Defining Psychology by MikeJenny

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									             Welcome to
           Psychology 101
         Introductory Psychology

Instructor: Yvette Samaan
Book: Myers, David G. (2002).
  Exploring Psychology, 7th Edition.
E-mail: Giseladora@AOL.com

                                       1
Theories of Personality



                          2
       History of Psychology
• Psychology is a fairly new science.
• Until the 19th century it was not recognized
  as a separate field of study.
• The birth of psychology as a formal science
  can be traced back to 1879.
• It was founded by Wilhelm Wundt in
  Leipzig, Germany.
• The use of introspection
                                                 3
        Defining Psychology
• Psychology is the scientific study of
  behavior and mental processes and how
  they are affected by an organism’s physical
  state, mental state, and external
  environment.




                                                4
      Specialties in Psychology
•   Experimental Psychology
•   Clinical Psychology
•   Educational Psychology
•   Developmental Psychology
•   Industrial Psychology
•   Psychometric Psychology
•   Social Psychology
                                  5
 Defining Personality
• Personality is a distinctive and stable
  pattern of behavior, thoughts, motives,
  and emotions that characterizes an
  individual over time.
• This pattern reflects a particular
  constellation of traits and characteristics
  that describe the person across many
  situations: shy, friendly, hostile, or brave.
                                              6
      Measuring Personality
• Projective Tests

• Objective Tests




                              7
        Psychological Testing
Objective Tests            Projective Tests

Also called Inventories    Designed to tap
Measure beliefs,            unconscious feelings
  feelings, or behaviors     or motives.
  of which the
  individual is aware
Have more reliability
  and validity
                                                   8
          1- Objective Tests
             Inventories
• The Beck Depression Scale Inventory
• The Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale
• The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality
  Inventory (MMPI)
• The Myers-Briggs Personality Inventory



                                           9
10
         2- Projective Tests
• A psychodynamic measure of personality
• They attempt to measure unconscious
  motives, feelings and conflicts.
• Example: Rorschach Inkblot Test – the
  client reports what he sees in the inkblots
  and the clinician interprets the answers
  according to the symbolic meaning
  emphasized by the psychodynamic theories.

                                            11
The Rorschach Projective Test




                                12
13
14
Theories of Personality
• 1- The Trait Perspective
• 2- The Psychodynamic Perspective
• 3- The Social-Cognitive Learning
  Theory
• 4- The Biological Theory
• 5- The Humanist and Existential
  Theories
                                     15
        1- Trait Perspective
          Gordon Allport
            (1897-1977)
• 1- Cardinal Traits
• Are of overwhelming importance to the
  individual and influence almost everything
  the person does.
• Example: nonviolence
            Gandhi and Martin Luther King

                                               16
2- Central Traits
Reflect a characteristic way of behaving,
dealing with others, and reacting to new
situations.
Example: the person’s attitude towards the
world (negative or positive)

3- Secondary Traits
They include habits, opinions, and preferences
for colors or food, for example.             17
       The Big Five
• Introversion vs. Extroversion
• Neuroticism or Emotional
  Instability/Stability
• Agreeableness
• Conscientiousness
• Openness to Experience
                                  18
• Which of the five robust factors enhance
  the person’s well-being?

• Which of them inhibit the person’s well-
  being?



                                             19
2-The Psychodynamic Theories
    (You Are What You Were)
              Freud
           Psychoanalysis
a- The Structure of Personality

b- Psychosexual Stages

c- Defense Mechanisms
                                  20
Freud, Psychoanalysis




                        21
 Structure of Personality
• Id:
• Pleasure principle
• Life & death instincts
• Immediate gratification
• Ego
• Reality Principle
• Superego
• Ego Ideal: moral and social standards
• Conscience: the inner voice             22
Structure of Personality
  Psychosexual Stages
• 1- Oral Stage (0-2)
• 2- Anal Stage (2-3)
• 3- The Phallic Stage (3-6)
• 4- The Latency Stage (6-12)
• 5- The Genital Stage (12-18)
                                 24
Examine the life of a rapist in light
 of Freud’s Psychosexual stages
  and structure of personality.
•   Was he fixated at any stage?
•   What principle does he operate by?
•   What structure of personality is dominant?
•   What is his famous sentence?
•   Describe him in one word.
•   Is there a balance between the function of
    the id and the superego? Why?
                                                 25
    Defense Mechanisms
•   1- Repression
•   2- Projection
•   3- Displacement
•   4- Regression
•   5- Denial
•   7-Reaction Formation
•   6- Sublimation         26
              I Like It Here
They told me on the other side
Of the raging River of Change,
There is nowhere to hide.
But it sounds a bit strange,
Here my feelings are inside,
My heart has a guarded gate,
What’s in can’t go outside,
And no one can investigate.
                                 27
They told me on the other side
Everything will seem clear,
Turning on the light inside
Will make the dark disappear.
But it is a long , long ride,
No, thank you my dear,
I need a place to hide.
So, since I like it here,
It’s here where I’ll reside.

                                 28
Change, I truly don’t know,
Why would I go to Neverland
Just that I may grow?
Here I know where I stand,
I know how things will go.
Why must I leave my land
Drop my act for a new show?
Change is not drawing near,
’Cause I certainly like it here.
                                   29
  Erik Erikson (1909-1994)
    Psychosocial Stages
1- Trust vs. Mistrust (birth to 1 ½)
2- Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt (1 ½ -3)
3- Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6)
4- Competence vs. Inferiority (6-12)
5- Identity vs. role confusion (12-18)
6- Intimacy vs. Isolation (young adulthood)
7- Generativity vs. Stagnation (middle
  adulthood)
8- Ego Integrity vs. Despair (older adulthood)
                                                 30
      Freud                       Erikson
Psychosexual stages          Psychosocial stages
5 stages of development      8 developmental stages
Sexual motivation            Psychological and social
                               motivation
If issues aren’t resolved,   At each stage there is a
   fixation occurs             crisis that must be
                               resolved
End: sexually mature         Development is an
  adult (adolescence)          ongoing process

                                                    31
• What happened to these people? According to
  Erikson, in which stage did the crisis occur?
Someone who is insecure
Someone with low self-esteem
Someone with an inferiority complex
Someone who’s shy
Someone who is insecure about his sexual
  orientation
Someone who has difficulty establishing healthy
  relationships
Someone with a midlife crisis
Someone who’s terrified of death

                                                  32
 3- The Social-Cognitive School
   (You Are What You Think & Observe)

• 1- Locus of Control
• Julian Rotter
• 2- Self-efficacy
• Albert Bandura
• 3- Latent Learning
• Edward Tolman

                                        33
  The Social-Cognitive School
       Three Principles
• Learning

• Cognition

• Social Behavior

                                34
  Reciprocal Determinism
• Personal-cognitive factors
  interact with the environment to
  influence people’s behavior.




                                     35
            Julian Rotter
           Locus of Control
• Internal (Internals)   • External (Externals)

• Tend to believe they   • Tend to believe that
  are responsible for      they are victims of
  what happens to          luck, fate, or others
  them




                                                   36
Choose Your Locus of Control
• 1- a. Many of the unhappy situations are partly
  due to bad luck.
     b. People’s misfortunes result from mistakes
  they make.

• 2- a. Becoming a success is a matter of hard
  work; luck has little or nothing to do with it.
     b. Getting a job depends mainly on being in
  the right place at the right time.

                                                    37
         Albert Bandura
  Self-efficacy Is Derived from:
• Experiences in mastering new skills
• Vicarious experiences provided by
  successful people
• Encouragement and persuasion
• Healthy physiological and emotional
  state

                                    39
Fitting into the Label
41
  Social-Cognitive School
Julian Rotter A. Bandura          E. Tolman
(1966, 82, 90) (1994, 1995)         (1938)
External/Internal Self-efficacy   Latent Learning
Locus of control
Generalized Ex- Observation       Cognitive Map
pectancies      Imitation

Reciprocal        Reciprocal      Insight
Determinism       Determinism                     42
• Which comes first, the
  biology or the belief?
                           43
         Biology                     Belief
• Genesists                  • Social Cognitive Theory

• You will be disposed to    • You will seek situations
  seek out situations that     in which you believe you
  let you express your         can behave a certain
  biologically influenced      way.
  trait.
                             • You believe you’re good
• You are an active person     in sports then you play
  then you play sports         sports
                                                      44
4- The Biological Perspective
   (You Are What You’re Born)
1- Ethology

2- Developmental Neuroscience



                                45
       Ethological Theories
         Konrad Lorenz
• Behavior is influenced by biology.
• Imprinting is the rapid, innate learning
  within a limited period of time that
  involves attachment to the first moving
  object.
• Critical period is a very early period in
  development in which certain behaviors
  optimally occur.

                                              46
47
  Developmental Neuroscience
The study of the development of brain
 structures and the relations between brain
 structures and functions and behavior




                                              48
  5- The Humanist &
 Existentialist Theories
• Abraham Maslow (1908-
  1970)

• Carl Rogers (1902-1987)

• Rollo May (1909-1994)     49
   Abraham Maslow
• Hierarchy of Needs
   1- Safety & Physiological Needs
   2- Emotional & Psychological Needs
   3- Self-actualization




                                        50
Hierarchy of Needs




                     51
  Safety         Social        Esteem
                 Needs
 - Living in a    -Need for   - Self-respect
    safe area      friends    -Achievement
   - Medical      -Need for     - Attention
   insurance      belonging   - Recognition
- Job security - Need to give - Reputation
  - Financial    and receive
    reserves         love
                                          52
      Self-Actualization
One attains self-actualization when he needs to reach
  his full potential and become everything he is
  capable of becoming.
A leader must lead, or an artist must be creative if he
  is to ultimately be at peace with himself.
One becomes self-actualized when his actions match
  his beliefs.
Self-actualized people tend to see reality more
  clearly.
    Self-actualized people tend to
         have needs such as:
•   Truth
•   Justice
•   Wisdom
•   Meaning


                                     54
            Carl Rogers
• Congruence
  – Relationship between self and organism


• Unconditional Positive Regard

• Self-fulfillment
                                             55
            Congruence
      A Balance Between Self &
             Organism
        Self                  Organism
Your conscious view of     Sum of all of your
  yourself                   experiences
The way you want to be     Who we really are
  based on peer,           Others and the
  parental, and societal     environment give us
  pressures                  feedback on who we
                             really are
                                                   56
      Existentialism
            Rollo May
• Difficult and Tragic Aspects
  of the Human Condition
• Freedom of Choice
• Absence of any obvious
  meaning or sense to life
                                 57
            Which Approach is Right?
 Consider the behavior of an alcoholic person.

• What led to this life style? What are the factors to
  be considered?
• Biological        cultural
• Social/family cognitive
• Emotions          personality


                                                         58
            Song
    The Greatest Love of All
I believe the children are our future;
Teach them well and let them lead the way.
Show them all the beauty they possess
  inside.
Give them a sense of pride
to make it easier;
Let the children’s laughter
remind us how we used to be.
                                         59
Everybody is searching for a hero;
People need someone to look up
to.
I never found anyone who fulfilled
my needs;
A lonely place to be
And so I learned to depend on me.
I decided long ago
Never to walk in anyone’s shadow.

                                     60
If I fail, if I succeed,
At least I lived as I believe.
No matter what they take from me,
They can’t take away my dignity;
Because the greatest love of all
  is happening to me.
I found the greatest love of all
  inside of me.
The greatest love of all
  is easy to achieve.
Learning to love yourself
It is the greatest love of all.     61
What theory does the song represent?

• Is she self-actualized?
• Did she have unconditional positive regard?
• Were her psychological needs met when she was a
  child?
• What did she do with her free will?
• What is her locus of control?
• Describe her self-efficacy now.
• Is she on her way to self-actualization, or she is
  stuck somewhere in the hierarchy of needs?
                                                   62
   Who or Which Theory would most
 likely State the Following Statements
Choose from the following:
Freud, Wilhelm Wundt, Psychodynamic
  psychologist, Carl Rogers, Abraham
  Maslow, Bandura, Rotter, Lorenz,
  existentialism, humanism, Erikson,
  Cognitive-learning, Myers-Briggs,
  Rorschach, Gordon Allport, Big Five,
  biological perspective
                                         63
1- My theory emphasizes the unconscious dynamics within
   the individual.
2- I reject that behavior is determined by unconscious
   dynamics or the environment.
3- I say that people have freedom of choice, but this freedom
   entails anxiety.
4- I believe that people can reach their full potential when
   treated with unconditional positive regard.
5- I would like to call my psychology the “third force.”
6- We developed a personality test.
7- I believe that fully functioning people show congruence or
   harmony between self and organism.
8- According to me, sexuality is very important in
   development.
9- I believe that people develop over the life span in 8 stages
                                                                  64
10-I talk about the hierarchy of needs.
11-I talk about imprinting.
12-People learn by observation and insight.
13-I talk about the locus of control.
14-I talk about the reciprocal determinism in self-efficacy.
15-I believe that the structure of personality consists of the id,
  ego, and superego.
16-A name of projective test.
17-The study of the relations between brain structures and
  functions and behavior.
18-I established the first psychological lab.
19-I talk about cardinal, central, & secondary traits.
20-A theory that talks about 5 robust traits.


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