Metadata Interaction_ Integration_ and Interoperability by wulinqing

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									MODS, MARC and Metadata Interoperability, ALA Conference, June 27, 2005, Chicago, IL




         Metadata Interaction, Integration, and
                    Interoperability

                                                                      William E. Moen
                                                                 <wemoen@unt.edu>
                                           School of Library and Information Sciences
                                                  Texas Center for Digital Knowledge
                                                             University of North Texas
                                                                   Denton, TX 72603
       Is there a problem?
          Many metadata schemes and element sets
            Well known & documented
            Less known and little public documentation

          Similar/same content described by different
           metadata schemes and vocabularies
              No canonical metadata record for an object
          Varied syntaxes for encoding metadata
              No canonical syntax
        A vital and diverse metadata ecology!
        No problem, unless….

Moen                MODS, MARC and Metadata Interoperability -- June 27, 2005 --Chicago, IL   2
       Metadata in the networked environment
          Interaction between systems that use
           metadata
            Harvesting
            Searching

          Integrating different types of metadata for
           local information management
              Technical metadata for digital asset mgmt
          Reusing metadata in local applications
              ONIX metadata in library systems
          Interoperability?
Moen                MODS, MARC and Metadata Interoperability -- June 27, 2005 --Chicago, IL   3
       Importance of interoperability
       Systems and organizations will interoperate

            One should actively be engaged in the ongoing
        process of ensuring that the systems, procedures and
       culture of an organisation are managed in such a way as
        to maximise opportunities for exchange and re-use of
             information, whether internally or externally.
                                                                                             Paul Miller, 2000



          Metadata interoperability has to be the underlying
          principle of networked information management.
                                                                                           Marcia Lei Zeng, 2001
Moen             MODS, MARC and Metadata Interoperability -- June 27, 2005 --Chicago, IL                           4
       Interoperability
       System-oriented definition:
            The ability of two or more systems or
             components to exchange information and
             use the exchanged information without
             special effort on either system


       User-oriented definition:
            The condition achieved when two or more
             technical systems can exchange
             information directly in a way that is
             satisfactory to users of the systems (AAP)
Moen              MODS, MARC and Metadata Interoperability -- June 27, 2005 --Chicago, IL   5
       Interoperability factors
          In the context of networked information
           retrieval
            Multiple and disparate systems (operating
             systems, information retrieval systems, etc.)
            Multiple protocols

            Multiple formats of data

            Multiple metadata schemes

            Multiple vocabularies, ontologies, disciplines

            Multiple languages

            Multiple character sets


Moen              MODS, MARC and Metadata Interoperability -- June 27, 2005 --Chicago, IL   6
       Preliminary framework for interoperability
           In the context of networked information
            retrieval
             Within and across communities
             Information communities/Communities of
              practice
                 • Focal community
                 • Extended community
                 • Extra community
               Costs to achieve interoperability vary



Moen                 MODS, MARC and Metadata Interoperability -- June 27, 2005 --Chicago, IL   7
       Interop Among and Across Communities
  Extended Community         Extra Community
  (e.g., Cultural Heritage)
                                                                           Focal Community
          Focal Community                                                  (e.g., Geospatial )
           (e.g., Libraries)




          Focal Community
           (e.g., Archives)                               Extended Community

                                                                             Focal Community
                                                                             (e.g., Geospatial)

          Focal Community
           (e.g., Museum)                                                   Focal Community
                                                                          (e.g., Natural History
                                                                                Museums)



Moen                MODS, MARC and Metadata Interoperability -- June 27, 2005 --Chicago, IL        8
       Communities
          Communities of practice (Wenger)
              Network of professionals
                •   work on common problems
                •   speak a common language
                •   share similar values
                •   produce shared meanings
          Information communities
              Looser affiliation of people
                • creators
                • information managers
                • users
              Membership in multiple information communities


Moen                   MODS, MARC and Metadata Interoperability -- June 27, 2005 --Chicago, IL   9
       Rust’s people & stuff (& agreements) model

                                                    Create


                People                             Manage                                     Stuff


                                                       Use

          People creating stuff for specific information community;
           stuff used by multiple communities
          People managing stuff within context of community of
           practice
          Different communities of practice interested in same stuff
Moen                MODS, MARC and Metadata Interoperability -- June 27, 2005 --Chicago, IL           10
       Interoperability cost vs. functionality
          Adoption of common standard
               low cost with low functionality
               higher functionality but with a greater cost of adoption
          No best point on the curve – every point is optimal for some purpose
                      Cost of acceptance

                                                                             Few adopters




                              Many adopters


                                                                                           Functionality

                                                                                             Arms, et al., 2002
Moen                     MODS, MARC and Metadata Interoperability -- June 27, 2005 --Chicago, IL                  11
       So we have …
        Many metadata schemes and element sets
        Similar/same content described by different
         metadata schemes and vocabularies
        Varied syntaxes for encoding metadata
        Which reflect:
            Community practices, needs, meaning
            Cost barriers to adopting common standards

            Lack of knowledge of available standards

            Not invented here syndrome


Moen             MODS, MARC and Metadata Interoperability -- June 27, 2005 --Chicago, IL   12
       Mechanisms for addressing interoperability
        Crosswalks and mapping
        Application profiles
        Registries
        Resource Description Framework (RDF)




Moen           MODS, MARC and Metadata Interoperability -- June 27, 2005 --Chicago, IL   13
       Mapping and crosswalks
        Mapping: Intellectual activity that identifies
         semantically equivalent elements in
         different metadata schemes
        Crosswalk: Documentation resulting from
         mapping showing the equivalencies and
         conversion specifications
        1998 NISO White Paper on Crosswalks
       Unfortunately, the specification of a crosswalk is a difficult
        and error-prone task requiring in-depth knowledge and
           specialized expertise in the associated metadata
                                standards
                                                                                   St. Pierre & LaPlant, 1998
Moen               MODS, MARC and Metadata Interoperability -- June 27, 2005 --Chicago, IL                      14
       Mapping issues
          Semantic, structural, and data conversion
          One-way or reversible mappings?
          Mapping between any two elements:
              One-to-one
              One-to-many (repeatable elements; unique more narrowly
               defined elements)
              Many-to-one (complete mapping; incomplete mapping)
              One-to-zero (no semantically equivalent element)
          Data conversion
              From less inclusive to more inclusive format
              From uncontrolled to controlled vocabulary
           Correct and efficient mapping of metadata elements
           among various formats is the essential condition for
                    ensuring metadata interoperability
                                                                                                Zeng & Xiao, 2001
Moen                  MODS, MARC and Metadata Interoperability -- June 27, 2005 --Chicago, IL                       15
       Mapping to an interoperable core
          OCLC Office of Research’s Metadata Switch
           Project
              Experimental modular services that add value to
               metadata
          Metadata Schema Transformation Web Service
           (Godby, et al., 2003)
          An interoperable core
              Translations between metadata standards via mapping
               to and from the core
              Reducing the number of separate mappings between
               metadata standards
              Design of the interoperable core is an open issue
Moen                 MODS, MARC and Metadata Interoperability -- June 27, 2005 --Chicago, IL   16
       Application profiles
        Application profiles consist of data elements drawn from one or
       more namespace schemas combined together by implementors and
                  optimised for a particular local application.
                                                                                             Heery & Patel, 2000

          Reuse of elements from different sets, but cannot
           define new elements
          Specify permitted schemes (e.g., date/time
           formats, controlled vocabulary) for data values
          Can refine standard definitions
       By defining application profiles and, most importantly by declaring
         them, implementers can start to share information about their
              schemas in order to inter-work with wider groupings.
                                                                                             Heery & Patel, 2000
Moen               MODS, MARC and Metadata Interoperability -- June 27, 2005 --Chicago, IL                     17
       Registries
The term "registry" covers a broad range of databases, documentation services, or Web-
                      based portals providing access to schemas.
                                                                                                 Baker, et al., 2001
          Metadata registry:
              An index of metadata terms, official definitions, local variations
               extensions
              Can enable the reuse of existing elements rather than
               users/communities reinventing their own
          UK Schemas Project: Includes registry of several
           metadata element sets
          EU Cores Project: Includes registry of core vocabularies
           and profiles; a schema creation tool and Web interface to
           register schemas
          Dublin Core Metadata Registry: Authoritative source for
           DC; Designed to promote the discovery and reuse of
           exiting metadata definitions;
Almost universally, registries are seen as our best hope in the medium term for a scalable
  solution to the problem of mapping and translating between a diversity of schemas.
                                                                                                 Baker, et al., 2001
Moen                   MODS, MARC and Metadata Interoperability -- June 27, 2005 --Chicago, IL                         18
       Resource Description Framework (RDF)
          Provides a basic grammar for representing
           metadata terms, their semantics, relationships,
           etc.
          Use of Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) to
           identify namespace schemas where terms are
           declared and defined
          RDF Schemas and XML Schemas, see:
              Heery & Johnston, 2003
              Hunter and Lagoze, 2001
              Baker, et al., 2001
          SchemaWeb: gathers information about schemas
           published on the web

Moen                MODS, MARC and Metadata Interoperability -- June 27, 2005 --Chicago, IL   19
       References
          Application Profiles: Mixing and Matching Metadata Schemas.
           Heery & Patel. 2000.
              http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue25/app-profiles/
          Combining RDF and XML Schemas to Enhance Interoperability
           Between Metadata Application Profiles. Hunter & Lagoze. 2001.
              http://archive.dstc.edu.au/RDU/staff/jane-hunter/www10/paper.html
          CORES Project: A Forum on Share Metadata Vocabularies
              http://www.cores-eu.net/
          The Dublin Core Metadata Registry
              http://www.dublincore.org/dcregistry/
          Issues in Crosswalking Content Metadata Standards. St. Pierre &
           LaPlant. 1998
              http://www.niso.org/press/whitepapers/crsswalk.html
          Mapping Metadata Elements of Different Formats. Zeng, M. L. &
           Xiao, L. 2001.
          A Metadata Registry for the Semantic Web. Heery & Wagner.
           2002.
              http://www.dlib.org/dlib/may02/wagner/05wagner.html




Moen                    MODS, MARC and Metadata Interoperability -- June 27, 2005 --Chicago, IL   20
       References
          Metadata Schema Registries in the Partially Semantic Web: The
           CORES Experience. Heery & Johnston. 2003.
              http://www.oclc.org/research/projects/mswitch/default.htm
          Metadata Switch Project. OCLC. 2004.
              http://www.oclc.org/research/projects/mswitch/default.htm
          SCHEMAS Project: Forum for Metadata Schema Implementers
              http://www.schemas-forum.org/
          SchemaWeb.
              http://www.schemaweb.info/default.aspx
          A Spectrum of Interoperability. Arms, et al. 2002
              http://www.dlib.org/dlib/january02/arms/01arms.html
          Two Paths to Interoperable Metadata. Godby, et al. 2003.
              http://www.siderean.com/dc2003/103_paper-22.pdf
          What Terms Does Your Metadata Use? Application Profiles as
           Machine-Understandable Narratives. Baker, et al. 2001.
              http://jodi.ecs.soton.ac.uk/Articles/v02/i02/Baker/




Moen                     MODS, MARC and Metadata Interoperability -- June 27, 2005 --Chicago, IL   21

								
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