Griggs Personality Theories and Assessment by MikeJenny

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									 General Psychology (PY110)

Chapter 8
Personality Theories and Assessment
Personality
A person‟s internally based
characteristic ways of
acting and thinking

An enduring trait or
characteristic such as
extroversion or
introversion
    Freudian Classical Psychoanalytic Theory of
    Personality
 Developed by Sigmund Freud in
  the late nineteenth century
  ◦ Freud was a neurologist
  ◦ Had patients whose symptoms
    could not be explained
    medically
  ◦ Discovered that physical
    problems could have a
    mental cause (Mind/Body Connection)
 Believed that people are driven to seek
  pleasure (sex) and avoid pain (aggression)
  Freud‟s Three Levels of Awareness

 Conscious     Preconscious    Unconscious

• Here and     • Stored       • Where
  now            memories       memory
                                cannot reach

• Aware of     • Can be       • Cannot be
                 retrieved      retrieved but
                                does effect
                                our behavior
 Freud‟s
 Three-Part Personality Structure

                                       Super
 Id                Ego
      Pleasure           Reality        Ego Morality
      principle          principle           Principle

      Sex &              Seeks to            Guilt &
      Aggression         reconcile           shame
                         needs of Id
                         & Super
      Only part          Ego
      at birth


•The conflict between Id and Superego anxiety
•These can be temporarily resolved by Ego defense
mechanisms
Id   Superego Conflict
        Freud‟s Defense Mechanisms

Repression     Unknowingly placing an       Not remembering a
               unpleasant memory or         traumatic incident in
               thought in the unconscious   which you witnessed a
                                            crime
Regression     Reverting back to            Throwing temper tantrums
               immature behavior from an as an adult when you
               earlier stage of             don’t get your way
               development
Displacement   Redirecting unacceptable     Taking your anger toward
               feelings from the original   your boss out on your
               source to a safer substitute spouse or children by
               target                       yelling at them and not
                                            your boss
         Freud‟s Defense Mechanisms
Sublimation      Replacing socially           Channeling aggressive
                 unacceptable impulses        drives into playing football
                 with socially acceptable     or inappropriate sexual
                 behavior                     desires into art
Reaction         Acting in exactly the        Being overprotective of
Formation        opposite way to one’s        and lavishing attention on
                 unacceptable impulses        an unwanted child
Projection       Attributing one’s own        Accusing your boyfriend
                 unacceptable feelings and    of cheating on you
                 thoughts to others and not   because you have felt like
                 yourself                     cheating on him
Rationalization Creating false excuses for    Justifying cheating on an
                one’s unacceptable            exam by saying that
                feelings, thoughts, or        everyone else cheats
                behavior
    Unhealthy Personalities
 Freud believed that:
 Defense mechanisms can provide temporary
  relief from id < > superego conflict
 Can also cause „unhealthy
  personalities‟ when we become
  too dependent upon them
 Usually when the id or
  superego is unusually strong
  or the ego unusually weak
    Freud‟s
    Psychosexual Stage Theory
 Developed to explain personality development,
  divided childhood into 5 stages
 Each stage has an erogenous zone where the
  id‟s pleasure-seeking tendency
  is focused
 Fixation occurs when
  excessive or insufficient
  gratification occurs during
  a stage
 This can impact their behavior
  and personality traits in later life
         Freud‟s Psychosocial States
         of Personality Development
Stage (age range)        Erogenous Zone     Activity Focus
Oral                     Mouth, lips, and   Sucking, biting, and chewing
(birth to 1½ years)      tongue
Anal                     Anus               Bowel retention and
(1½ to 3 years)                             elimination
Phallic                  Genitals           Identifying with same-sex
(3 to 6 years)                              parent to learn gender role
                                            and sense of morality
Latency                  No erogenous       Cognitive and social
(6 years to puberty)     zone               development
Genital                  Genitals           Development of sexual
(puberty to adulthood)                      relationships, moving toward
                                            intimate adult relationships
    Anal Stage - Potty Training
 Parents try to get the child to have self-control
  during toilet training
 Harsh toilet training can result in
    ◦ Child getting even by withholding
      bowel movements leading to an
      anal-retentive personality
       Orderliness, neatness, stinginess,
        and obstinacy
    ◦ Child rebels and has bowel
      movements whenever and
      wherever leads to an anal-expulsive personality
       Conceit, suspicion, excessive ambition
    Phallic Stage Conflicts
 Oedipus conflict:
   little boy becomes
  sexually attracted
  to his mother and
  fears the father
  (his rival)
 In the Electra conflict, the little girl is
  attracted to her father because he has a penis;
  she wants one and feels inferior without one
  (penis envy)
 Both conflicts can result in difficulty in finding an
  appropriate partner later in life
       Neo-Freudian
       Theories of Personality
      Agree with many of Freud‟s basic ideas, but
       differ in one or more important ways




                                     Karen Horney
 Carl Jung’s        Alfred Adler’s
                                        and the
 Collective         Striving for
                                       Need for
Unconscious         Superiority
                                       Security
Carl Jung‟s
Collective Unconscious
   Jung proposed two main personality
    attitudes, extraversion and
    introversion
   Jung also proposed four functions/styles of gathering
    information
    ◦   Sensing is the function where the world is carefully perceived
    ◦   Intuiting is more subjective perception
    ◦   Thinking is logical deduction
    ◦   Feeling is the subjective emotional function
   The two personality attitudes and four functions are
    the basis for the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, still in
    wide use today
Alfred Adler‟s
Striving for Superiority

 Saw main motivation as “striving
  for superiority” overcoming a
  sense of inferiority that we
  feel as infants
 A healthy person learns to cope with these
  feelings, becomes competent, and develops a sense
  of self-esteem
 Inferiority complex is the strong feeling of
  inferiority felt by those who never overcome this
  initial feeling of inferiority
Karen Horney and
The Need for Security
 Focused on dealing with our need
  for security
 If security is not achieved then
  three neurotic personality
  patterns could develop
    ◦ Moving toward people
      A compliant, submissive person
    ◦ Moving against people
      An aggressive, domineering person
    ◦ Moving away from people
      A detached, aloof person
    The Humanistic
    Approach to Personality
   Abraham Maslow is considered
    the father of the humanistic
    movement
    ◦ Humanists emphasizes conscious free will in one‟s
      actions, the uniqueness of the individual person, and
      personal growth
    ◦ Maslow studied the lives of very healthy and
      creative people to develop his theory of
      personality
   Maslow‟s hierarchy of needs arranges the
    needs that motivate our behavior, from the
    strongest needs at the bottom to the weakness
    needs at the top
    Maslow‟s Hierarchy of Needs




   The needs of each level must be reasonably met to
    progress to next
    Self-Actualization
   Maslow saw Self-Actualization as the peak of human
    achievement
   Characteristics of
    self-actualized people
    ◦ Accepting of themselves,
      others, and the nature
      of world
    ◦ Need privacy and only
      a few close, emotional
      relationships
    ◦ Being autonomous and independent, democratic, and very
      creative
    ◦ Having peak experiences – Experiencing whatever you are
      doing as fully as possible
    Roger‟s Self Theory
   Carl Rogers dealt with college
    students with adjustment problems
    ◦ Believed that people need positive
      regard – to be accepted by and
      have the affection of others
   Our parents set up conditions of worth - behaviors
    and attitudes for which gave us positive regard
   Unconditional positive regard – acceptance and
    approval without conditions
    ◦ Empathy from others, and having genuine respect for
      your own feelings is necessary for self-actualization
   Note that neither Maslow nor Roger’s theories
    are research-based
Unconditional Positive Regard?
        “Just remember son, it doesn’t
       matter if you win or lose – Unless
           you want Daddy’s love.”
Personality Assessment
 Personality tests are used to aid in
  diagnosing people‟s problems, counseling,
  and making personnel decisions
 There are two main types:


    Personality
    Inventories
                        Projective
                          Tests
    Personality Inventories
   Designed to measure multiple traits of personality, and
    in some cases, disorders
   Results are objective and tests can be administered by
    anyone
    MMPI
   Minnesota Multiphasic
    Personality Inventory
   Uses “True/False/
    Cannot Say” questions
    ◦ “I like to cook”
    ◦ “I like to speak in public”
   Measures abnormal
    personality, with 10
    clinical scales including
    depression and
    schizophrenia
   Also includes questions designed to catch lies and
    people trying to cover up their problems
   Used worldwide – translated into over 100 languages
 Projective Tests
 Contain a series of ambiguous stimuli, such as
  inkblots, to which the test taker
  must respond about his
  perceptions of the stimuli
 Sample tests
    ◦ Rorschach Inkblots Test
    ◦ Thematic Apperception
      Tests (TAT)
   Tests are highly subjective and
    can only be administered by
    trained mental health
    professionals
    Rorschach Inkblots Test
 10 symmetric inkblots which the examiner asks
  “what do you see?” then asks for explanation of
  interpretation.
 Assumes the test taker‟s responses are
  projections of their
  personal conflicts
  and personality
  dynamics
 Widely used but not
  demonstrated to be
  reliable and valid
Thematic Apperception Tests (TAT)
 20 cards with ambiguous
  black and white pictures
 Test taker asked to make up
  a story for each card
    ◦ What happened before,
      is happening now, and
      how things will turn out
 Looks for recurring themes
  in the responses
 Scoring has yet to be
  demonstrated to be either
  reliable or valid

								
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