (D) reducing dramatically the total number of trusts. 12. Which of the following was not a part of the Omaha Platform? (A) civil service reform (B) immigration restrictions (C) public utilities socialism (D) tariff reductions. 13. Which of the following writers expose article contributed to the passage of the Meat Inspection Act? (A) Upton Sinclair (B) Ray S. Baker (C) Henry D. Lloyd (D) David G. Phillips. 14. Which of the following was not one of the targets of the “New Freedom?” (A) protective tariffs (B) banking system (C) civil rights (D) “unreasonable” trusts. 15. The 1912 split in the Republican Party was caused by (A) the selection of Wilson as the Democratic nominee (B) the Insurgent support for Taft (C) Taft’s support for Progressive reforms (D) the refusal to seat Roosevelt’s delegate at the national convention. 16. Which of the following was a goal of the Populist movement? (A) free coinage of silver (B) using modern science to solve social problems (C) eliminating the electoral college for choosing the president (D) national legislation outlawing racial discrimination. 17. Today the most frequently used democratic reform of the Progressive era is the (A) recall (B) initiative (C) referendum (D) Australian ballot. 18. Progressivism under Taft suffered a blow when he refused to (A) support tariff reforms (B) preserve coal reserves (C) support Progressives in Congress (D) all of the above. 19. Cleveland attempted to relieve the monetary crisis of 1893 by (A) changing to a silver standard (B) borrowing gold from private bankers (C) initiating a program of public works (D) increasing the tariff rates. 20. By the end of Wilson’s first term as president (A) he had successfully implemented most of his New Freedom program (B) he decided not to run for a second term (C) his ideas and actions were more Progressive than Democrat (D) the war in Europe was ending. 21. Which of the following caused Cleveland the biggest problem during his second term? The (A) J.P. Morgan “deal” (B) Pullman strike (C) Wilson-Gorman Tariff (D) Panic of 1893. 22. Which of the following acts did not relate to interstate commerce? (A) Glass- Owens (B) Federal Trade Commission (C) Hepburn (D) Mann-Elkins. 23. Which of the following statements best summarizes Roosevelt’s position on trusts? (A) trusts are an economic evil and should be destroyed in every case (B) only trusts in railroads and oil industries are acceptable (C) good trusts should be tolerated while bad trusts are prevented (D) anything that stands in the way of complete and unrestricted economic competition should be removed. 24. Under the Clayton Anti-Trust Act, labor could (A) picket peacefully (B) boycott (C) strike (D) none of the above. 25. Which of the following reforms was completed nation-wide by 1916? (A) womens’ suffrage (B) graduated income tax (C) child labor laws (D) temperance. 26. Theodore Roosevelt proclaimed the “New Nationalism” in a speech at (A) Canton, Ohio (B) Mobile, Alabama (C) Osawatomie, Kansas (D) Sagamore Hill, New York. 27. Which of the following were supporters of William J. Bryan in the Election of 1896? (A) creditors (B) urban populace (C) the Northeast (D) all of the above (E) none of the above. 28. The order to “cease and desist” harmful practices to consumers came with the (A) Meat Inspection Act (B) Federal Trade Commission Act (C) U.S. v. Darby (D) Lochner v. New York. 29. The Aldrich-Vreeland Act (A) failed to significantly reduce the tariff (B) led to the Federal Reserve Act (C) expanded civil service (D) established the first regulations on the stock market. 30. Taft’s ideas about the use of presidential powers were (A) not strictly constitutional (B) in agreement with those of Roosevelt (C) one reason he won the 1912 election (D) more conservative than Roosevelt. 31. Western farmers were most aided by the (A) Carey Act (B) Newlands Act (C) Agricultural Extension Act (D) Federal Highway Act. 32. The major reason for the urban middle class becoming politically active in the early 1900s was the (A) desire to regain political control of the country (B) optimistic impact of the arrival of a new century (C) residual from the Panic of 1893 (D) frustration from continued high consumer prices. 33. Municipal reformers were least concerned with regulation and control of (A) graft and corruption (B) public utilities (C) crime and disease (D) big business abuses. 34. All of the following were serious problems for farmers in the post Civil War period except: (A) inadequate credit and high interest rates (B) high middleman costs leading to increased consumer prices (C) decreased agricultural production (D) unfair tax burden based on property. 35. The 1896 presidential election marked the last time that (A) rural America would defeat urban America (B) the South remained solid for the Democratic Party (C) a serious effort to win the White House would be made with mostly agrarian votes (D) factory workers would favor inflation. 36. The position of labor unions as bargaining agents for organized workers was firmly established by the (A) Clayton Anti-Trust Act (B) Keating-Owen Act (C) Mann-Elkins Act (D) Hepburn Act. 37. The least progressive candidate in the public’s eye in the 1912 presidential election was (A) William H. Taft (B) Eugene V. Debs (C) Theodore Roosevelt (D) Woodrow Wilson. 38. The Elkins Act helped reform railroads by (A) setting maximum rates that could be charged (B) prohibiting rebates (C) stopping the use of free passes to preferred customers (D) all of the above (E) none of the above. 39. During the presidential campaign of 1896, McKinley (A) energetically toured the U.S. (B) turned against the advice of Mark Hanna (C) leveled scandalous charges at Bryan’s personal life (D) conducted a “front porch” campaign from Canton, Ohio. 40. Roosevelt attempted to correct some of the abuses by large American corporations by (A) dissolving bad trusts (B) abolishing large trusts (C) destroying all trusts (D) prohibiting blemished products from being sold. 41. Which of these acts passed under Wilson did not directly attack the “triple wall of privilege”? (A) Federal Reserve Act (B) Clayton Anti-Trust Act (C) Underwood- Simmons Act (D) Adamson Act. 42. The main idea of Theodore Roosevelt’s proposed “New Nationalism” was to (A) make the federal government an instrument of domestic reform (B) undertake an aggressive new foreign policy (C) increase economic competition by breaking up all trusts and large business combinations (D) seek to establish a large overseas empire. 43. Which of the following was the most prominent Progressive of his day? (A) Charles E. Hughes (B) Robert La Follette (C) Hiram Johnson (D) George Norris. 44. Which of the following was contained in the Populist’s Omaha Platform? (A) election of senators by state legislatures (B) the Australian ballot (C) repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act (D) state ownership of all productive property. 45. In 1908, Roosevelt hand-picked Taft as his successor because (A) he chose not to break the third term tradition (B) Taft had been loyal to him (C) he believed that Taft would carry on his policies (D) all of the above. 46. The Aldrich-Vreeland Act was the result of the (A) court findings in the Northern Securities case (B) passage of the Adamson Act (C) fallout from the Panic of 1893 (D) all of the above (E) none of the above. 47. Taft’s presidential victory in 1908 was most aided by (A) Bryan being a consistent loser (B) Progressivism had run its course (C) continuing prosperity (D) Roosevelt’s noninvolvement. 48. Which of the following acts almost bankrupt the U.S. Treasury? (A) McKinley Tariff (B) Pension Act of 1890 (C) Dingley Tariff (D) Underwood-Simmons Act. 59. The first Newlands Act project was built on the upper reaches of which river? (A) Salt (B) Colorado (C) Gila (D) Columbia. 50. The Taft administration produced which of the following tariffs? (A) Mann-Elkins (B) Payne-Aldrich (C) Dingley (D) McKinley. 51. Progressivism in America was a reform movement attempting to correct the abuses in society caused by the (A) failure of capitalism (B) rapid industrialization of the economy (C) stagnation of social development (D) acquisition of an overseas empire. 52. Edward Bellamy’s book Looking Backward was (A) a detailed program for social reform (B) the catalyst of the social gospel movement (C) a denunciation of machine politics in big city government (D) a utopian fantasy advocating socialism. 53. Which of the following were least helped by the Progressive movement? (A) minorities (B) small businessmen (C) farmers (D) children. 54. Which of the following was true of Wilson’s antitrust measures? (A) they were slowed by war (B) they failed to work (C) they failed to win congressional support (D) they were copied from Taft. 55. Which of the following actions of Taft won him some grudging praise from the Insurgents in Congress? The (A) Payne-Aldrich Act (B) Canadian Reciprocity Treaty (C) Ballinger-Pinchot affair (D) Mann-Elkins Act. 56. Which of the following Muckrakers exposed the abuses of Standard Oil? (A) Charles E. Russell (B) Frank Norris (C) Ray Standard Baker (D) Ida M. Tarbell. 57. A Federal Reserve Bank Cannot (A) issue new currency (B) change interest rates without congressional approval (C) provide loans directly to the public (D) transfer funds to member banks. 58. The McKinley Tariff (A) gave farmers badly needed protection (B) effectively lowered tariff duties (C) generally increased duties (D) led to a Republican victory in the 1890 congressional election. 59. Which of the following legislative acts or presidential policies are not contradictory? (A) Aldrich-Vreeland/Glass-Owen Acts (B) Underwood-Simmons/Payne- Aldrich Tariffs (C) Bland-Allison/Gold Standard Acts (D) Keating-Owen Act/Hammer v. Dagenhart.. 60. All of the following were goals of Progressive reformers except: (A) to reverse the urbanization trend (B) to eliminate child labor and occupational diseases (C) to eliminate the power of political bosses and machines (D) to curb tariff abuses. 61. Robert La Follette’s plan of appointing college trained people to serve on state regulatory commissions became known as (A) the “Wisconsin Idea” (B) the initiative (C) the recall (D) the Commission Plan. 62. The Republican candidate in the Election (1908) was (A) Robert La Follette (B) William H. Taft (C) Theodore Roosevelt (D) William McKinley. 63. The “Muckrakers” were (A) a group of powerful industrialists (B) a group of dirty political candidates (C) powerful lobbyist (D) none of these. 64. The Bull Moose was a symbol of which political party? (A) Progressive (B) Republican (C) Populist (D) Democratic. 65. The Progressives believed in (A) socialism (B) rugged individualism (C) government regulation in the interest of the people (D) laissez-faire economy. 66. The leaders of the Progressive Movement aimed to do all of the following except: (A) restore control of the government to the people (B) correct the abuses and injustices of American life (C) return the nation to the gold standard (D) provide equality of economic opportunity by making new rules for the conduct of business. 67. The Pure Food and Drug Act (1906) contained an important provision concerning goods carried in interstate commerce. This provision dealt with (A) federal inspection of meat (B) proper labeling of certain products (C) freedom to sell all food and drugs produced in the United States (D) prohibition on the sale of all patent medicines. 68. Which of the following can the Federal Reserve System do? (A) guarantee good economic conditions (B) set the value of the dollar (C) control the amount of money in circulation (D) set minimum wages. 69. The author of The Jungle was (A) Upton Sinclair (B) Harry Sinclair (C) Sinclair Lewis (D) John Hay. 70. Which of the following was a socialist candidate for President? (A) Henry George (B) Frank Norris (C) William Randolph Hearst (D) Eugene V. Debs. 71. The practice of permitting the people by popular vote to ask the legislature to consider a law is called (A) recall (B) referendum (C) initiative (D) direct primary. 72. Who was the first President to take an interest in conservation? (A) Woodrow Wilson (B) William McKinley (C) Theodore Roosevelt (D) William Taft. 73. Which of the following was not part of the Progressive Movement? (A) Negro rights (B) woman’s suffrage (C) National Prohibition (D) empire building. 74. In the Anthracite Coal Strike (1902), Theodore Roosevelt (A) followed Cleveland’s example of using federal troops (C) did nothing (C) insisted that the strike be submitted to arbitration (D) sided with the employers. 75. The partial destruction of the city of Galveston, Texas (1900) led to the development of a new form of city government called (A) city manager plan (B) mayor/council plan (C) direst primary (D) the commission plan. 76. The Progressive promoted business licensing as a way to (A) regulate business (B) raise revenue (C) keep prices high (D) promote central planning of the economy. 77. The Progressives believed that because public utilities were usually monopolies, they should be owned by (A) city councils (B) placed under federal ownership (C) more strictly regulated than other industries (D) outlawed. 78. What event caused popular support for prohibition to grow? (A) World War I (B) 19th Amendment (C) invention of the automobile (D) state tax on alcohol. 79. The struggle for women’s rights was closely connected with what earlier movement? (A) federalism (B) abolition (C) prison reform (D) separation of church and state. 80. Women’s contribution to the war effort (1917-18) built support for what cause? (A) workman’s compensation (B) 19th Amendment (C) admission of women to the armed forces (D) establishment of women’s colleges. 81. Before the passage of the 17th Amendment, Senators were elected by (A) President (B) electoral college (C) popular vote (D) state legislatures. 82. The Danbury Hatters’ case was (A) a defeat for labor because it permitted the use of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act against labor unions (B) a victory for labor because it prohibited the use of the Sherman Act against labor unions (C) a defeat for labor because the union had to pay triple damages to their employees (D) important because it dissolved the Danbury Hatter Trust. 83. Theodore Roosevelt’s idea that there were “Good” and “Bad” trusts was incorporated into the Supreme Court decision in (A) Danbury Hatters’ Case (B) “rule of reason” decision in two cases involving business combinations (C) Northern Securities Case ruling (D) rulings in all of these. 84. The constitutional amendment that made possible a federal income tax was (A) 14th (B) 15th (C) 16th (D) 17th. 85. Woodrow Wilson was elected President in 1912 (A) because the “Bull Moose” split from the Republicans (B) by an overwhelming electoral vote (C) despite receiving less than a majority of the popular vote (D) all of these. 86. Which of the following pairs is correctly matched? (A) T Roosevelt/New Nationalism (B) T. Roosevelt/Square Deal (C) Wilson/New Freedom (D) all of these. 87. In comparison with Theodore Roosevelt, Taft was (A) more liberal (B) more conservative (C) more impulsive (D) more outspoken. 88. The exchange of goods between countries unhampered by protective tariffs is called (A) protectionism (B) free trade (C) nationalism (D) elastic trade. 89. The first successful flight in an airplane was made by (A) “Maverick” Mitchell (B) Howard Hughes (C) Frank Lloyd Wright (D) none of these. 90. In the period 1880-1910, farmers were able to increase crop production because of all of the following except: (A) the use of power driven machines (B) knowledge of scientific farming methods (C) assistance from the federal government (D) an increase in the percentage of people engaged in agriculture. 91. The Underwood Tariff (1913), (A) established free trade (B) lowered tariff duties (C)raised duties (D) lowered duties on some items and raised them on others. 92. Which of the following was not an achievement of the Wilson Administration? (A) downward tariff revision (B) strengthened Anti-Trust legislation (C) laws benefiting labor (D) conservation of natural resources. 93. Which of the following laws was passed during the Theodore Roosevelt Administration? (A) Clayton Act (B) Pure Food and Drug Act (C) Federal Reserve Act (D) Interstate Commerce Act. 94. Which of the following is generally recognized as a pioneer in forest conservation? (A) Daniel Boone (B) Paul Bunyan (C) Gifford Pinchot (D) the Lorax. 95. Theodore Roosevelt did not run for President (1908) because (A) he was unpopular (B) he did not choose to run (C) he had been criticized because of the depression (D) he opposed the Republican Party Platform. 96. All of the following were Progressive leaders except: (A) Robert La Follette (B) Charles Evans Hughes (C) Mark Hanna (D) Theodore Roosevelt. 97. All of the following “muckrakers” are correctly matched except: (A) Axel Foley/ Following the Color Line) (B) Upton Sinclair/ The Jungle (C) Ida Tarbell/ History of the Standard Oil Company (D) Lincoln Steffens/ Shame of the Cities. 98. The purpose of the direct primary was to (A) create a “nominating election” (B) lessen the control of professional politicians over nominating conventions (C) permit individuals to run for office provided they received the required number of signatures (D) all of these. 99. The Progressives made important changes in (A) city government (B) state government (C) the federal government (D) all of these. 100. President Theodore Roosevelt was sometimes called a “trust buster” because he (A) rarely broke a promise (B) rarely told the truth (C) brought lawsuits against large combinations of business (D) ran against President Taft (1912). 101. The Australian ballot enabled American voters to (A) vote only for the major party candidates (B) vote in secret (C) split their votes between two political parties (D) none of these. 102. Which of the following best represents the attitude of the federal government toward Trusts during most of the Progressive Era? (A) “good” trusts should be allowed to exist, but the government should be ready to curb abuses (B) there should be no interference with the organization of trusts (C) the federal government should encourage the formation of trusts because of their benefits to the consumer (D) all trusts should be abolished because they stifle competition and inevitably lead to economic abuses. 103. In 1908, the White House Conference (A) settled the Anthracite Coal Strike (B) discussed the conditions of the Chicago stockyards (C) the plight of Black Americans (D) conservation of natural resources. 104. Which of the following is arranged in correct chronological order? (A) McKinley, Taft, T. Roosevelt, Wilson (B) McKinley, T. Roosevelt, Taft, Wilson (C) T. Roosevelt, McKinley, Taft, Wilson (D) Wilson, McKinley, Taft, T. Roosevelt. 105. An important result of the Federal Reserve Act was to (A) guarantee the safety of a depositors money (B) regulate credit by increasing/decreasing the amount of money in circulation (C) make banks illegal (D) make private operation of banks unprofitable. 106. A characteristic of national politics during the period 1860-1900 was that (A) Democrats were in power most of the time (B) Republicans were in power most of the time (C) third party movements were largely inactive (D) all the Presidents were Republicans. 107. The Progressives (1900-15) advocated (A) reforms extending democracy in government (B) an increase in the money supply (C) government ownership of the railroads (D) a “hands off” policy of the government toward big business. 108. Andrew Jackson and Theodore Roosevelt were similar in that both: (A) had difficulty in carrying through their legislative program (B) were elected by a small popular vote (C) felt that the power of the President should be strictly limited (D) were able to exert great influence because of their personal popularity. 109. The name of the artificial waterway (1914) that greatly shortened the all water route from New York to San Francisco was (A) Erie Canal (B) Panama Canal (C) St. Lawrence Seaway (D) Mississippi Causeway. 110. President Taft’s administration succeeded in (A) strengthening the Interstate Commerce Act (B) starting 90 anti-trust suits (C) attacking the evils of child labor (D) all of these. 111. Because of President Taft’s stand on the Pinchot-Ballinger controversy (A) federal forest lands in Alaska were sold to private industry (B) Republicans lost control of the House of Representatives (C) valuable coals reserves were lost (D) all of these. 112. The Progressives, on the whole, did not focus attention on (A) slum conditions (B) impure food and drugs (C) the plight of Black Americans (D) the condition of American farmers. 113. “He kept us out of war” was the campaign slogan of (A) William McKinley (B) Woodrow Wilson (C) Theodore Roosevelt (D) William Howard Taft. 114. President Wilson seemed to believe in (A) gradual integration (B) segregation (C) solving racial problems on the merits of individual cases (D) immediate integration. 115. Why was the Clayton Anti-Trust Act an improvement over the Sherman Anti-Trust Act? (A) its execution was placed in the hands of the Interstate Commerce Commission (B) illegal business practices were specifically defined (C) labor unions as well as trusts were made monopolies in restraint of trade (D) fines and imprisonment were imposed on violators. 116. Wilson’s political philosophy has been characterized as (A) New Freedom (B) New Deal (C) Square Deal (D) Raw Deal. 117. The choice of William Howard Taft as the Republican Presidential candidate (1908) was due to (A) his control of the party machinery (B) the personal prestige he earned as Governor of the Philippines (C) a stalemate between the other two leading candidates (D) his selection by Theodore Roosevelt. 118. The Progressive Movement helped to bring about (A) the Bland-Allison Act (B) proportional representation in the election of Congressmen (C) increased popular participation in government (D) increased feeling against Germany before World War I. 119. All of the following are associated with the administration of Theodore Roosevelt except: (A) “trust busting” (B) tariff reform (C) conservation measures (D) dynamic foreign policy. 120. The Federal Trade Commission has the power to (A) regulate railroad rates (B) settle labor disputes (C) set the price of agricultural products (D) order corporations to cease unfair business practices. 121. Ida Tarbell, Lincoln Steffens and David Graham Phillips are readily identifiable as (A) conservative defenders of the status quo (B) “muckrakers” (C) leaders of organized labor (D) “Robber Barons”. 122. The Hepburn Act (1906) strengthened the authority of the Interstate Commerce Commission by (A) declaring rate discriminations between persons illegal (B) compelling railroads to file annual reports (C) giving the Commission power to nullify rates found to be discriminatory (D) authorizing the Commission to bring injunctions against railroads. 123. Reforms pushed through during Theodore Roosevelt’s first term included all of the following except: (A) committing the federal government to a policy of conservation and land reclamation (B) empowered the Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate railroad rates (C) passage of the Elkins Act (D) creation of the Bureau of Corporations with the authority to investigate corporations engaged in interstate commerce. 124. In the Great Anthracite Coal Strike (1902), the federal government (A) used military force to compel the owners to meet labor’s demands (B) intervened on behalf of labor, but allowed the owners to pass along the price of concessions to the consumer (C) intervened, compelled the unions to resist, then broke the strike (D) was powerless to act, which resulted in President Roosevelt asking Congress to establish a series of new regulatory commissions. 125. After the Congressional elections (1910), the progressive wing of the Republican Party began pushing whom for the Presidency for 1912? (A) Robert La Follette (B) Woodrow Wilson (C) Gifford Pinchot (D) Theodore Roosevelt. 126. Between 1913-20, Constitutional amendments were adopted which resulted in all of the following changes except: (A) doubling the number of potential voters (B) giving the voters power to elect Senators (C) changing the date of the Presidential Inauguration and doing away with the “Lame Duck” Congress (D) authorizing a graduated income tax. 127. The great contribution of the Federal Reserve Act was that it assured the (A) government power to prevent another massive depression (B) the nation against another series of bank failures such as those which resulted in the Panic of 1893 (C) the nation a sound and elastic currency and the availability of credit where needed (D) the public that industry and commerce could no longer be controlled by the big banking interests. 128. Which of the following was not a Progressive leader? (A) Woodrow Wilson (B) J.P. Morgan (C) Gifford Pinchot (D) Robert La Follette. 129. Which of the following is most closely associated with Theodore Roosevelt? (A) Square Deal (B) New Deal (C) New Freedom (D) Great Society. 130. For Black Americans, Theodore Roosevelt (A) was the greatest positive contributor since Lincoln (B) did little (C) was a leader in the fight against “Jim Crow” Laws (D) was a trust buster. 131. Which of the following was not a Progressive measure to reform the political system? (A) direct election of U S Senators (B) initiative (C) direct primary (D) Congressional Committee System. 132. Which of the following did not widen the gap between Taft and the Progressives? (A) Pinchot-Ballinger Controversy (B) Taft’s opposition to anti-trust suits and railroad legislation (C) the controversy over Speaker of the House Joe Cannon (D) Taft’s defense of the Payne-Aldrich Tariff. 133. Which of the following played a role in drawing national attention to the need for conservation of natural resources? (A) Conference of Governors (1908) (B) Munich Conference (D) Hague Conference (D) Potsdam Conference. 134. Which of the following is a correct statement about the similarities OR differences between Populism and Progressivism as reform movements? (A) both drew their support from the same economic classes (B) both appeared in times of depression (C) unlike Populism, Progressivism had support in only one of the major parties (D) unlike Populism, Progressivism was more urban than rural. 135. Which of the following does not describe the general objectives of the Progressives? (A) desire to replace capitalism with socialism (B) an attempt to improve the social conditions of the working classes (C) a great emphasis in fighting corruption in city governments (D) a desire to halt economic consolidation and monopoly. 136. Which of the following laws was not part of Wilson’s “New Freedom”? (A) Federal Reserve System (B) Clayton Anti-Trust Act (C) Elkins Act (D) Federal Trade Commission. 137. Which of the following was not a part of the “Big Change” in American life during the early 1900s? (A) airplane (B) automobile (C) motion pictures (D) Morrill Act. 138. During the Roosevelt/Taft/Wilson era, the Supreme Court was (A) very Progressive (B) reactionary (C) conservative (D) optimistic. 139. The term “social legislation” refers to government (A) attempts to grant titles of nobility (B) improve the living conditions of less fortunate Americans (C) efforts to secure the recall, referendum and initiative (D) none of these. 140. Which of the following is the best reason why Woodrow Wilson was elected President (1912) (A) the addition of Taft to the list of candidates (B) the slogan “He kept us out of war” (C) the support of E F Hutton (D) the Progressive Party split the Republicans. 141. Passage of the Meat Inspection Act was due largely to (A) the report of the commission headed by Joseph Cannon (B) agitation by the unions (C) publication of The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair (D) speech by Joseph Foraker in the Senate. 142. Lincoln’s first election to the Presidency (1860) was similar to Wilson’s (1912) because in each case (A) the winner was the overwhelming favorite of the electorate (B) a split in the ranks of the opposition made victory possible (C) the Republican candidate won (D) it was necessary to have the contest decided by the House of Representatives. 143. Reformers campaign to give the Interstate Commerce Act real power to set railroad rates achieved success with the passage of the (A) Mann-Elkins Act (B) Interstate Commerce Act (C) Payne-Aldrich Act (D) Elkins Act. 144. In which field did Woodrow Wilson fail to sponsor important reforms? (A) tariff revision (B) regulation of industry (C) reorganization of the banking system (D) conservation of natural resources. 145. The Progressive Reform Movement declined chiefly because of (A) U S involvement in Latin America (B) the Panic of 1907 (C) U S entry into World War I (B) opposition to reforms by big business. 146. Which of the following legislative acts would be classified as “social legislation”? (A) minimum wage laws (B) tariff protection laws (C) regulation of banks (D) agricultural price supports. 147. Which of the following is true? (A) President Taft was characterized by his opponents as a radical (B) President Taft continued Roosevelt’s attack on the trusts (C) Theodore Roosevelt was satisfied with Taft’s Presidency (D) Senator La Follette was a strong Taft supporter. 148. The need for the conservation of our natural resources was first brought to national attention by (A) Robert La Follette (B) Theodore Roosevelt (C) Woodrow Wilson (D) William McKinley. 149. The purpose of the Anti-Trust laws was to protect the public by (A) promoting strong labor unions (B) setting minimum wage laws (C) maintaining competition between corporations (D) threatening government control. 150. The ideas of natural selection and survival of the fittest, when applied to business and economic activity, are referred to as (A) Communism (B) Social Darwinism (C) Dollar Diplomacy (D) Trust Busting. 151. Theodore Roosevelt named a group of American writers “muckrakers” after a character in Bunyan’s Pilgrims Progress, but they gained their real reputation as (A) authors of local color novels (B) the 10 richest men in America (C) reformers who called attention to America’s problems (D) members of Roosevelt’s first cabinet. 152. The major difference between Booker T. Washington and WEB Dubois was their views of (A) the need for education (B) the importance of better race relations (C) the need for immediate equality for blacks and whites (D) using white institutions to help blacks. 153. Starting with the 1890s until Congress passed legislation to control immigration in the 1920s, the largest number of immigrants came from (A) Ireland (B) Italy, Austria- Hungary and Russia (C) England, Germany and France (D) Norway, Sweden and Denmark. 154. The Populist Party Platform (1892) called for all of the following except: (A) a graduated income tax (B) a gold based currency (C) government ownership of the railroads (D) support for the initiative, referendum and recall. 155. Which of the following is in correct chronological order? (A) Wilson, McKinley, Roosevelt, Taft (B) McKinley, Roosevelt, Wilson, Taft (C) McKinley, Roosevelt, Taft, Wilson (D) none of these. 156. Which of the following was the Speaker of the House who was deprived of his power? (A) Joseph Cannon (B) Horace Mann (C) Dean West (D) Robert La Follette. 157. Which of the following is not true? (A) Theodore Roosevelt was once Vice- President (B) William H. Taft was the largest President in American history (C) President McKinley was assassinated (D) the Republican Party gave Theodore Roosevelt unanimous support. 158. Toward the end of the 1800s, it was clear that the federal government was controlled by (A) foreign countries (B) big business (C) labor (D) radicals. 159. All of the following help explain the success of Woodrow Wilson in dealing with Congress except: (A) his adept use of patronage (B) his warm and magnetic personality (C) the correlation of his aims with the aims of the American people (D) his oratorical ability. 160. If Theodore Roosevelt could have had a free hand in formulating policies toward the trusts, he would have (A) used every power at his command to break up the trusts (B) forced a separation between industry and transportation (C) allowed the trusts to continue, but would have supervised them closely (D) broken the money trust that manipulated credit throughout the nation. 161. The policies of Gifford Pinchot were opposed by all of the following except: (A) ranchers (B) laissez-faire conservatives (C) private power company interests (D) advocates of the Newlands Act. 162. Early antitrust laws attempted which of the following to protect the public from big business? (A) establish regulation of wages, prices and hours (B) encourage government ownership of business (C) limit the size of industrial combinations (D) confine the activities of each business to a single state. 163. By the act of 1914, the Federal Trade Commission received authority to (A) advise in the reorganization of businesses charged with violating the antitrust laws (B) regulate the rates charged by common carriers (C) market farm surpluses abroad at below cost prices (D) set maximum and minimum prices for all agricultural staples traded on the open market. 164. Which of the following has most recently become a source of federal revenue? (A) property tax (B) sale of public land (C) income tax (D) tariff. 165. The income tax was favored by reformers because (A) it was based on the ability to pay (B) every person would pay some income tax (C) it would make possible a balanced budget (D) it would take the place of the inheritance tax. 166. The pre-World War I Progressive Movement was least concerned with (A) reform of city government (B) enactment of social security legislation (C) civil service reform (D) increased popular control of government. 167. most of the legislation passed 1900-1914 was designed to protect the interests of (A) business (B) organized labor (C) agriculture (D) consumers. 168. One important reason why the Federal Reserve System was established (1914) was because (A) business needed a currency system that could expand and contract with its needs (B) the federal government hoped to increase the sale of its bonds to member banks (C) the sale of gold was increasing (D) the government wanted to reduce the number of greenbacks in circulation. 169. In what field was Theodore Roosevelt least successful? (A) foreign affairs (B) monetary reform (C) conservation (D) regulation of big business. 170. In which of the following fields did the Taft Administration fail to effect reforms? (A) conservation (B) regulation of common carriers (C) tariff revision (D) dissolution of trusts. 171. Which feature characterized the three party platforms in the election of 1912? (A) all demanded abolition of trusts (B) all sponsored progressive principles (C) all advocated free trade (D) all denounced socialism. 172. Which of the following was not a reason for President Theodore Roosevelt’s interest in the Anthracite Coal Strike (1902)? (A) to make coal available to the public at a reasonable price (B) to secure fair labor conditions for the miners (C) to prevent industrial violence (D) to check the communistic program of the American Federation of Labor. 173. The Supreme Court declared federal incomes taxes unconstitutional in Pollack v Farm Loan Trust Co (1895) on the grounds that they (A) violated the “due process of law” clause (B) were ex post facto laws (C) confiscated private property without just compensation (D) were not apportioned among the various states according to population. 174. Which of the following was used in the Pullman Strike to the great disadvantage of the workers? (A) impeachment (B) impressment (C) injunction (D) recall. 175. Which of the following did a lot to improve the living conditions among the underprivileged? (A) Jane Addams (B) Francis Willard (C) Mary Lyon (D) Clara Barton. 176. By the end of the 19th Century, women in the United States had made the least progress toward (A) employment in business (B) admission to college (C) political rights (D) ownership of property. 177. Which of the following organizations differed most from the other three in its objectives and methods? (A) IWW (B) AFL (C) Knights of Labor (D) Knights of St. Crispin. 178. Which of the following was not as important as the other three in bringing about periodic depressions in the 1800s? (A) farm crop surpluses (B) speculations in corporate stocks (C) speculation in land (D) the development of labor unions. 179. An important reason for the violence connected with the labor movement in the 19th Century was that (A) labor leaders were generally immigrants (B) law enforcement agencies were chiefly concerned with protecting the property of employers (C) labor leaders were convinced that violence was the most effective solution to labor disputes (D) management was usually willing to accept government arbitration of disputes but labor was not. 180. Where did most of the immigrants to America after 1880 come from? (A) northern Europe (B) southern and eastern Europe (C) Asia (D) western Europe. 181. Political machines stayed in power partly because they were corrupt, and partly because they (A) provided useful services (B) had no opposition (C) promised reform (D) had federal support. 182. Who was the reformer mainly concerned with enacting worker safety laws? (A) Seth Low (B) Samuel Jones (C) Francis Perkins (D) Ida Tarbell. 183. What reform allowed all party members to choose their party’s presidential candidate? (A) referendum (B) recall (C) primary system (D) initiative. 184. The Interstate Commerce Act (1887) was significant because it was the first time that (A) an attempt was made by government to cope with the problems of interstate trade (B) farmers won a legal victory (C) the federal government established a regulatory commission (D) all of these. 185. Members of the Greenback Party would most likely include (A) business leaders who wanted “hard” currency (B) merchants who wanted controlled money (C) laborers who wanted higher salaries (D) farmers who wanted more money in circulation 186. Bimetallism is a system under which (A) an alloy of silver and another metal is used for coins (B) an alloy of gold and another metal is used for coins (C) gold and silver are both used as security for the national currency (D) none of these. 187. Which of the following came last? (A) “Cross of Gold” speech (B) Benjamin Harrison defeated by Cleveland (C) Bland-Allison Act (D) Sherman Silver Purchase Act. 188. Immigrants in northern cities usually voted for (A) Republicans (B) Democrats (C) 3rd Parties (D) radicals. 189. The Sherman Anti-Trust Act was unsuccessful in its intent to prevent (A) monopoly (B) trusts (C) business consolidation (D) all of these. 190. The Interstate Commerce Act included all of the following provisions except: (A) pooling arrangements were illegal (B) railroads could not make loans (C) railroads could not grant rebates (D) railroads were required to post their rates. 191. Those who favored “cheap money” opposed (A) the Resumption Act (1875) (B) the Bland Allison Act (C) free silver (D) issuance of Greenbacks. 192. The majority of the reforms proposed by the Populist Party (A) were forgotten as the party declined (B) were later won under other political parties (C) were undesirable in a democratic country (D) were just campaign promises. 193. A court order requiring someone to perform an act or refrain from performing an act is called (A) writ of certiorari (B) injunction (C) contempt of court (D) judgment. 194. Which of the following was a major weakness of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act? (A) a loose definition of terms (B) loopholes for big business (C) failure of the government to enforce the act (D) composition of the Supreme Court. 195. The Interstate Commerce Act forbade all of the following except: (A) pooling (B) rebates (C) right to refuse service to anyone (D) long haul/short haul abuse. 196. The first major break in the United States Congress’ policy of laissez-faire toward big business came with the passage of the (A) Sherman Anti-Trust Act (B) Sherman Silver Purchase Act (C) Interstate Commerce Act (D) Pendleton Act. 197. Which of the following writers was concerned with social justice? (A) Henry George (B) Upton Sinclair (C) Frank Norris (D) all of these. 198. The most effective strikebreaking tool was (A) court injunction (B) use of “scabs” (C) intervention of federal troops (D) Interstate Commerce Act. 199. “You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns, you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold,” was said by (A) Grover Cleveland (B) John Peter Atgeld (C) William Jennings Bryan (D) Eugene V. Debs. 200. The Sherman Anti-Trust Act was primarily used to curb the power of (A) manufacturing corporations (B) labor unions (C) state legislatures (D) railroad corporations. 201. Generally the Supreme Court in the 19th Century interpreted the Constitution in such a way as to favor (A) labor unions (B) corporations (C) state regulatory agencies (D) government control of the economy. 202. The Republican majority in the 1890 “Billion Dollar” Congress solved its most pressing problem by (A) lowering tariff rates (B) adopting the free and unlimited coinage of silver (C) enacting new spending provisions to compensate Civil War veterans (D) ousting “Czar” Reed from the position of Speaker of the House. 203. The Populist Party candidate (1892) was (A) James B Weaver (B) William Jennings Bryan (C) Adlai Stevenson (D) Thomas B Reed. 204. President Cleveland’s initial response to the Depression (1893) was to ask Congress to repeal the (A) Pension Act of 1890 (B) McKinley Tariff (C) Jim Crow Laws (D) Sherman Silver Purchase Act. 205. President Cleveland’s insisted that the solution to the Depression (1893) was for the Federal Government to adopt (A) the gold standard (B) bimetallism (C) free silver (D) the major planks of the Populist Party Platform of 1892. 206. President Cleveland tried to solve the Treasury crisis (1893) by (A) raising tariff rates (B) adopting bimetallism (C) borrowing gold from private bankers (D) signing the gold standard into law. 207. Which of the following expressed the least sympathy with workers who were hard pressed by the Depression (1893)? (A) John P Atgeld (B) Richard Olney (C) Eugene Debs (D) Jacob Coxey. 208. The Pullman Strike witnessed the first instance of (A) government use of a court injunction to break a major strike (B) management’s agreeing to recognize the right of workers to organize unions (C) government use of federal troops to end a labor strike (D) violence during a labor strike. 209. In the Election of 1896, the major issue became (A) the restoration of the protective tariff (B) enactment of an income tax (C) government welfare programs for those unemployed because of the Depression (D) free and unlimited coinage of silver. 210. One weapon used to put “Boss” Tweed, the leader of New York City’s infamous Tweed Ring, in jail was (A) the pictures of political cartoonist Thomas Nast (B) bribes (C) the raising of tax assessments of his supporters (D) passage of an ethics law. 211. The long period of Republican dominance that was ushered in by the 1896 victory of William McKinley was accompanied by (A) diminishing voter participation in elections (B) strengthening of party organizations (C) greater concern over civil service reform (D) less concern for industrial regulation. 212. On the issue of the tariff, President Grover Cleveland (A) supported high rates (B) advocated a lower rate (C) had no opinion (D) followed the advice of his party. 213. Late 19th Century feminists (A) argued that biology gave women a fundamentally different character from men (B) advocated an early version of day-care centers (C) temporarily abandoned the movement for women’s suffrage (D) lacked effective leadership and a sound rationale for the social involvement of women. 214. Carrie Chapman Catt argued that women should be granted the right to vote because (A) women were in all respects the equal of men (B) the Constitution authorized it (C) women should at least have the same rights as African-American males (D) suffrage was a logical extension of a woman’s traditional role in caring for her family. 215. The Republican majority in the 1890 “Billion-Dollar” Congress saw its most serious problem as the (A) treasury surplus (B) Populist movement (C) currency question (D) frequency and violence of labor strikes. 216. As Speaker of the House, Thomas Reed (A) slowed the pace of legislative activity (B) protected the rights of the Democratic minority in Congress (C) supported speedier action by Congress (D) saw his power eroded by the Republicans. 217. Under President Benjamin Harrison, the Republicans were eager to spend the government’s surplus money because they wanted to (A) safeguard the high tariff (B) win support of the farmers (C) blunt the criticism that they were insensitive to the needs of labor (D) help ease the hardships caused by the Depression of 1893. 218. The Republican majority in the 1890 “Billion-Dollar” Congress solved its most pressing problem by (A) lowering tariff rates (B) adopting the free and unlimited coinage of silver (C) enacting new spending provisions to compensate Civil War veterans (D) ousting “Czar” Reed from the speakership of the House. 219. Those in the West and South who supported the unlimited coinage of silver hoped it would lead to all of the following except: (A) higher prices (B) reduced tariff schedules (C) inflated currency (D) easier debt payments. 220. As a result of the McKinley Tariff, (A) duties on manufactured goods were reduced slightly (B) Republicans made political gains in Congress (C) farmers received economic benefits from the Republicans (D) William McKinley, the tariff’s sponsor, lost his seat in the House of Representatives. 221. The 1892 Populist party’s presidential candidate was (A) James B. Weaver (B) William Jennings Bryan (C) Adlai Stevenson (D) Thomas B. Reed. 222. The overshadowing issue in the 1892 Presidential campaign focused on the (A) institution of Jim Crow laws in the South (B) strong appeals to the “bloody shirt” (C) demand for a graduated income tax (D) high-tariff policies of the Republicans. 223. The epidemic of strikes that swept the country in 1892 (A) refuted the Republican argument that high tariffs meant high wages (B) spelled the doom of the Populist Party (C) ensured the defeat of Grover Cleveland for the presidency (D) forced the Democrats and Republicans to support the free and unlimited coinage of silver. 224. During the 1892 Presidential election, large numbers of white farmers in the solid South refused to desert the Democratic Party and support the Populist Party because they (A) had nothing to gain politically (B) had little to gain economically (C) feared losing political power to Blacks (D) believed too many Populists were former Republicans. 225. All of the following were causes of the Depression of 1893 except: (A) the splurge of overbuilding and overspeculation (B) America’s remaining in the gold standard (C) labor disorders (D) agricultural difficulties. 226. By supporting the repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act, Grover Cleveland (A) allowed gold to be bled away from the United States Treasury (B) contributed to a devastating round of inflation (C) brought on the Depression of 1893 (D) disrupted his party at the very outset of his administration. 227. President Cleveland’s initial response to the depression that began in 1893, was to ask Congress to repeal the (A) Pension Act of 1890 (B) McKinley Tariff (C) Jim Crow laws (D) Sherman Silver Purchase Act. 228. President Cleveland insisted that the solution to the 1893 depression was for the federal government to adopt (A) the gold standard (B) bimetallism (C) free silver (D) the major planks of the Omaha platform. 229. As a result of southern Blacks forming the Colored Farmers’ National Alliance and voting for the Populist party in 1892, (A) Blacks gained political offices for the first time since Reconstruction (B) the white ruling class virtually eliminated Black suffrage in the South (C) the Jim Crow laws were overturned (D) the Democratic Party lost power in the South while Republicans gained control in many areas. 230. President Cleveland tried to solve the treasury crisis in 1893 by (A) raising tariff rates (B) adopting bimetallism (C) borrowing gold from private bankers (D) signing the Gold Standard Act into law. 231. Which one of the following expressed the least sympathy with workers who were hard-pressed by the depression that began in 1893? (A) John P. Atgeld (B) Richard Olney (C) Eugene V. Debs (D) Jacob Coxey. 232. “General” Jacob Coxey and his “army” marched on Washington, D.C. to (A) demand a larger military budget (B) protest the Sherman Silver Purchase Act (C) demand that the government relieve unemployment with a public works program (D) stir up considerable disorder in an effort to overthrow the government. 233. President Grover Cleveland justified government intervention in the Pullman strike of 1894 on the grounds that (A) the union’s leader, Eugene V. Debs, was a socialist (B) unions were illegal (C) the strikers had attacked federal troops (D) strikers were interfering with the transit of the United States mail. 234. The Pullman strike witnessed the first instance of (A) government use of the court injunction to break a labor strike (B) management’s agreeing to recognize the right of workers to organize unions (C) government use of federal troops to end a labor strike (D) violence during a labor strike. 235. The most successful party in the midterm election of 1894 was the (A) Populist (B) Democratic (C) Republican (D) Greenback Labor. 236. The most popular feature of the Wilson-Gorman Tariff was (A) an income tax (B) the help it gave to sugar growers (C) the drastically lowered tariff (D) raising of the tariff on agricultural products. 237. Mark Hanna, the Republican president-maker, believed that the prime function of government was to (A) enrich the politicians (B) aid business (C) “rock the boat” for prosperity (D) overturn the “trickle down” theory of economics. 238. William Jennings Bryan gained the presidential nomination of the Democratic Party because he (A) had already gained the nomination of the Populist Party (B) had the support of urban workers (C) possessed a brilliant political mind (D) supported the unlimited coinage of silver. 239. The Democratic party nominee for President in 1896 was ____; the Republicans nominated _____ ; and the Populists endorsed _____ (A) William McKinley; Mark Hanna; William Jennings Bryan (B) William Jennings Bryan; William McKinley; James B. Weaver (C) William Jennings Bryan; William McKinley; William Jennings Bryan (D) Mark Hanna; William Jennings Bryan; William Jennings Bryan. 240. In the election of 1896, the major issue became (A) restoration of protective tariffs (B) enactment of an income tax (C) government welfare programs for those unemployed by the depression (D) free and unlimited coinage of silver. 241. In 1888 presidential election the major issue was ____ and in the 1892 presidential election it was ____ (A) civil-service reform; free silver (B) tariff policy; free silver (C) free silver; tariff policy (D) antitrust legislation; tariff policy. 242. One key to the Republican victory in the 1896 Presidential election was the (A) support of the farmer (B) huge amount of money raised by Mark Hanna (C) use of the tariff issue (D) wide travel and numerous speeches made by William McKinley. 243. The strongest ally of Mark Hanna and the Republicans in the 1896 Presidential election was (A) the drop in wheat prices (B) McKinley’s vigorous campaigning (C) fear of William Jennings Bryan and his support of free silver (D) the nearly unanimous support of the nation’s trained economists. 244. The phrase "free enterprise" in American economic history means (A) gifts of land to homesteaders (B) tariff protection for manufacturers (C) the absence of business regulation (D) restrictions against competition 245. The purpose of the anti-trust laws was to protect the public by (A) promoting strong labor unions (B) setting minimum wage laws (C) maintaining competition between companies (D) threatening government control. 246. Which statement best describes the Progressive movement? It was an effort to (A) preserve Mid-west political strength (B) expand the two party system (C) solve the problems created by industrialization (D) call attention to new urban problems. 247. The need for conservation of our national resources was first brought to national attention by President (A) Wilson (B) Theodore Roosevelt (C) Taft (D) McKinley. 248. Writers who exposed the evils of politics and big business were called (A) Grangers (B) Mugwumps (C) Greenbackers (D) Muckrakers. 249. Which of these legislative acts would generally be classed as "social legislation"? (A) minimum wage laws (B) tariff protection laws (C) regulation of banks (D) agricultural price supports. 250. The Progressive reform movement declined chiefly because of the (A) involvement in Latin America (B) Panic of 1907 (C) U. S. entry into World War I (D) opposition to reform by big business. 251. After which of these events was the first transcontinental railroad completed? The (A) end of the Civil War (B) discovery of gold and silver in Colorado (C) passage of the Interstate Commerce Act (D) Spanish American War. 252. Which of these presidents immediately preceded President Theodore Roosevelt? (A) Chester A. Arthur (B) Grover Cleveland (C) William McKinley (D) William Howard Taft. 253. After which of these did women obtain the right to vote in national elections? (A) the Spanish American War (B) World War I (C) election of Franklin D. Roosevelt (D) World War II 254. The Jungle, written by the "muckraking" novelist Upton Sinclair, depicted the life of workers in the (A) sweatshops of New York (B) fruit ranches of California (C) mines of the West (D) meat-packing houses of Chicago 255. Which of these American symbols is most closely associated with the phrase "the melting pot"? (a) the Statute of Liberty in New York (B) Plymouth Rock in Massachusetts (C) Independence Hall in Philadelphia (D) the Capitol Dome in Washington, D.C. 256. As a political force, Populism failed in the 1890's because (A) it never developed any strength among Western farmers (B) one of its chief party planks became the main plank in the Democratic platform of 1896 (C) the Knights of Labor refused to support it (D) it did not succeed in electing candidates to federal office. 257. The Sherman Anti Trust Act (A) Outlawed combinations by companies but contained no provisions for violations by individuals (B) was strengthened by the Supreme Court’s decision in E. C. Knight v United States (C) was the first indication that Congress was determined to crack down on the trusts (D) was based on the commerce clause of the Constitution. 258. Which of the following statements is a correctly expressed view of an American intellectual toward Social Darwinism? (A) Ward believed that a blind struggle for existence controlled mans behavior (B) Veblen caught that economic life was governed by unchanging laws (C) Dewey argued that social change could be accomplished through pragmatic thinking (D) Royce believed chat Darwinism was inconsistent with Christianity. 259. In the field of American literature at the turn of the century, (A) writers stressed the impersonal nature of environment (B) the naturalists rejected the implications of Social Darwinism (C) the naturalist school was launched by Theodore Dreiser (D) the nationalist school applied moral judgments in the study of nature. 260. All of the following help explain why automobile production did not immediately increase after the Turn of the century except (A) Few roads were suitable for automobile craze (B) The selling price was too high (C) Competition -jutted the marker (D) The assembly line technique had not yet been perfected. 261. As the chief element in the growing trend coward consolidation in industry after 1895, the super corporation (A) made control of industry by investment bankers more difficult (B) was hampered by state chartering laws (C) represented a new form of business organization (D) was not managed by its owners. 262. The social gospel movement in American Protestantism (A) had no counterpart in the Roman Catholic Church (B) advocated greater church involvement in combating the effects of urbanization and industrialism (C) caused a major shift in the goals of Protestantism (D) placed greater emphasis on personal piety and individual salvation. 263. In the field of American art at the turn of the century (A) there were no sculptors of importance (B) painting failed to break with European traditions (C) the "Ash Can School" was primarily concerned with depicting rural life (D) the skyscraper was an American contribution to architecture. 264. All of the following were characteristic of American education during the early twentieth century except (A) John Dewey's educational theories were beginning to change the basic approach to learning (B) Secondary education doubled in attendance and in the number of high schools (C) Negro illiteracy remained nearly constant due to poor educational opportunities for Negro children (D) State legislatures increased Their financial aid to institutions for higher learning. 265. In what year did the United States urban population finally exceed that of the rural areas? (A) 1900 (B) 1920 (C) 1895 (D) 1910. 266. The Northern Securities Company (A) represented a disastrous defeat for the Morgan group (B)lacked only the Burlington Railroad group in its control of the major railroads west of the Mississippi River (C) was created by the various group co eliminate representation of the Rockefeller interests (D) represented a truce between two financial empires to avoid competition. 267. Some Progressive reforms at the state level eventually were either ignored or produced side effects which the Progressives had not foreseen. From the responses below, select the combination of state reforms which best illustrates the cases where this was true. I Direct primary IV Australian ballot II Initiative, referendum, and recall V Woman suffrage III Direct election of United States senators (A) I, II, IV, V (C) I and II only (B) I, II, III, V (D) II, III, IV, V. 268. Which of the following is a correct statement of the similarities or differences between Populism and Progressivism as reform movements? (A) Both drew their support from the same economic classes (B) Both appeared in times of depression (C) Unlike Populism, Progressivism had support in only one of the major parties (D) Unlike Populism, Progressivism was more urban than rural. 269. All of These describe the general objectives of Progressivism except (A) A desire to replace capitalism with socialism (B) An attempt co improve the social welfare of the working classes (C) A great emphasis on fighting corruption in cities (D) A desire to have economic consolidation and monopoly. 270. Which of the following is a correct statement concerning federal railroad legislation during the period (1903-1916? (A) Railroad legislation was passed during the Roosevelt administrations, but not during the Taft and Wilson administrations (B) The Elkins Act extended the authority of the Interstate Commerce Commission to pipe-line companies and express companies (C) The responsibility for determining maximum rates was given to the Interstate Commerce Commission (D) The Adamson Act made rebates illegal. 271. Theodore Roosevelt (A) believed that powers of the President were restricted to those scared in the Constitution (B) was more talk than action in his trust policy (C) exerted strong presidential leadership, but compromised on many crucial issues (D) strengthened the power of the federal government in political affairs but not in economic affairs. 272. The Progressive movement at the state level included all of the following except (A) Under the leadership of Robert La Follette, Wisconsin became a hotbed of reform (B) Hiram Johnson broke the grip of the Southern Pacific Railroad on the state of California (C) The direct primary was championed to avoid "boss" control of government (D) Progressive -governors frequently tried co get around the obstacles of initiative, referendum, and recall by persuading state legislatures to enact reform legislation. 273. The reform legislation of Wilson's administrations (A) brought about a unification of the banking and currency system under a single central bank (B) was similar to Roosevelt's in that both Presidents avoided the controversial subject of tariff reform (C) to some extent, grew out of the effort to prevent the Progressives from following Roosevelt back into the Republican party in the 1916 election (D) fell short of his personal commitment to social reform. 274. The major reasons for the rise of Progressivism include (A) the growing middle class indignation and desire for reform. (B) increasing equality in the distribution of wealth in the U.S. (C) the desire to return to an agrarian culture. (D) the responsiveness of business to public demands for safety. 275. Which is the most accurate statement about the history of social reform in the United States? (A) Reform movements have often declined during times of war. (B) Most reform movements have sought to overthrow capitalism. (C) Politicians have played virtually no role in reform movements. (D) Reform movements have been mainly in the area of religion. 276. At their outset, which two American reform movements were tied together? (A) abolition and temperance (B) women's suffrage and civil service reform (C) care of the elderly and abolition (D) women's suffrage and abolition 277. Civil service reform basically called for (A) a system modeled after the one used by Andrew Jackson. (B) continuation of the spoils system. (C) issuance of jobs based on merit rather than political patronage. (D) increasing the federal bureaucracy. 278. Generally, reform movements in America have tended to (A) seek better conditions for people in urban rather than rural environments. (B) broaden the voting base and increasing the standard of living for all. (C) concentrate geographically in the Midwest and Western states. (D) be a direct result of reform movements in Europe. 279. Which reformer is not correctly paired with his,/her reform movement? (A) Harriet Tubman abolition (B) Elizabeth Cady Stanton civil service (C) Dorothea Dix insane asylums (D) Lucretia Mott women's suffrage 280. The abolitionists achieved their goal when which was ratified? (A) 13th Amendment (B) the Pendleton Act (C) 19th Amendment (D) primogeniture 281. As a result of the American Revolution, several reforms were achieved including (A) expansion of women's suffrage to reward them for their service during the war. (B) expansion of the vote as many received land from the breakup of loyalist estates. (C) creation of a civil service system based exclusively on merit. (D) ratification of an amendment prohibiting slavery in colonies. 282. Which is generally characteristic of a nation undergoing the process of industrialization? (A) less opportunity for social mobility (B) conflicts between modern ideas and traditional ways of life (C) shifts in the population from urban to rural areas (D) increased reliance on the extended family to supply basic needs 283. Which best explains why the Progressive movement became nationwide? (A) A systematic, accessible, and national system of communications was developed. (B) There were great disparities between the very rich and the very poor. (C) There was a growing middle class. (D) The problems were regional in nature. 284. The impact of the muckrakers finally decreased because (A) their activities were eventually outlawed by the national government. (B) Progressive politicians began instituting some changes. (C) the cost of printing such journals became prohibitive. (D) there were very few muckrakers of note. 285. Which term refers to a journalist who exposed social evils in the United States? (A) carpetbagger (B) muckraker (C) robber baron (D) Anti-Progressive 286. According to those who supported the measure, it was a “noble experiment.” But it proved impossible to enforce and consequently increased disrespect for the law. The "noble experiment" described in this passage was (A) integration of public schools. (B) prohibition of alcoholic beverages. (C) passage of child labor legislation. (D) extension of the vote to women. 287. The programs of the Progressive movement (1900 - 1920) (A) emphasized the expansion of civil right for blacks and other minority groups. (B) were passed by Congress despite strong opposition by the President and other party leaders. (C) took effect during periods of extended economic depression. (D) resulted in a greater involvement of the federal government in the daily lives of Americans. 288. Which statement best describes Progressive Era support? (A) Progressive supporters were predominantly from the rural, Western areas. (B) Progressive support cut across political divisions, but was predominantly middle class. (C) There are no general characteristics to describe those who advocated Progressivism. (D) Progressive reformers were predominantly women of all social classes. 289. Which third party played an important role in the election of 1912? (A) Republican (B) Populist (C) Bull Moose (D) Suffragettes 290. The Clayton Act strengthened the Sherman Anti-trust Act by (A) providing a specific listing of unfair practices. (B) making restrictions apply to unions and cooperatives. (C) prohibiting the use of adulterated products. (D) eliminating the Interstate Commerce Commission. 291. Publication of The Jungle by Upton Sinclair lead to (A) creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission. (B) passage of the Meat Inspection Act. (C) ratification of the 19th Amendment. (D) increased support for Margaret Sanger's activities. "Crouched over the (coal) chutes, the boys sit hour after hour, picking out the pieces of slate and other refuse .. I once stood in a breaker for half an hour and tried to do the work a twelve-year-old boy was doing day after day, for ten hours at a stretch, for sixty cents a day. The gloom of the breaker appalled me...” - John Spargo, 1906. 292. The author of this passage above is most likely a(n) (A) industrialist. (B) muckraker. (C) Populist. (D) supporter of W.E.B. DuBois. 293. Which reformer is correctly paired with the field he/she is most known for? (A) Marcus Garvey urban housing conditions (B) Jacob Riis black nationalism (C) Margaret Sanger birth control (D) Jane Addams temperance 294. The Federal Reserve Board has great control over the United States economy because it has the power to (A) regulate the money supply. (B) increase and decrease income taxes. (C) determine the Federal debt ceiling. (D) determine the value of the dollar abroad. 295. The Progressive movement of the early 20th century represented an attempt to (A) repeal the antitrust laws. (B) protect the rights of racial minorities. (C) destroy the capitalistic system of the United States. (D) deal with the problems created by industrialization. 296. Wilson's New Freedom differed (A) from Roosevelt's New Nationalism in that (A) Wilson tried to help the monopolies deal with increasing government restriction. (B) Roosevelt's policies accepted the continued existence of monopolies. (C) Wilson's program is not considered part of the Progressive Era. (D) Roosevelt attempted to completely eradicate business monopolies. 297. Which would be considered an unfair business practice by the Federal Trade Commission? (A) lowering prices due to competition. (B) opening up a branch store. (C) misleading advertising. (D) raising prices due to rising costs. 298. Progressive reforms prompted the passage of a number of amendments to the Constitution including (A) income tax and direct election of United States Senators. (B) protective tariffs and the Federal Reserve System. (C) anti-trust prosecution and workers compensation. (D) prohibition of alcohol and creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission. 299. Which statement regarding the end of the Progressive reform movement is correct? (A) All reforms sought by Progressive reformers were enacted. (B) Preparation for a wartime economy took attention away from reform. (C) Power of the trusts overwhelmed democratic government. (D) There was no leadership in the White House. 300. Theodore Roosevelt's attitude toward government control of business was (A) only state governments had the authority to control business. (B) a strict policy of laissez-faire should be followed. (C) business at this point was uncontrollable. (D) federal government should eliminate bad business practices. 301. Which statement is true of Progressivism at the state level? (A) Many of its ideas grew out of the reform philosophy at the local level. (B) Most Progressives were from minority groups. (C) It achieved few of its goals at the state level. (D) Progressive governors proved weak and ineffectual at instituting change. 302. Which statement is not accurate regarding local and state Progressive reform? (A) It included such measures as referendum and recall which put more power in the hands of the voters. (B) It had virtually no impact on national politics since the issues were regional rather than national. (C) It provided a training ground for reformers and politicians who later expanded their goals. (D) It led to the institution of reform measures, especially in the urban areas. 303. Which statement does not apply to the conservation movement during the Progressive era? (A) All conservation measures were instituted by the national government. (B) The State of New York was among the first states to protect its land. (C) Theodore Roosevelt's personal interest was important to the federal government's interest in conservation. (D) The withdrawal of public lands from sale and the creation of the Forest Service were keystones in national conservation. 304. Who is most likely the author of the following quotation? "We do not wish to destroy corporations, but we do wish to make them sub-serve the public good." (A) Woodrow Wilson (B) Gifford Pinchot (C) Theodore Roosevelt (D) John D. Rockefeller 305. In the late 19th century, many of the leading industrial nations began a policy of imperialistic expansion because of(A)a desire to gain control of strategic locations in preparation for World War I. (B) the need for new capital funds that colonies could provide. (C) a desire to obtain supplies of raw materials and expand markets for trade. (D) the need for a place to put surplus population. 306. In the United States, which group benefited most from the establishment of overseas colonies during the late 19th century? (A) factory workers (B) investors and manufacturers (C) members of the armed forces (D) farmers 307. The "close of the frontier" around 1890, caused Americans to (A) rush to settle the little available land left in the west. (B) begin considering the exploration of space. (C) develop strategies to restrain population growth. (D) consider overseas expansion. 308. The conquest of colonial areas was made easier in the second half of the 19th century because (A) most native populations were willing to be ruled by Europe. (B) the native populations were usually Christian. (C) new weapons and technology made conquests easier. (D) European Christianity easily assimilated native religions. 309. Which statement best reflects the attitude of British, German, and French leaders toward Africa and Asia during the 19th century (A) We should not become involved with people who are different from us. (B) These lands are sources oil raw materials and markets for our products. (C) There are many advantages to sharing and learning from other cultures. (D) The political power and wealth of these areas are threats to our position in the world. 310. Contemporary demands for 'protectionism" are largely a result of (A) inferior products (B) trade deficits (C) human rights violations (D) cultural paternalism. 311. All of the following factors contributed to anti-urbanism in nineteenth-century America except (A) the Jeffersonian tradition (B) hatred of recent immigrants, who were generally from cities (C) the rural upbringing of the first generation of Americans (D) the opposition to cities expressed by well-known writers. 312. A striking trend revealed by the 1900 census was that (A) a third of the entire nation's residents were classified as "urban" (B) over 70 percent of the nation's residents were classified as "urban" and living in a metropolis (C) the urban population growth was keeping pace with the population moving to the farms (D) the country's farming population was growing at a rapid rate. 313. The section east of the Mississippi River least urbanized by 1890 was (A) New England (B) the South-Atlantic area (C) the Middle West (D) the Mid-Atlantic area. 314. Which of the following does not help account for the migration from rural to urban areas in the late nineteenth century? (A) the continuing farm depression (B) the availability of factory work in the cities (C) the increased opportunity cities offered to effect political reform (D) the attractiveness of urban conveniences. 315. The cities of the pre-Civil War era differed from those in the latter part of the nineteenth century in that the later cities were (A) less spread out (B) less divided by race and class distinctions (C) more convenient, with little distinction between commercial and residential areas (D) more fragmented and more tightly structured along class lines 316. The expansion of the "walking city" was made possible by all of the following developments except (A) the electric trolley (B) cheap housing (C) improved sewage disposal (D) the extension of public utilities and services. 317. The new immigrants most resembled the preceding immigrant settlers in that they (A) tended to settle in the same parts of the country as their predecessors (B) came predominantly from the same areas of Europe (C) shared the same religious and ethnic backgrounds (D) came from much the same social class with the same goal--to better their lot in the new land. 318. The new immigrants differed from their predecessors mainly in their (A) ethnic/religious backgrounds and countries of origin (B) reasons for coming to this country (C) inability to adapt their skills to the needs of a factory-oriented economy (D) better preparation to face the challenges of city life. 319. The new immigrants of the 1800s came mainly from (A) Britain. Ireland, and Germany (B) Scandinavia (C) southern and eastern Europe (D) China and Japan. 320. One immediate effect on American life of the increase of new immigrants was (A) a swelling of the farm population (B) heightened racial and ethnic bigotry (C) the overthrow of machine politics in the cities (D) widespread adoption of radical political programs. 321. In The Theory of the Leisure Class, Thorstein Veblen wrote about (A) the rejection of the work ethic by most new immigrants (B) the tendency of the nouveau riche to compete with one another in displays of wealth (C) the capitalists' expropriation of labor's profit (D) all of the above. 322. City bosses of the nineteenth century received support from (A) immigrants in need of social services that the bosses could provide (B) loyal party members who placed winning above "good government" (C) business people who wanted to secure favors and exemptions (D) all of the above. 323. Unlike earlier humanitarians, social reformers of the late nineteenth century (A) came from working-class backgrounds (B) confined their efforts to winning political gains for recent immigrants (C) worked with the poor in discovering and remedying social ills (D) linked poverty to moral shortcomings and therefore stressed education as the solution. 324. Jane Addams, Lillian Wald, and Florence Kelley shared an interest in (A) providing social services in city slums (B) reforming city government (C) wining equal pay for women (D) working for church renewal. 325. The National Municipal League was quick to endorse all of the following structural reforms for city government except (A) more mayoral authority (B) the city manager plan of government (C) separate city and state elections (D) the merit system. 326. Hazen Pingree, Samuel M. Jones, and Thomas L. Johnson went beyond the demands of most other municipal reformers by advocating (A) complete destruction of the power of city bosses (B) elimination of city governments in favor of more decentralized units (C) direct aid to the working class and municipal ownership of utilities (D) government by experts instead of by unenlightened ordinary citizens. 327. In the late nineteenth century the movement for women's rights grew primarily because (A) immigrant women were accustomed to a larger social role (B) increased education and decreased domestic responsibilities freed women for a larger role in society (C) women became attached to radical political ideas while working in the slums (D) the idea of economic and political equality for women had finally become respectable 328. The major objective of most feminist leaders of the late nineteenth century was winning (A) equal pay for equal work (B) equal educational opportunities (C) an end to legal discrimination (D) the vote 329. Which of the following is not a religious innovation of the latter part of the nineteenth century? (A) Christian Science (B) the YMCA (C) revivalism (D) the Salvation Army 330. The Social Gospel movement influenced American Protestantism in the late nineteenth century by (A) emphasizing the need for Christians to participate in social reform (B) defending fundamentalist beliefs against Darwanist doctrines (C) preaching the social creed of individualism and laissez faire (D) founding pentecostalist sects for the working classes 331. The goal of "free education for all" was mainly motivated by the (A) desire to help minority groups preserve their special identities and heritages within a pluralist American framework (B) federal government's desire to eliminate social classes (C) precedent set by Great Britain and other leading European nations (D) expectation that universal schooling would protect American democracy by assimilating immigrant children 332. The main effect of leaving responsibility for public education to local communities was to (A) retard the growth of a truly national culture (B) create unequal educational opportunities for city and rural students (C) make the goal of assimilation for immigrants a practical impossibility (D) enrich the cultural heritage of America with many ethnic traditions 333. An important trend in publishing at the end of the nineteenth century was (A) the growth of sensational journalism to attract mass audiences (B) a decrease in the number of newspapers because of consolidation (C) an increase in the number of magazines catering to specialized interests (D) the decline in magazine and newspaper readership because of widespread illiteracy. 334. Largely as a result of German influence, higher education in the late nineteenth century stressed (A) teacher training (B) graduate study and scientific investigation (C) practical subject matter (D) rote learning and the lecture method. 335. The major effect of the Morrill Act of 1862 on education was to (A) pay for the building and staffing of high quality graduate schools (B) help establish public elementary and secondary schools in the Middle West (C) encourage the rise of land- grant colleges, which emphasized teaching of agriculture and mechanical arts (D) stimulate the opening of several Eastern women's colleges. 336. In art and architecture, the "Gilded Age" generally produced (A) spare, classical lines (B) works expressing a modernist impulse (C) works glorifying the working man's spirit (D) excessively ornamental pieces. 337. Which of the following architects was associated with the development of the skyscraper and advocated that a building's function should determine its form? (A) John Wellborn Root (B) Henry Hobson Richardson (C) Louis H. Sullivan (D) Frank Lloyd Wright. 338. One literary style that emerged from the Gilded Age was (A) realism (B) romanticism (C) idealism (D) surrealism. 339. "We must bring the benefits of Western civilization and Christianity to the less fortunate." This idea has been used to justify (A) imperialism (B) socialism (C) nationalism (D) feudalism 340. An inspiration for much of the business and social legislation passed by Wilsonian Democrats in 1916 was the (A) hearings of the Pujo commission (B) writings of Louis D. Brandeis (C) platform of the Republican party in 1912 (D) platform of the Bull Moose party in 1912. 341. Between 1877 and 1896 the American electorate might best be described as (A) optimistic, since many of the reforms advocated since the Civil War seemed on the brink of being realized (B) loyal to one of the two major parties and in favor of the Status quo (C) indifferent, since none of the issues being discussed seemed worthy of attention (D) ideologically oriented and given to factionalism and distrust of all organizations, including patties. 342. The Republican sources of electoral power tended to come mainly from all except (A) Northeastern industrialists (B) Southern farmers (C) blacks (D) the Grand Old Army of the Republic. 343. The Stalwarts and the Half Breeds were (A) factions of the Republican party that represented no real differences in principles (B) spoilsmen who aligned themselves alternately with the Republicans and the Democrats (C) Northeastern Democrats who drew support mainly from big business (D) Southern and Western Democrats who united in opposition to Republican monetary and tariff policies. 344. Democratic sources of electoral support came mainly from all of the following except (A) Southern farmers (B) urban immigrant groups (C) blacks (D) machine politicians 345. From 1876 to 1900 almost all presidential and vice-presidential candidates of both parties were chosen from the (A) Middle West and Far West (B) Northeast and South (C) Northeast and Middle West (D) Northeast and Far West. 346. In the post-Reconstruction era, what was the relation between the executive and legislative branches? (A) All Presidents subordinated themselves to Congress and made no attempt to regain the power lost during the Johnson Administration. (B) Chief Executives generally dominated Congress because, in their role as party leader, they had power over the patronage. (C) Congress, fearing to take a stand on issues that could inflame public opinion, willingly accepted presidential leadership. (D) Congress was generally supreme, but various Presidents, including Hayes and Cleveland, attempted to reassert executive authority. 347. The group of Republicans known as the "Mugwumps" united over the issue of (A) initiating government social welfare programs (B) expanding the currency for debtor relief (C) improving the condition of labor (D) eliminating the spoils system. 348. Greenbackers opposed the policy of resumption because it would (A) cause inflation (B) devalue the price of silver and thus hurt Western mine interests (C) contract the currency and appreciate its value at the expense of debtors (D) place the burden of repaying state debts on farmers and small merchants. 349. What was the "Crime of `73"? (A) abolition of government purchase and coinage of silver (B) use of federal troops to halt a railroad strike (C) passage of the Bland-Allison Act setting minimum standards for the purchase of silver (D) passage of an extraordinarily high protective tariff in 1873. 350. The Pendleton Act, providing for a federal civil service, was passed largely as a result of the popular outcry over (A) Stalwart abuses of power while serving in appointed posts (B) the assassination of Arthur (C) abuse of the patronage by every President since Grant (D) the assassination of Garfield. 351. The immediate effect of passage of the Civil Service Act (1883) was to (A) end the power of the boss-dominated machines (B) subject all federal jobs to civil-service merit qualifications (C) make merit the basis of appointment for only one out of every ten government jobs (D) extend presidential power by allowing the Chief Executive to appoint personnel to classified posts. 352. Grover Cleveland, the only Democrat elected President between 1860 and 1912, achieved office in 1884 when (A) defection by the Mugwumps divided the Republican party (B) reform groups finally managed to unite behind a single candidate (C) the country blamed its economic woes on Republican hard-money policies (D) the Populist candidate drew enough votes away from the Republican party to ensure a Democratic victory. 353. As a result of Grover Cleveland's stand on the tariff issue in 1887 (A) the tariff was lowered significantly (B) Cleveland jeopardized his chances for reelection and gained no significant tariff reduction in return (C) the Mugwumps returned to the Republican party and helped elect Harrison President in 1888 (D) Congress levied the highest tariff in American history. 354. As a result of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890) (A) currency was expanded and the Populist party disintegrated (B) the silver standard replaced the gold standard (C) a compromise was reached on the currency issue that satisfied both silverites and gold- standard advocates (D) the government purchased more silver but with "hard money," thus defeating the act's purpose of expanding the currency. 355. The net effect of the McKinley Tariff (1890) was to (A) raise the cost of most imports and thus hurt farmers (B) raise duties on agricultural exports and thus help farmers (C) lower the rates imposed on manufactured imports and thus hurt labor (D) lower the rate on goods from Latin America and thus foster good hemispheric relations. 356. The problems of American agriculture and its farmers during the last half of the nineteenth century included all except (A) steadily dropping farm prices (B) a shrinking world market (C) spreading debts and mortgages (D) increasingly expensive machinery. 357. The first farmers' organization devoted to economic self-help and political agitation for farmers' goals was the (A) National Farmers Alliance and Industrial Union (B) Populist party (C) Colored Farmers' National Alliance and Cooperative Union (D) Grange. 358. The National Farm Alliance and Industrial Union advocated all of the following except (A) establishment of a subtreasury system to raise the price of farm commodities (B) direct election of senators (C) racial integration of public facilities (D) government control or ownership of railroads and telegraph lines. 359. The Populist movement attracted elements from all of the following movements except (A) the National Farmers Alliance (B) the Knights of Labor (C) the Municipal Reform League (D) the Single-Tax movement. 360. A major consequence of the severe Panic of 1893 was (A) a revival of the struggle between those who wanted free silver coinage and those who favored the gold standard (B) the repeal of the gold standard in 1896 (C) new federal activism in regulating railroad~, banks, and other major industries to stabilize the economy during the 1890s (D) increased popularity for President Cleveland through his handling of the depression. 361. "Coxey's Army" was composed of (A) the pro-silverites who lobbied in Congress, led by "foxy Coxey" (B) unemployed men who marched on Washington in 1894 to plead for work and monetary relief (C) the supporters of William Jennings Bryan in 1896 (D) Civil War veterans who besieged Washington for pension funds. 362. One new feature of the Wilson-Gorman Tariff of 1894 was the provision for (A) across-the-board cuts in the rates of agricultural products (B) a reciprocity clause with other nations (C) a subtreasury system for farm produce (D) an income tax on incomes over $4,000. 363. The congressional election of 1894 was significant because it (A) gave the Populists control of the Rouse of Representatives (B) gave the Democratic President a working Democratic majority in Congress, the first such occurrence in twenty years (C) marked the fall of the Democrats and the beginning of a long period of Republican ascendancy (D) signaled the new ascendancy of the West and South over Northeast in Congress. 364. The faction that wrested control of both the Democratic and Populist patties in 1896 was composed mainly of (A) labor supporters (B) silverites (C) greenbackers (D) Southern Bourbons. 365. The phrase "you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold" referred to (A) the antireligious movement of secularists and agnostics during the late 189Os (B) the religious revival of the Social Gospel advocates (C) President McKinley's rebuttal to gold-standard advocates (D) William Jennings Bryan's opposition to the gold standard in the presidential campaign of 1896. 366. William McKinley won the election in 1896 mainly because (A) Bryan failed to win labor's support in the Northeast (B) the National Gold party drew votes from the Democrats (C) the Populist party withdrew its support from Bryan (D) McKinley conducted a vigorous cross country campaign. 367. The fierce controversy over gold versus silver currency was ended by (A) President Cleveland's support for the gold standard (B) passage of a bimetallic gold and silver standard in 1896 (C) passage of the Gold Standard Act in 1900 (D) congressional legislation guaranteeing the 16:1 ratio for silver. 368. All the following reasons help to explain the decline of the Populist party after 1896 except the (A) return of farm prosperity (B) growing recognition of the unrealizability of most Populist goals (C) loss of Populist party identity after fusion with the Democratic party in 1896 (D) feeling among many Populists that the party had betrayed its original principles in 1896. 369. The purpose of the Federal Reserve Act, passed in 1913, was to (A) nationalize the banking system of the United States (B) establish a privately controlled central bank to handle government funds (C) assure a greater degree of federal control over banking and make short term credit more available (D) create reserves of gold and silver to pay off the national debt. 370. The major weakness of the antitrust laws passed in 1914 was their (A) failure to establish an agency of enforcement (B) loose language, which allowed the courts to weaken their intended effect considerably (C) omission of a list of unfair business practices (D) silence on the status of labor unions. 371. All of the following trends were discernible at the start of the twentieth century except (A) a marked increase in the gross national and per capita product (B) continued urbanization of the population (C) a noticeable decline in the death rate because of medical advances (D) continued equalization in the distribution of income. 372. The most notable corporate trend in the first two decades of this century was the (A) emergence of a distinct entrepreneurial class (B) consolidation of business firms within an industry under professional management (C) combination of unlike industries in conglomerates (D) democratization of management through worker representation on boards of directors. 373. In the early part of this century, concern for the miserable working and living conditions of laborers was expressed by (A) a majority of Americans from all economic strata of society (B) only middle-class Americans, who did not live that far above the poverty line themselves (C) only those affected by those conditions (D) a minority of the well off who feared more radical change if some betterment of conditions could not be effected. 374. Which tactic did labor leaders favor at the start of this century to win their economic goals? (A) organizing skilled laborers into trade unions for collective bargaining power against industry (B) uniting skilled and unskilled workers in vast industrial unions to rival large corporations (C) involving the federal government in labor disputes (D) aligning politically with middle-class reformers to pressure big business for change. 375. The immigrants who swelled the labor force during this country’s era of industrialization tended to (A) despise their own heritage and assimilate American ways as quickly as possible (B) stubbornly cling to Old World traditions and resist all attempts to make them part of American culture (C) cling to their old cultural habits for emotional support but accept some American ways (D) reject both the old culture that had contributed to their oppression and the new American one that they often could not understand. 376. All of the following accurately describe the experience of Asian immigrants except (A) they were targets of race prejudice (B) they were granted citizenship under the Naturalization Act (C) they lived largely in segregated communities (D) they could find only marginal employment 377. The Niagara movement, organized in 1905 by W. E. (B) DuBois, sought (A) the development of power facilities in the St. Lawrence Valley (B) unionization for the unskilled (C) voting privileges for women (D) political and economic equality for blacks. 378. Which of the following was not a goal of feminists at the beginning of this century? (A) prohibition of alcohol (B) the legalization of abortion (C) the passage of protective legislation for women industrial workers (D) the extension of suffrage. 379. In 1913 Eugene V. Debs, head of the Socialist Party, split with "Big Bill" Haywood, founder of the Industrial Workers of the World, over the issue of (A) concentrating union organizing activities on unskilled labor (B) using violence as a tool to bring about reform (C) forming a political party to forward worker interest (D) admitting blacks into the social reform movements Debs and Hayward supported. 380. In terms of their political beliefs, most progressives were actually (A) advocates of radical reform, by violence if necessary (B) conservatives who thought the appearance of change would mollify radical critics (C) moderates who wanted to preserve American institutions, though in an altered form (D) reactionary defenders of the status quo. 381. Much of American literature of the early twentieth century is notable for its (A) romantic themes (B) abstract expressionism, capturing the fragmentation of life then (C) concentration on utopian schemes to reform society (D) realistic portrayals of working- class life. 382. American intellectuals such as William James and John Dewey provided a set of attitudes on which reformers were to rely known as the philosophy of (A) rationalism (B) pragmatism (C) idealism (D) socialist realism. 383. According to Theodore Roosevelt, the "laboratory of democracy" was (A) the town meeting (B) the political patty (C) Wisconsin (D) the public school. 384. The progressives tended to support the strengthening of which branch of government? (A) the legislature (B) the executive (C) the judiciary (D) no branch--all were equally distrusted. 385. Theodore Roosevelt as a Republican is best characterized as (A) a maverick who antagonized both the Old Guard and the progressive wings of the Republican party (B) a man who carefully aligned himself with Senator Hanna and other influential McKinley supporters (C) a man who refused to use conventional means of gaining panty control, such as patronage (D) a loyal party member who worked up through the ranks of politics. 386. Theodore Roosevelt felt that the role of the President was to (A) execute the law of the land, not initiate it (B) define national problems and win Congress and the people to practical proposals for solutions (C) allow Congress a free hand in domestic affairs, but take the lead in foreign affairs (D) maintain an economic climate favorable to business interests. 387. Which of the following best describes Roosevelt's policies during his first term? (A) "Speak softly but carry a very big stick" (B) use of strong rhetoric supported by widescale monetary, tariff, and antitrust reforms (C) use of strong progressive rhetoric coupled with careful handling of the Republican Old Guard on sensitive issues (D) lack of innovative action on major progressive issues. 388. President Roosevelt's handling of trusts suggests that he believed (A) bigness is the equivalent of badness (B) the federal government should break up large corporations only in cases of monopoly or flagrant abuses (C) the federal government did not possess extensive anti-monopoly powers (D) regulation of large corporations should be left to state and local authorities. 389. Theodore Roosevelt's organization of a Department of Commerce and Labor was a significant reform because it (A) consolidated responsibility for all government antitrust activity in one body (B) finally recognized the power of trade unions as a countervailing force to business in our society (C) brought labor and management together in a cooperative venture for the first time (D) gave the government a means by which to secure information about business necessary for its regulation. 390. Unlike Cleveland's handling of the Pullman strike in 1894, Roosevelt handled the anthracite coal strike in 1902 by (A) sending in federal troops (B) getting an injunction against the strike (C) bringing both sides together and having the issue arbitrated (D) insisting that management recognize the coal miners' union. 391. President Roosevelt was ahead of his time in his views of (A) race relations (B) the need for protection of natural resources (C) the limitations of American police power in the world (D) the need for free trade. 392. In 1907 Roosevelt began to advocate what many considered a more radical program, which centered on (A) nationalization of basic utilities and the railroads (B) nationalization of all banks (C) reforms to curb business speculation and aid labor (D) restrictions on foreign investments in the United States. 393. Theodore Roosevelt's program for national preparedness to meet world responsibilities included all of the following recommendations except (A) modernization of the army (B) enlargement of the navy (C) restrictions on immigration to increase the proportion of Anglo-Saxons in the population (D) an increase in the birth rate of those from Anglo~Saxon stock. 394. In the Insular cases of 1900 and 1901, the United States Supreme Court declared that (A) the United States Constitution must always follow the flag (B) the holding of people by the United States against their consent was unconstitutional (C) Congress must make immediate provisions for granting independence to all peoples held without their consent (D) subjects of the American empire were not entitled to the protection of the Constitution. 395. During the Roosevelt Administration, the Philippines were (A) considered for statehood (B) placed under a civilian governor appointed by the President (C) granted commonwealth status and special trade concessions (D) granted a large degree of independence, though the United States maintained troops in the islands. 396. Roosevelt's foreign policy in the Western Hemisphere is best characterized by his belief in (A) repudiation of the Monroe Doctrine (B) American recognition of the independent sovereign rights of each nation within the hemisphere (C) the need to allow European nations to protect their interests in this hemisphere in special cases (D) United States intervention in Latin American internal affairs, when political stability or American interests were threatened. 397. Roosevelt's boast that he "took Panama" referred to his action in (A) sending troops to "liberate" Panama from Colombia (B) hoodwinking the French into giving up their interest in a partially completed canal there (C) encouraging and aiding a Panamanian insurrection against Colombia (D) purchasing the right of way through Panama from England. 398. Theodore Roosevelt's mediation of the Russo-Japanese War resulted in (A) a Nobel Peace Prize for the President (B) the deterioration of Japanese-American relations (C) a near war with Russia (D) the calling of a general disarmament conference. 399. The purpose of the Gentlemen's Agreement of 1907 was to (A) clarify American, French, and British interests in China (B) declare the respective spheres of interest of the United States and Japan in the Pacific (C) tighten restrictions concerning the entry of southern and eastern Europeans into this country (D) establish an informal understanding between Japan and the United States that immigration between the two countries was to stop. 400. Theodore Roosevelt did not run in the election of 1908 because (A) Roosevelt believed a President should be limited to two consecutive terms (B) he had made too many powerful enemies among the Old Guard of the Republican party (C) the Democrats nominated Woodrow Wilson, another progressive, who would have drawn enough votes from Roosevelt to allow a third-party victory (D) the Panic of 1907, associated with Republican policies, ruined the panty's chances of capturing the Presidency. 401. The Republican victory in 1908 rested on a coalition of all of the following except (A) conservative "Old Guard" businessmen (B) Southern conservatives (C) urban progressives (D) Western agrarians and Midwestern townspeople. 402. A major difference between Taft and Roosevelt was that Taft believed (A) the executive should not interfere in essentially legislative or judicial matters (B) labor unions deserved recognition (C) the people, not the courts, should be the final arbiter on social issues (D) the country should pursue a more aggressive foreign policy. 403. In order to secure passage of the protectionist Payne-Aldrich Tariff in 1909, Taft had to promise (A) a stronger Interstate Commerce Commission (B) more government regulation of trusts (C) quotas on imported agricultural products (D) imposition of both corporate and personal income taxes. 404. All of the following issues served to divide the Republican party during the Taft Administration except (A) restriction of the power of the Speaker of the House (B) regulation of railroad rates (C) the admission of Utah and Oklahoma to the Union (D) the sale of public lands to private interests. 405. Roosevelt's New Nationalism called for all of the following except (A) more social- welfare programs (B) sale of government lands for tax revenues (C) federal regulations of business and industry (D) more measures to foster direct democracy. 406. The Underwood-Simmons Tariff of 1913 represented a victory for (A) advocates of lower duties (B) the Republican Old Guard (C) conservative Democrats from the South and West (D) upward revisionists. 407 . By announcing the "rule of reason" in 1911, the Supreme Court held that (A) corporations had to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that they were not monopolies, or face dissolution (B) only unreasonable restraints of trade were unlawful (C) administrative agencies, not the courts, had jurisdiction in antitrust cases (D) the federal government had a right to prosecute any corporation it reasonably considered in restraint of trade. 408. Theodore Roosevelt lost the Republican party's presidential nomination in 1912 because (A) the presidential primaries had shown him weak in Western states (B) a corrupt bargain was struck between Taft and La Follette (C) La Follette had more strength among the progressive elements of the party (D) Taft controlled the Republican national committee, which rigged delegate selection in Taft's favor. 409. In 1913, reformers accomplished which two of their goals by constitutional amendment (A) popular election of senators and women's suffrage (B) prohibition and women's suffrage (C) prohibition and imposition of an income tax (D) popular election of senators and imposition of a federal income tax. 410. In the election of 1912 the Bull Moose and Democratic party platforms disagreed on all of the following except the (A) need for a steep protective tariff (B) locus of regulator power (C) necessity of limiting injunctions against labor unions (D) institution of broad social welfare programs. 411. On the question of regulating big business, Roosevelt and Wilson disagreed, in that (A) Wilson advocated a partnership between government and the trusts (B) Roosevelt advocated laissez-faire policies for big business (C) Roosevelt emphasized fragmentation of all monopolies to protect society (D) Wilson emphasized encouragement of "regulated competition" and aid to small business. 412. Woodrow Wilson's chief advisor on New Freedom programs was (A) Louis Brandeis (B) William Jennings Bryan (C) Herbert Croly (D) Robert La Follette. 413. Which of the following statements about the election of 1912 is not true? (A) Taft won less that 25% of the popular vote (B) Roosevelt's popularity was greater in the South than it was in the North (C) Wilson was a "minority" victor (D) The Socialist party received nearly one million votes. 02. All of the following wrote muckraking articles except (A) Upton Sinclair (B) Frank Norris (C) Ida Tarbell (D) Henry James. 03. In the early 20th century, the most popular type of music was (A) jazz (B) rock (C) ragtime (D) swing. 04. The early 20th century school of artists who realistically portrayed American life was the (A) Hudson Valley (B) Ashcan (C) Cubist (D) Impressionist. 05. In 1912 Woodrow Wilson was the favorite choice of the (A) conservative Democrats (B) moderate Democrats (C) reactionary Democrats (D) progressive Democrats. 06. Richard A. Ballinger was criticized for (A) restoring to private interests some water sites and coal fields in Alaska and the West (B) failing to restore to private interests some water sites and coal fields in Alaska and the West (C) accepting bribes from private interests (D) none of the above. 07. Once in office, Woodrow Wilson actually (A) limited the power of the federal government (B) expanded the role of the federal government (C) supported states' rights (D) reduced the power of the executive. 08. To divert the American people's attention from the Panic of 1893, President Grover Cleveland may have fueled the crisis in (A) China (B) Japan (C) Chile (D) Venezuela. 25. The Pure Food and Drug Act was passed as a result of (A) business policing itself (B) a muckraker's expose (C) consumer knowledge (D) the demands of employees in food and drug companies. 26. The four constitutional amendments initiated during the Progressive period were the (A) 14th, 15th, 16th, and 17th. (B) 15th, 16th, 17th, and 18th. (C) 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th. (D) 17th, 18th, 19th, and 20th. 27. Many of the articles written by muckrakers appeared in (A) the North American Review (B) McClure's and Munsry's (C) Harper's (D) the Nation. 28. The muckrakers received their name from (A) Theodore Roosevelt (B) William McKinley (C) William Taft (D) William Jennings Bryan. 29. The muckrakers wrote about all of the following matters except (A) corruption in the cities (B) problems on the Indian reservations (C) procedures followed in food industries (D) practices of the railroads and grain elevators. 30. The Progressives borrowed ideas from all the following groups except the (A) Populists (B) socialists (C) anarchists (D) muckrakers. 31. A close examination of the crime and corruption in American cities was found in (A) Jacob Riis' How the Other Half Lives (B) Lincoln Steffens' Shame of the Cities (C) Henry George's Progress and Poverty (D) Edward Bellamy's Looking Backward. 32. All of the following were considered progressive presidents except (A) William Howard Taft (B) William McKinley (C) Woodrow Wilson (D) Theodore Roosevelt. 33. In 1909, African Americans and whites together founded an organization to fight in the court system for African Americans' political and civil rights called the (A) Urban League (B) American Protective Association (C) National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (D) Southern Christian Leadership Conference. 34. The Progressives borrowed all of the following ideas from the Populists except the (A) subtreasury plan (B) direct election of senators (C) secret ballot (D) initiative, referendum, and recall. 35. The Hepburn and Mann-Elkins Acts gave more control over (A) railroad rates to the Interstate Commerce Commission (B) foreign trade practices to the Federal Trade Commission (C) grain elevators to the Interstate Commerce Commission (D) domestic trade practices to the Federal Trade Commission. 36. The Elkins Act curbed (A) rebates (B) short and long-haul clauses (C) railroad land sales (D) railway unions. 37. The Niagara Movement in the early 20th century called for (A) equal political and economic opportunities for African Americans (B) an end to segregation (C) equal educational opportunities for African Americans (D) all of the above. 38. A leader for women's rights during the second decade of the 2Oth century was (A) Susan B. Anthony (B) Lucretia Mott (C) Alice Paul (D) Elizabeth Cady Stanton. 42. "These conditions can be changed and the interest of the working class upheld only by an organization formed in such a way that all its members in any one industry or in all industries, if necessary, cease work whenever a strike or lockout is on in any department thereof, thus making an injury to one an injury to all." These ideas were expressed by the (A) Populist Party (B) International Workers of the World (C) Socialist Party (D) American Federation of Labor. 52. "There is a widespread conviction in the minds of the American people that the great corporations known as trusts are in certain of their features and tendencies hurtful to the general welfare. This ... is based upon sincere conviction that combination and concentration should be, not prohibited, but supervised and within reasonable limits controlled; and in my judgment this conviction is right." These are sentiments of (A) J. Pierpont Morgan (B) Theodore Roosevelt (C) Andrew Carnegie (D) Woodrow Wilson. 53. "It is always possible that wrong actions toward this Nation, or toward citizens of this Nation, in some State unable to keep order among its own people, unable to secure justice from outsiders, and unwilling to do justice to those outsiders who treat it well, may result in our having to take action to protect our rights; but such action will not be taken with a view to territorial aggression." This statement may be found in the (A) Monroe Doctrine (B) Drago Doctrine (C) Clark Memorandum (D) Roosevelt Corollary. 61. All of the following were major political reforms enacted under the Progressives except (A) the Australian ballot (B) the direct primary (C) the initiative (D) suffrage for African American males. 65. In the campaign of 1900, the Democrats made certain that the paramount issue was (A) the tariff (B) silver (C) imperialism (D) banking. 67. Labor liked the Clayton Anti-Trust Act because it (A) made business more profitable (B) exempted labor unions from prosecution under the anti-trust ~laws (C) introduced a profit-sharing plan (D) introduced a pension plan. 68. Woodrow Wilson broke with precedent by (A) personally going to Congress to deliver his annual messages (B) seeking a third term (C) being the first to campaign actively for the presidency (D) appointing his brother to the Cabinet. 69. The Pujo Committee believed that there (A) were communists in the government (B) were scandals in the Justice Department (C) was a controlling "money trust" (D) were anti conservationists in the Interior Department. 70. Under the Federal Reserve Act, the Federal Reserve Banks were to make (A) direct loans to farmers' cooperatives (B) money available to banks and bankers only (C) loans to individuals (D) loans to labor unions. 71. Woodrow Wilson's program, the New Freedom, looked to the destruction of (A) labor unions (B) unfair competition (C) farm cooperatives (D) states' rights. 72. In the 1912 election, (A) Woodrow Wilson had more popular votes thin the Democratic candidate in 1908 (B) Eugene Debs, the Socialist candidate, won over 800,000 votes (C) Theodore Roosevelt received fewer electoral votes thin Taft (D) the Republicans won the Senate and the House. 73. Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson shared a belief in a strong (A) Air Force (B) Legislature (C) Executive (D) Judiciary. 74. Although contrary to a campaign promise, President Taft signed the (A) Hepburn Act (B) Pure Food and Drug Act (C) Payne-Aldrich Tariff (D) Underwood-Simmons Tariff. 75. The Speaker of the House of Representatives in 1911 lost the power to (A) preside over the House (B) appoint committees and chairpersons (C) limit debate (D) serve a second term. 76. The Bull Moose Party of 1912 looked forward to (A) big government which policed labor and business (B) limited government (C) the strengthening of states' rights (D) the supremacy of Big Business. 77. In the 1908 presidential election, the Democrats nominated (A) Alton B. Parker (B) Woodrow Wilson (C) Champ Clark (D) William Jennings Bryan~ 78. The election results of 1908 showed that the Democrats (A) could carry very little outside the South (B) were strong among labor union members (C) were strong in urban counties (D) nominated candidates who were virtually unknown to the American populace. 79. "The wise custom which limits the president to two terms regards the substance and not the form, and under no circumstances will I be a candidate for or accept another nomination." These words were spoken, perhaps in haste, by (A) William Taft (B) William McKinley (C) Theodore Roosevelt (D) Woodrow Wilson. 80. Theodore Roosevelt's critics blamed the Panic of 1907 on his (A) interference with business (B) foreign policy (C) conservation policies (D) tariff policies. 81. Theodore Roosevelt's approach to trusts was based on the assumption that (A) all trusts were good (B) all trusts were bad (C) there were good and bad trusts (D) trusts were no problem. 82. Theodore Roosevelt's greatest contribution to the conservation cause was his (A) convening of a Conference of Governors (B) planting of trees (C) putting an end to mining (D) throwing open to private investors vast forest reserves. 83. The 1908 election returns showed that (A) William Jennings Bryan had lost some of his popularity (B) the Democrats could carry the Solid South (C) Theodore Roosevelt was extremely popular (D) all of the above were true. 84. In the early 20th century, the section of the country most likely to favor women's suffrage was the (A) South (B) Southeast (C) Northeast (D) West 85. Theodore Roosevelt's Cabinet included (A) Elihu Root and William Jennings Bryan (B) Elihu Root and John Hay (C) John Hay and Mark Hanna (D) Gifford Pinchot and Elihu Root. 86. Theodore Roosevelt met with some trust-busting success against (A) E. C. Knight Company (B) American Tobacco Company (C) Reynolds Tobacco Company (D) Northern Securities Company. 31. The tremendously rapid growth of American cities in the post Civil War decades was (A) uniquely American. (B) fueled by an agricultural system suffering from poor production levels. (C) attributable to the closing of the frontier. (D) a trend that affected Europe as well. 32. The major factor in drawing country people off the farms and into the big cities was (A) the development of the skyscraper. (B) the availability of industrial jobs. (C) the compact nature of those large communities. (D) the advent of new housing structures known as dumbbell tenements. 33. One of the early symbols of the dawning era of consumerism in urban America was (A) the development of factories. (B) the Sears catalog. (C) the rise of large department stores. (D) public transportation systems. 34. Which one of the following has least in common with the other three? (A) slums (B) dumbbell tenements (C) bedroom communities (D) flophouses 35. The New Immigrants who came to the United States after 1880 (A) had experience with democratic governments. (B) were numerous but never constituted a majority of the immigrants in any given year. (C) were culturally different from previous immigrants. (D) received a warm welcome from the Old Immigrants. 36. Most Italian immigrants to the United States between 1880 and 1920 came to escape (A) political oppression. (B) famine. (C) the political disintegration of their country. (D) the poverty and slow modernization of southern Italy. 37. A "bird of passage" was an immigrant who (A) came to the United States to live permanently. (B) only passed through America on his or her way to Canada. (C) was unmarried. (D) came to America to work for a short time and then returned to Europe. 38. Most New Immigrants (A) eventually returned to their country of origin. (B) tried to preserve their Old Country culture in America. (C) were subjected to stringent immigration restrictions. (D) were quickly assimilated into the mainstream of American life. 39. According to the social gospel, (A) workers should be content with their station in life. (B) the church should not concern itself in the social affairs of the world. (C) the lessons of Christianity should be applied to solve the problems manifest in slums and factories. (D) Christianity would replace socialism. 40. The early settlement house workers, such as Jane Addams and Florence Kelley, helped to blaze the professional trail for (A) language specialists. (B) social workers. (C) day-care workers. (D) criminal psychologists. 41. Settlement houses such as Hull House offered all of the following services except (A) child care. (B) instruction in English. (C) cultural activities. (D) instruction in socialism. 42. The place that offered the greatest opportunities for American women in the period 1865 1900 was (A) the big city. (B) the West. (C) suburban communities. (D) rural America. 43. In the 1890s, positions as secretaries, department store clerks, and telephone operators were largely reserved for (A) Jews. (B) Irish. (C) African-Americans. (D) the native born. 44. Labor unions favored immigration restriction because most immigrants were all of the following except (A) opposed to factory labor. (B) used as strikebreakers. (C) willing to work for lower wages. (D) difficult to unionize. 45. The American Protective Association (A) preached through the social gospel that churches were obligated to help New Immigrants. (B) was led for many years by Florence Kelley and Jane Addams. (C) supported immigration restrictions. (D) established settlement houses in several major cities in order to aid New Immigrants. 46. The religious denomination that responded most favorably to the New Immigration was (A) Roman Catholics. (B) Baptists. (C) Episcopalians. (D) Christian Scientists. 47. Charles Darwin's theory of evolution (A) was opposed by religious Modernists. (B) cast serious doubt on a literal interpretation of the Bible. (C) was attacked most bitterly by orator Colonel Robert Ingersoll. (D) helped to unite college teachers of biology in support of the theory of "survival of the fittest." 48. Religious Modernists (A) found ways to reconcile Christianity and Darwinism. (B) railed against the social philosophy of the social gospel movement. (C) tended to ignore evidence of social and economic injustice. (D) denounced the Christian Scientists and Salvation Army as "ungodly." 49. Americans began to support a free public education system (A) to combat the growing strength of Catholic parochial schools. (B) when the Chautauqua movement began to decline. (C) because they accepted the idea that a free government cannot function without educated citizens. (D) when private schools began to fold. 50. Booker T. Washington believed that the key to political and civil rights for African- Americans was (A) the vote. (B) economic independence. (C) the rejection of accommodationist attitudes. (D) to directly challenge white supremacy. 51. The post-Civil War era witnessed (A) an increase in compulsory school-attendance laws. (B) the collapse of the Chautauqua movement. (C) rejection of the German system of kindergartens. (D) a slow rise in the illiteracy rate. 52. As a leader of the African-American community, Booker T. Washington (A) helped to found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. (B) advocated social equality. (C) discovered hundreds of uses for the peanut. (D) grudgingly acquiesced to segregation. 53. That a "talented tenth" of American blacks should lead the race to full social and political equality with whites was the view of (A) Mary Baker Eddy. (B) Booker T. Washington. (C) Dwight L. Moody. (D) W.E.B. Du Bois. 54. The Morrill Act of 1862 (A) established women's colleges like Vassar. (B) required compulsory school attendance through high school. (C) granted public lands to states to support higher education. (D) mandated racial integration in public schools. 55. Black leader Dr. W.E.B. Du Bois (A) demanded complete equality for African- Americans. (B) established an industrial school at Tuskegee, Alabama. (C) supported the goals of Booker T. Washington. (D) was an ex-slave who rose to fame. 56. In the decades after the Civil War, college education for women (A) became more difficult to obtain. (B) was confined to women's colleges. (C) became much more common. (D) resulted in the passage of the Hatch Act. 57. Which of the following schools was not an academic institution for African- Americans by the turn of the century? (A) Howard University (B) Hampton Institute (C) Temple University (D) Atlanta University 58. During the industrial revolution, life expectancy (A) decreased. (B) changed very little. (C) was much higher in Europe than in the United States. (D) measurably increased. 59. The philosophy of pragmatism maintains that __________ is important. (A) the logically correct formulation of a theory (B) the practical application of an idea (C) forgoing materialism in favor of high ideals (D) how you think, not what you do 60. In a country hungry for news, American newspapers (A) printed hard-hitting editorials. (B) became sensationalist. (C) repudiated the tactics of Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst. (D) came to rely less on syndicated material. 61. Henry George found the root of social inequalities in the behavior of (A) financiers who invested their capital in the production of goods. (B) workers whose labor produced goods. (C) landowners who provided the space for the production of goods. (D) managers who organized the resources of production. 62. Henry George argued that the unearned windfall profits of those who did not work for them should be (A) confiscated by government taxation. (B) distributed to public works through private philanthropy. (C) saved and invested by private bankers. (D) looked upon as the inevitable consequence of "the survival of the fittest." 63. General Lewis Wallace's book Ben Hur (A) achieved success only after his death. (B) defended Christianity against Darwinism. (C) emphasized that virtue, honesty, and hard work were rewarded by success. (D) detailed Wallace's experiences in the Civil War. 64. Match each of these late-nineteenth-century writers with the theme of his work. A. Lewis Wallace B. Horatio Alger C. Henry James D. William Dean Howells 1. success and honor as the products of honesty and hard work 2. anti-Darwinism support for the Holy Scriptures 3. contemporary social problems like divorce, labor strikes, and socialism (A) B-2, C-3, D-1 (B) A-1, B-3, C-2 (C) A-2, B-1, D-3 (D) A-3, C-1, D-2 65. American novel-writing turned from romantic sentimentality to rugged realism as a result of the (A) influence of Latin American literature. (B) institution of slavery. (C) higher educational level of the authors. (D) materialism of industrial society. 66. The Comstock Law was intended to advance the cause of (A) racial equality. (B) sexual purity. (C) temperance. (D) woman suffrage. 67. In the decades after the Civil War, the "new morality" was reflected in all of the following except (A) soaring divorce rates. (B) the spreading practice of birth control. (C) the fact that Americans were marrying at an earlier age. (D) increasingly frank discussion of sexual topics. 68. In the course of the late nineteenth century, (A) the birthrate increased. (B) the divorce rate fell. (C) family size gradually declined. (D) people tended to marry at an early age. 69. Late-nineteenth-century feminists (A) argued that biology gave women a fundamentally different character from men. (B) advocated an early version of day-care centers. (C) temporarily abandoned the movement for woman suffrage. (D) lacked effective leadership and a sound rationale for the social involvement of women. 70. One of the most important factors leading to an increased divorce rate in the late nineteenth century was the (A) decline in farm income. (B) stresses of urban life. (C) emerging feminist movement. (D) passage of more liberal divorce laws. 71. The National American Woman Suffrage Association (A) achieved its goal in 1898. (B) conducted an integrated campaign for equal rights. (C) limited its membership to whites. (D) elected Ida B. Wells as its president. 72. The subject of the Eighteenth Amendment was (A) income tax. (B) direct election of senators. (C) woman suffrage. (D) prohibition. 73. The term Richardsonian in the late nineteenth century pertained to (A) sculpture. (B) novels. (C) painting. (D) buildings. 74. During industrialization, Americans increasingly (A) had less free time. (B) became more inefficient. (C) became less optimistic. (D) fell into the ways of lockstep living. 75. The various racial and ethnic groups in large cities, though living in different neighborhoods, shared which of the following activities? (A) shopping (B) reading (C) playing (D) all of the above 76. By 1900, American cities were becoming (A) heavily populated. (B) segregated by race and ethnic group. (C) segregated by occupation. (D) all of the above. 78. New Immigrants coming to America after 1800 (A) paid exorbitant transatlantic passage fares. (B) were primarily seeking economic opportunity. (C) were fleeing communism. (D) were well experienced in the institutions of democratic government. 79. Many native-born Americans tended to blame New Immigrants for (A) the corruption of city government. (B) low industrial wages. (C) the degradation of life in American cities. (D) all of the following. 80. By 1900, congressional legislation barred __________ from immigrating to America. (A) illiterates (B) sick individuals (C) contract laborers (D) Jews 82. In the late nineteenth century, orthodox Protestant churches were being challenged by all of the following except (A) the theories of Charles Darwin. (B) the mounting emphasis on materialism. (C) Fundamentalist insistence on a literal interpretation of the Bible. (D) the social doctrines of Catholicism and Judaism. 33. In 1888 and 1892 the major issue of the presidential election was __________, but in 1896 it was __________. (A) civil-service reform; free silver (B) tariff policy; free silver (C) free silver; tariff policy (D) antitrust legislation; tariff policy 35. As a result of the 1892 Homestead strike, (A) the steel industry was crippled (B) the Homestead union was broken. (C) Pinkerton detectives forced the strikers to surrender. (D) Andrew Carnegie sold his steel business to J. P. Morgan. 36. In a bid to win labor's support, the Populist Party supported (A) allowing an increased number of immigrants into the country. (B) Samuel Gompers for president. (C) a shorter workday. (D) workingmen's compensation. 37. The Populists (A) were the only third party to win electoral votes. (B) gained most of their electoral votes from the South. (C) received support from industrial workers. (D) none of the above. 39. Southerners used all of the following tactics to deny African-Americans the right to vote except (A) the poll tax. (B) the grandfather clause. (C) the peonage system. (D) literacy tests. 40. Southern blacks formed the Colored Farmers' National Alliance and voted for the Populist Party in 1892, and as a result, (A) blacks gained political offices for the first time since Reconstruction. (B) the white ruling class virtually eliminated black suffrage in the South. (C) the Jim Crow laws were overturned (D) the Democratic Party lost power in the South, while Republicans gained control in many areas. 41. All of the following helped to cause the Depression of 1893 except (A) the splurge of overbuilding and overspeculation (B) America's continued adherence to the gold standard (C) labor disorders (D) agricultural difficulties. 42. By supporting repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act, Grover Cleveland (A) allowed gold to be bled away from the United States Treasury. (B) contributed to a devastating round of inflation. (C) brought on the Depression of 1893. (D) disrupted his party at the very outset of his administration. 43. President Cleveland's initial response to the Depression of 1893 was to ask Congress to repeal the (A) Pension Act of 1890. (B) McKinley Tariff. (C) Jim Crow laws. (D) Sherman Silver Purchase Act. 46. Which one of the following expressed the least sympathy with workers who were hard-pressed by the Depression of 1893? (A) John P. Altgeld (B) Richard Olney (C) Eugene V. Debs (D) Jacob Coxey 49. Match each individual below with his role in the Pullman strike. (A) Richard Olney 1. head of the American Railway Union, (B) Eugene V. Debs which led the workers out on strike (C) John P. Altgeld 2. governor of Illinois who sympathized (D) Jacob Coxey with the striking workers 3. United States attorney general who urged the dispatch of federal troops to quell the strike (A) A-1, B-2, D-3 (B) A-2, B-1, C-3 (C) A-3, B-1, C-2 (D) B-2, C-1, D-3 50. Labor unions, Populists, and debtors saw in the brutal Pullman episode (A) proof of an alliance between big business and the courts. (B) a chance for unified, working-class action to succeed (C) the need for a socialist party in the United States. (D) a way in which workers could successfully use the courts. 51. The Pullman strike created the first instance of (A) government use of a court injunction to break a labor strike. (B) management recognition of the right of workers to organize unions. (C) government use of federal troops to end a labor strike. (D) violence during a labor strike. 56. All of the following characteristics describe William Jennings Bryan except that (A) he had a brilliant mind (B) he was a student of human nature. (C) he possessed broad human sympathies. (D) he was an excellent orator. 62. The 1896 victory of William McKinley ushered in a long period of Republican dominance that was accompanied by (A) diminishing voter participation in elections. (B) strengthening of party organizations. (C) greater concern over civil-service reform. (D) less concern for industrial regulation. 63. As president, William McKinley can best be described as (A) cautious and conservative. (B) a man of little ability. (C) an active reformer. (D) a person willing to go against the opinion of the majority. 64. The monetary inflation needed to relieve the social and economic hardships of the late nineteenth century eventually came as a result of (A) the Gold Standard Act. (B) McKinley's adoption of the bimetallic standard (C) an increase in the international gold supply. (D) Populist fusion with the Democratic party. 65. Major tariff legislation of the 1890s was passed in what sequence: (A) Dingley Tariff, (B) Wilson-Gorman Tariff, (C) McKinley Tariff? (A) A, B, C (B) B, A, C (C) A, C, B (D) C, B, A 66. The Populists' 1892 Omaha platform called for (A) a graduated income tax. (B) government ownership of the railroads. (C) free silver (D). all of the above 33. As one progressive explained, the "real heart" of the progressive movement was to (A) preserve world peace. (B) use the government as an agency of human welfare. (C) ensure the Jeffersonian style of government. (D) reinstate the policy of laissez-faire. 34. Progressives, who were among the strongest critics of injustice in early-twentieth- century America, received much of their inspiration from (A) the Federalists. (B) the Greenback Labor party and the Populists. (C) foreign nations. (D) progressive theorists, like Jacob Riis. 35. Match each late-nineteenth-century social critic below with the target of his criticism. A. Thorstein Veblen 1. "bloated trusts" B. Jack London 2. slum conditions C. Jacob Riis 3. "conspicuous consumption" D. Henry Demarest Lloyd (A) B-2, C-3, D-1 (B) A-1, B-3, D-2 (C) A-3, C-2, D-1 (D) A-3, B-2, C-1 36. Progressivism (A) supported many reforms advocated by feminists. (B) offered little to the ever-growing women's movement. (C) supported only the demand for woman suffrage. (D) followed examples set by women's reform movements in Europe. 37. President Theodore Roosevelt branded reporters who tried to uncover injustice as "muckrakers" because (A) he saw them as trying to clean up society. (B) he was annoyed by their excessive zeal. (C) of their work in the slums. (D) of their coverage of the meat- packing industry. 38. Match each early-twentieth-century muckraker below with the target of his or her expose. A. David G. Phillips 1. the United States Senate B. Ida Tarbell 2. the Standard Oil Company C. Lincoln Steffens 3. city government D. Ray Stannard Baker (A) A-1, B-2, C-3 (B) B-2, C-3, D-1 (C) A-3, B-1, C-2 (D) A-3, B-2, C-1 39. Lincoln Steffens, in his series of articles entitled "The Shame of the Cities," (A) attacked the United States Senate. (B) exposed the deplorable condition of blacks in urban areas. (C) laid bare the practices of the stock market. (D) unmasked the corrupt alliance between big business and municipal government. 40. The muckrakers signified much about the nature of the progressive reform movement because they (A) counted on drastic political change to fight social wrongs. (B) opposed extensive publicity. (C) believed that the cure for the ills of American democracy lay in less democracy and more government control. (D) sought not to overthrow capitalism but to cleanse it. 41. Most muckrakers believed that their primary function in the progressive attack on social ills was to (A) formulate a consistent philosophy of social reform. (B) explain the causes of social ills. (C) devise solutions to society's problems. (D) make the public aware of social problems. 42. The two key goals pursued by progressives were to curb the threats posed by __________ on the one hand and __________ on the other. (A) New Immigrants; blacks (B) trusts; socialists (C) the social gospel; the gospel of wealth (D) the Old Guard; muckrakers 43. Progressive reformers were mainly men and women from the (A) middle class. (B) lower class. (C) upper class. (D) new wave of immigrants. 44. Political progressivism (A) made little difference in American life. (B) died out shortly after Teddy Roosevelt stepped down as president. (C) emerged in both major parties, in all regions, at all levels of government. (D) was more a minority movement than a majority mood. 45. According to progressives, the cure for American democracy's ills was (A) more democracy. (B) a third political party. (C) socialism. (D) a more conservative government. 46. To regain the power that the people had lost to the "interests," progressives advocated all of the following except (A) initiative. (B) referendum. (C) recall. (D) socialism. 47. All of the following were prime goals of earnest progressives except (A) the direct election of senators. (B) the elimination of graft. (C) woman suffrage. (D) opposition to Prohibition. 48. The progressive movement was instrumental in getting both the Seventeenth and Eighteenth amendments added to the Constitution. The Seventeenth called for __________, and the Eighteenth called for __________. (A) prohibition; woman suffrage (B) direct election of senators; prohibition (C) woman suffrage; income taxes (D) income taxes; direct election of senators 49. In the 1908 case of Muller v. Oregon, the Supreme Court accepted the constitutionality of laws protecting women workers because (A) women had weaker minds. (B) a large number of lower courts favored such a ruling. (C) of the harmful effects of factory labor on women's weaker bodies. (D) none of the above. 50. The progressive-inspired city-manager system of government (A) brought democracy to urban dwellers. (B) was developed in Wisconsin. (C) was designed to remove politics from municipal administration. (D) made giant strides under the leadership of Hiram Jackson. 51. Progressive reform at the level of city government seemed to indicate that the progressives' highest priority was (A) democratic government. (B) governmental efficiency. (C) free enterprise. (D) economic equality. 52. In the 1908 landmark case of Muller v. Oregon, the Supreme Court ruled that (A) sanitation codes for industry were legal. (B) workingmen's compensation was legal. (C) laws protecting female workers were constitutional. (D) antiliquor laws were constitutional. 53. While president, Theodore Roosevelt chose to label his reform proposals as the (A) Fair Deal. (B) Big Deal. (C) Square Deal. (D) New Deal. 54. As a part of his reform program, Teddy Roosevelt advocated all of the following except (A) control of labor. (B) control of corporations. (C) consumer protection. (D) conservation of natural resources. 55. Teddy Roosevelt helped to end the 1902 strike in the anthracite coal mines by (A) using the military to force the miners back to work. (B) passing legislation making the miners' union illegal. (C) helping the mine owners to import strike-breakers. (D) threatening to seize the mines and to operate them with federal troops. 56. One unusual and significant characteristic of the anthracite coal strike in 1902 was that (A) the coal miners' union was officially recognized as the legal bargaining agent of the miners. (B) for a time the mines were seized by the national government and operated by federal troops. (C) the national government did not automatically side with the owners in the dispute. (D) the owners quickly agreed to negotiate with labor representatives in order to settle their differences peacefully. 57. The Elkins and Hepburn acts dealt with the subject of (A) regulation of municipal utilities. (B) the purity of food and drugs. (C) conservation of natural resources. (D) railroad regulation. 58. Teddy Roosevelt believed that trusts (A) could be destroyed without damage to the American economy. (B) were greedy for power and wealth. (C) were too powerful to be regulated. (D) were here to stay with their efficient means of production. 59. The real purpose of Teddy Roosevelt's assault on trusts was to (A) fragment big business. (B) prove that the government, not private business, ruled the country. (C) halt the trend toward combination and integration in business. (D) establish himself as a bigger "trustbuster" than William Howard Taft. 60. President Roosevelt believed that the federal government should adopt a policy of __________ trusts. (A) dissolving (B) ignoring (C) regulating (D) collusion with 61. Passage of the Federal Meat Inspection Act was facilitated by the publication of (A) Theodore Dreiser's The Titan. (B) Upton Sinclair's The Jungle. (C) Henry Demarest Lloyd's Wealth Against Commonwealth. (D) Jacob Riis's How the Other Half Lives. 62. When Upton Sinclair wrote The Jungle, he intended his book to focus attention on the (A) unsanitary conditions that existed in the meat-packing industry. (B) plight of workers in the canning factories. (C) corruption in the United States Senate. (D) deplorable conditions in the drug industry. 63. Of the following legislation aimed at resource conservation, the only one associated with Roosevelt's presidency was the (A) Desert Land Act. (B) Forest Reserve Act. (C) Newlands Act. (D) Cary Act. 64. According to the text, Teddy Roosevelt's most enduring, tangible achievement may have been (A) the Panama Canal. (B) his trust busting. (C) mediating an end to the Russo-Japanese War. (D) his efforts supporting conservation. 65. The idea of "multiple-use resource management" included all of the following practices except (A) recreation. (B) damming of rivers. (C) sustained-yield logging. (D) summer stock grazing. 66. Teddy Roosevelt weakened himself politically after his election in 1904 when he (A) announced that he would not be a candidate for a third term as president. (B) refused to do anything in response to the "Roosevelt Panic." (C) supported the Federal Reserve Act. (D) began to reduce his trust-busting activity. 67. The panic of 1907 stimulated reform in __________ policy. (A) banking (B) tariff (C) land-use (D) industrial 68. Theodore Roosevelt is probably most accurately described as (A) an ardent defender of American individualism. (B) a near-socialist. (C) a middle-of-the-road politician. (D) a champion "trustbuster." 69. While president, Theodore Roosevelt (A) greatly increased the power and prestige of the presidency. (B) showed no skill and little interest in working with Congress. (C) was a poor judge of public opinion. (D) was surprisingly unpopular with the public. 70. During his presidency, Teddy Roosevelt did all of the following except (A) expand presidential power. (B) shape the progressive movement. (C) tame capitalism. (D) provide an international perspective. 71. As president, William Howard Taft (A) was a good judge of public opinion. (B) held together the conflicting elements of the Republican party. (C) was wedded more to the status quo than to change. (D) adopted a confrontational attitude toward Congress. 72. President Taft's foreign policy was dubbed (A) big-stick diplomacy. (B) the Open Door policy. (C) the Good Neighbor policy. (D) dollar diplomacy. 73. The Supreme Court's "rule of reason" in restraint-of-trade cases was handed down in a case involving (A) Northern Securities. (B) United States Steel. (C) Standard Oil. (D) Armour Meat-Packing. 74. Teddy Roosevelt decided to run for the presidency in 1912 because (A) William Howard Taft had seemed to discard Roosevelt's policies. (B) Taft decided not to run for a second term. (C) he was drafted by the Republican party. (D) Senator Robert La Follette encouraged him to do so. 77. Progressives usually supported such political reform proposals as (A) the initiative, referendum, and recall. (B) the Australian ballot. (C) woman suffrage. (D) all of the above. 78. Early-twentieth-century progressive state governors included (A) Hiram W. Johnson. (B) Robert La Follette. (C) Charles Evans Hughes.(D) all of the above. 81. President Taft's image as a progressive was tarnished when he (A) signed the Payne-Aldrich Tariff Bill. (B) refused to support progressive congressmen to challenge the power of the conservative Speaker of the House. (C) dismissed Gifford Pinchot. (D) all of the above. 29. Before he was elected president in 1912, Woodrow Wilson had been a (A) Presbyterian minister. (B) state governor. (C) successful businessman. (D) Progressive Republican. 30. As governor of New Jersey, Woodrow Wilson established a record as a (A) mild conservative. (B) reactionary. (C) man who would work with the party bosses. (D) passionate reformer. 31. In 1912, Woodrow Wilson ran for the presidency on a Democratic platform that included all of the following except a call for (A) antitrust legislation. (B) monetary changes. (C) dollar diplomacy. (D) tariff reductions. 32. When Jane Addams placed Teddy Roosevelt's name in nomination for the presidency in 1912, it (A) demonstrated that the Republican party supported woman suffrage. (B) ensured Roosevelt's defeat by William Howard Taft. (C) symbolized the rising political status of women. (D) showed that Roosevelt had lost touch with public opinion. 33. Teddy Roosevelt's New Nationalism (A) pinned its economic faith on competition. (B) opposed consolidation of labor unions. (C) favored the free functioning of unregulated and unmonopolized markets. (D) supported a broad program of social welfare. 34. Woodrow Wilson's New Freedom (A) advocated social-welfare programs. (B) opposed fragmentation of big industrial combines. (C) favored small enterprise and entrepreneurship. (D) supported minimum-wage laws. 35. The 1912 presidential election was notable because (A) it gave the voters a choice of political and economic philosophies. (B) personalities were the only issue of the campaign. (C) it was the first time women had the right to vote. (D) the Democratic party had split. 36. Match each 1912 presidential candidate below with his political party. A. Woodrow Wilson 1. Socialist B. Theodore Roosevelt 2. Democratic C. William Howard Taft 3. Republican D. Eugene V. Debs 4. Progressive (A) A-1, B-2, C-4, D-3 (B) A-2, B-4, C-3, D-1 (C) A-4, B-3, C-2, D-1 (D) A-3, B-1, C-2, D-4 37. According to Thomas Bailey and David Kennedy, the runaway winner in the 1912 election was (A) socialism. (B) progressivism. (C) conservatism. (D) capitalism. 38. In 1912 Woodrow Wilson became the first __________ elected to the presidency since the Civil War. (A) southerner (B) Democrat (C) lawyer (D) non-Civil War veteran 39. Woodrow Wilson was the first president since the Civil War who (A) had not fought in that conflict. (B) was Catholic. (C) had never served as governor. (D) had been a university president. 40. Woodrow Wilson's attitude toward the masses can best be described as (A) open contempt. (B) public support but private dislike. (C) faith in them, if they were properly educated. (D) indifference. 41. Woodrow Wilson's political philosophy included all of the following except (A) faith in the masses. (B) scorn for the ideal of self-determination for minority peoples in other countries. (C) a belief that the president should provide leadership for Congress. (D) a belief that the president should appeal over the heads of legislators to the sovereign people. 42. As a politician, Woodrow Wilson was (A) inflexible and stubborn. (B) a showman, like Teddy Roosevelt. (C) a man with the common touch. (D) willing to compromise with his opponents. 43. Congress passed the Underwood Tariff because (A) big business favored its passage. (B) President Wilson aroused public opinion to support its passage. (C) the general public had been demanding a higher tariff. (D) the tariff kept the graduated income tax from being enacted. 44. In 1913, Woodrow Wilson broke with a custom dating back to 1801 when he (A) appointed members of his cabinet without regard to their party affiliation. (B) appointed a black man to the Supreme Court. (C) endorsed woman suffrage. (D) personally delivered his presidential address to Congress. 45. When Woodrow Wilson became president in 1912, the most serious shortcoming in the country's financial structure was that the (A) large banks were scattered too widely around the country. (B) Bank of the United States had been greatly weakened. (C) banking system had been overregulated by the federal government. (D) currency was inelastic. 46. When Congress passed the Underwood Tariff Bill in 1913, it intended the legislation to (A) lower tariff rates. (B) raise tariff rates. (C) eliminate tariffs as a source of revenue. (D) essentially maintain the existing tariff schedule. 47. The Sixteenth Amendment provided for (A) a personal income tax. (B) direct election of senators. (C) prohibition. (D) woman suffrage. 48. The Federal Reserve Act of 1913 guaranteed a substantial measure of public control over the American banking system through the final authority given to the (A) Federal Reserve Board. (B) president. (C) Senate. (D) regional banks. 49. The Federal Reserve Act gave the government the authority to (A) increase the amount of money in circulation. (B) close weak banks. (C) govern federal banks without public control. (D) none of the above. 50. The Clayton Anti-Trust Act (A) held that trade unions fell under the antimonopoly restraints of the Sherman Act. (B) regarded labor as an article of commerce. (C) helped Congress to control interstate commerce. (D) explicitly legalized strikes and peaceful picketing. 51. Because of the benefits that it conferred on labor, Samuel Gompers called the __________ "labor's Magna Charta." (A) Federal reserve Act (B) Underwood Tariff Act (C) Clayton Anti-Trust Act (D) Sixteenth Amendment 52. The first Jew to sit on the United States Supreme Court, appointed by Woodrow Wilson, was (A) Felix Frankfurter. (B) Arsene Pujo. (C) Herbert Croly. (D) Louis D. Brandeis. 53. Woodrow Wilson showed the limits of his progressivism by (A) opposing workingmen's compensation. (B) accelerating the segregation of blacks in the federal bureaucracy. (C) vetoing the Federal Farm Loan Act. (D) appointing Louis D. Brandeis to the Federal Trade Commission. 54. Woodrow Wilson rejected an aggressive foreign policy in all of the following ways except by (A) declaring war on dollar diplomacy. (B) signing the Jones Act. (C) repealing the Panama Canal Tolls Act. (D) refusing to intervene in the dispute between Japan and California. 55. Woodrow Wilson's approach to American foreign policy earned the label of __________ diplomacy. (A) imperialist (B) moral (C) dollar (D) balance-of-power 56. President Woodrow Wilson refused to intervene in the affairs of Mexico until (A) American business investors demanded protection. (B) Venustiano Carranza became president of Mexico. (C) a small party of American sailors was arrested in Tampico. (D) William Randolph Hearst and his newspaper began a campaign for involvement. 57. Before his first term ended, Woodrow Wilson had ordered American troops to intervene in (A) Nicaragua. (B) Venezuela. (C) Cuba. (D) Mexico. 58. Woodrow Wilson's administration refused to extend formal diplomatic recognition to the government in Mexico headed by (A) Victoriano Huerta. (B) Venustiano Carranza. (C) Pancho Villa. (D) none of these. 59. As World War I began in Europe, the alliance system placed Germany and Austria- Hungary in the __________, while Russia and France were in the __________. (A) Central Powers; Holy Alliance (B) Central Powers; Allies (C) Allies; Central Powers (D) Triple Alliance; Central Powers 60. From 1914 to 1916, trade between the United States and Britain (A) decreased considerably. (B) violated international neutrality laws. (C) was carried only on British ships. (D) pulled the American economy out of a recession. 61. With the outbreak of World War I in 1914, the great majority of Americans (A) earnestly hoped to stay out of the war. (B) favored entering the war in support of the Allies. (C) supported the Central Powers. (D) had close cultural, linguistic, and economic ties with the Central Powers. 62. With the onset of World War I, the United States (A) refused to trade with Germany. (B) did not trade with either alliance, for fear of being forced into war. (C) conducted an immense amount of trade with the Allies. (D) found its economy hurt by the conflict. 63. President Wilson insisted that he would hold __________ to "strict accountability" for __________. (A) Britain; repaying the loans made to it by American bankers (B) Britain; the disruption of American trade with the European continent (C) Germany; starting the war (D) Germany; the loss of American ships and lives to submarine warfare 64. German submarines began sinking unarmed and unresisting merchant and passenger ships without warning (A) when the United States entered the war. (B) in retaliation for the British naval blockade of Germany. (C) in an effort to keep the United States out of the war. (D) because international law now allowed this new style of warfare. 66. The Progressive "Bull Moose" party died when (A) Teddy Roosevelt refused to run as the party's presidential candidate in 1916. (B) Teddy Roosevelt lost the presidential race in 1916. (C) the United States entered World War I. (D) the Republican candidate, Charles Evans Hughes, advocated the same programs as Roosevelt. 68. When Woodrow Wilson won reelection in 1916, he received strong support from the (A) East Coast. (B) working class. (C) business community. (D) prowar members of both parties. 69. Theodore Roosevelt's New Nationalism platform in the 1912 presidential election advocated (A) an active role for government in economic and social affairs. (B) federal regulatory agencies to control the trusts. (C) woman suffrage. (D) all of the above. 71. In the 1912 presidential election, (A) the incumbent president finished third in the balloting. (B) one party won both the presidency and control of Congress. (C) the winning candidate attracted less than a majority of the popular vote. (D) all of the above. 73. Upon becoming president, Woodrow Wilson launched an attack on the "triple wall of privilege," which included (A) high tariffs. (B) racial discrimination. (C) conservative banking practices. (D) all of the above. 76. The flood of progressive legislation during Wilson's first term included laws to (A) provide disability assistance to civil-service workers. (B) establish the eight-hour day for interstate railroad workers. (C) provide credit and low-interest loans to farmers. (D) all of the above.