mendoza by zhangyun



Pre-departure Workbook

              MENDOZA, ARGENTINA

              Summer 2009
NORTH AMERICAN VALUES, ATTITUDES AND BELIEFS.................................................................... 1
WHAT IF? ......................................................................................................................................... 3
   UHM STUDY ABROAD CENTER PRE-DEPARTURE ORIENTATION ................................................. 3
The World Factbook ........................................................................................................................ 7
   Introduction................................................................................................................................. 7
   Geography ................................................................................................................................... 8
   People .......................................................................................................................................... 9
   Government .............................................................................................................................. 11
   Economy .................................................................................................................................... 14
   Communications........................................................................................................................ 18
   Transportation ........................................................................................................................... 19
   Military ...................................................................................................................................... 20
   Transnational Issues .................................................................................................................. 20
Country Specific Information: Germany........................................................................................ 22
   Travel Notices in Effect .............................................................................................................. 29
   Safety and Security Abroad ....................................................................................................... 29
   Preparing for Your Trip to France .............................................................................................. 29
   Vaccine-Preventable Diseases ................................................................................................... 30
   Items to Bring with You ............................................................................................................. 33
   Other Diseases Found in Western Europe .................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
       Risk can vary between countries within this region and also within a country; the quality of
       in-country surveillance also varies. ........................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
Staying Healthy During Your Trip ...................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
   Prevent Insect Bites ....................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
   Prevent Animal Bites and Scratches .............................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
   Be Careful about Food and Water ................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
   Avoid Injuries ................................................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
   Other Health Tips .......................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
After You Return Home ..................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
Risks from Food and Water ........................................................................................................... 34
   Food ........................................................................................................................................... 37
   Water ......................................................................................................................................... 37
       Swimming .............................................................................................................................. 37
       Drinking ................................................................................................................................. 38
       Treatment of Drinking Water ................................................................................................ 39
   Travelers' Diarrhea .................................................................................................................... 43
       Frequently Asked Questions.................................................................................................. 43
Worldwide Caution........................................................................................................................ 47
   The Middle East and North Africa ............................................................................................. 48
   East Africa .................................................................................................................................. 49
   South and Central Asia .............................................................................................................. 50
   Before You Go............................................................................................................................ 51
CONTACT INFORMATION .............................................................................................................. 52
AT THE UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII AT MANOA ................................................................................. 53
U.S. STATE DEPARTMENT .............................................................................................................. 53
Time Conscious

     Distances given in time needed rather than linear distance.
     “Time is money.”
     Be on time for appointments.

Personal Achievement

     Man creates his own destiny.
     Status from what you do, not who your family is.
     If you plan, sacrifice and work hard, you can achieve what you want.

Value Youth

     Desire to appear and act young.
     Age does not necessarily bring wisdom.
     Don’t trust anyone over 30 vs. I wish I were young again.

Belief in Equality

     All should have equality of opportunity (not all should have equal abilities).
     All who work deserve respect.
     Informality in work settings.

Progress and Optimism

     Things will get better in the future.
     Don’t dwell on the past.

Settlement of Dispute by Compromise

     Exact determination of right and wrong not so important.
     Let’s settle this and then get on with the job.


     Demanded of children and public officials.
     Cheating unacceptable.

Outgoing, Friendly and Hospitable:

     Use of first names.
     Put people at ease.
     Make strangers comfortable and welcome.

Belief and Technology:

     Advanced technology improves quality of life.

     Changing homes part of upward mobility.
     Movement and change and tempo are good.

Personal Freedom:

     Distrust of authority (parents, Washington).
     Internal, not external, discipline.


     Accepts change.
     Traditional ways not necessarily best.

Fluid Family Structures:

     Children “independent” after high school.
     Few extended families.

Frankness and Directness:

     Expect openness; “tell it like it is.”
     Talk of family, jobs, feelings a sign of friendship and sincerity.
     Taboos: sex, cost, age, weight.


     Pride in America’s achievements.
     Self critical, but little tolerance of outsiders’ criticisms.

Ignorant of Outside World:

     Importance in education of technology, science, etc., not language/arts.
     Historical emphasis on development of North American continent, not on outside

Competitive, Aggressive and Hard-working:

     Success, achieved through work, not family status.
     Orientation towards activity and achievement.


     Emphasis on helping others, community cooperation.
     Group activities – social contact.
     Rewards other than monetary ones.
                                     WHAT IF?


Please read each scenario, interpret and/or respond to each circumstance as you deem

   1. You take the bus to school. It is often very packed and the bus driver barely stops to
      pick-up/drop-off passengers. Most of all you are very scared that you may fall into the
      deep ditches when you are trying to get off the bus. What will you do?

   2. You wake up early, it’s cold, you’re hungry and you can’t wait for a nice warm breakfast.
      When you get to the table you’re greeted with a cup of coffee and two teeny tiny bite-
      size croissants. You gobble up the croissants and are waiting for the rest of breakfast
      when everybody gets up and gets ready to leave the house.

   3. You are a vegetarian and your family serves you meat.

   4. You are a vegetarian. The whole term your host family ate vegetarian meals with you
      simply to accommodate you although they were not vegetarians themselves. Did you
      have a right to expect this? What message did you give them?

   5. Your Argentine host sister has invited you to go dancing with her and her boyfriend
      tonight, but insists that her boyfriend’s best friend come too. She says he is cute and
      has a car. You are not interested in blind dates and say you would rather just the three
      of you go alone. She absolutely insists that the best friend come too.

   6. You get up early to take a nice hot shower. You turn on the shower and wait for the
      water to get hot. You wait for ten minutes and nothing has happened, the water never
      gets hot. Your family had said that they had hot water.

   7. You’re at the university and need to find a bathroom urgently. You go into a stall and
      discover that there is no toilet paper. You ask the person in the next stall for toilet
      paper and he/she refuses, saying “No hay.”

8. Since everyone is so friendly in Argentina you smile at everyone. You also notice that
   men are quite willing to stare at you and make comments. One day you are walking
   down the street and you make eye contact and smile at an Argentine male and you
   move on. However, you notice that he is following you and talking to you and you are
   annoyed. You had just smiled and nothing more.

9. You are in the center of town and need to find your bus stop. You very politely ask a
   young boy, “¿Dónde se puede coger el autobus?” and he laughs, somewhat rudely, but
   tells you where you should go. Every time you ask anyone this question you are only
   met with snickers or funny faces. You are sure that it is at your expense, even though
   you know that your grammar is correct.

10. You get out of class at 12:30, go down to the cafeteria and buy a sandwich for lunch,
    and then catch the bus to the mall. You shop most of the afternoon and arrive home at
    about 5:30 to make sure that you don’t miss supper. No one is around so you finally
    heat up some leftover pizza. When the family finally arrives at about 8:30 they seem
    upset with you, even though they told you that you have free access to the kitchen.

11. You go to bed and are cold. You ask your family to turn up the heat but you are told
    that there is no central heating.

12. You and some friends go to Santiago, Chile for the weekend. When you tell people that
    you are studying in Mendoza they tell you how horrible Argentines are. When you
    defend your Argentine family the Chileans get mad.

13. You are invited to a party at 10:00 P.M. and you arrive on time so that you are not rude
    to your hosts. However, once you arrive at the house you find out that your host hasn’t
    even dressed yet. Both parties are embarrassed and you apologize saying that perhaps
    you made a mistake about the date/time of the party.

14. You are really pleased to be invited to a party and finally you are really being welcomed
    into the community. At the party you meet a friend of the same gender and you begin a
    conversation. After a while you notice your new friend is standing really close to you –
    so close that you can even feel his/her breath. You begin to feel really uncomfortable.
    You really want to tell the person that you are “straight.” However, you are afraid to tell
    the person anything because you do not want to offend your host.

15. One cold morning or afternoon you find that your family is making something called
    “mate” – a hot drink. They offer it to you and tell you to drink it scalding hot. You do
    so, burn your tongue and hate the drink because it is awfully bitter. Next time they

    offer you the drink you refuse and your family members are quite upset at you. Why
    would anybody be so upset over a bitter drink?

16. One day you decide to call your parents. You ask your host family if you could just make
    a quick call. Your hot parents look a little puzzled, but show you to the phone.
    However, although you dial all the right codes and numbers again and again for over an
    hour, all you get is a busy signal. Is the phone broken?

17. You make local calls frequently and talk over the phone quite often. Of course you are a
    member of the family and you know you can use the phone whenever you want – your
    family members have said so. However, after a while you notice that the other
    members of your family don’t talk on the phone like you do.

18. As an American you feel so lucky and wealthy. Compared to the Argentines you feel you
    have so much. If you don’t feel guilt at your fortunate situation, you secretly think that
    the Argentines would love to move to the U.S.A. and trade places with you. When
    meeting the locals you are drawn into situations where you tell the locals how
    wonderful America is and imply that every Argentine person’s desire is to move to

19. You are in Mendoza to study the Spanish language and Hispanic culture. You feel that
    you are making every effort to speak in Spanish. After a while you notice that most
    members of your group speak English among themselves. You tell them not to speak
    English and to use Spanish. The members of the group don’t appear to be listening to
    you at all. You are frustrated and let them know.

20. You meet someone attractive in one of your walks around the town. He seems really
    nice and asks you out to dinner and then to go clubbing. You think it is a great way to
    meet locals and accept the invitation. Would you do this at home? If so would this be
    culturally appropriate behavior in Argentina?

21. You meet someone for the first time. He asks you out to dinner. Thinking of your
    personal safety, you suggest to have lunch with him instead. Did you make the
    culturally appropriate and correct decision?

22. You go to a restaurant and you leave your purse on the floor under the table and you
    hang your camera on the back of the chair. When you get ready to leave you notice
    they are both gone.

   23. You live in a house that is comfortable and the food is good but rarely is anyone
       available to interact with you.

   24. You know you have tried very hard to adjust to your host family. Somehow you cannot
       seem to work things out. What will you do?

   25. It is the first week of class and you feel that the class is either too easy or too difficult.

   26. You are personally attracted to a member of your host family or you feel that a member
       of your host family is attracted to you.

   27. You find that people in Argentina smoke. You know it is a health hazard. The school is
       also full of smokers. You recommend that the Argentine school be declared NON

   28. Someone from your group is constantly touching you, or making remarks, or doing
       things that make you uncomfortable. Each time you tell that person to stop it - the
       response is one of surprise (what is wrong, I’m only trying to be friendly, don’t you have
       a sense of humor?). You think that you are overreacting – but it is really getting to you.
       What will you do?

   29. You are having a personal crisis (not doing well in school, not having a social life, etc.)
       You need to talk to someone who may be able to help you. Whom do you contact? Do
       you know who your resident director is? If you call UHM Study Abroad or Sarita is this

   30. A disaster (natural or human made) hits Mendoza and may affect your area. The
       situation is an emergency. Everyone is panicking at home, in the U.S., wondering how
       you are. Can you list the first few things that you would do if such a situation should

   31. After living in Argentina for a couple of weeks you begin to hate everything Argentine.
       You would die to eat a plate lunch, be at the beach, feel the warm Hawaiian sun and just
       be home. You wonder if you should return home. Can you explain this sudden change
       in your attitude? After all, you chose to study in Argentina.

Sarita Rai

         The World Factbook

       Background:           In 1816, the United Provinces of the Rio Plata declared their
                     independence from Spain. After Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay went
                     their separate ways, the area that remained became Argentina. The
                     country's population and culture were heavily shaped by immigrants
                     from throughout Europe, but most particularly Italy and Spain, which
                     provided the largest percentage of newcomers from 1860 to 1930. Up
                     until about the mid-20th century, much of Argentina's history was
                     dominated by periods of internal political conflict between Federalists
                     and Unitarians and between civilian and military factions. After World

                        War II, an era of Peronist populism and direct and indirect military
                        interference in subsequent governments was followed by a military
                        junta that took power in 1976. Democracy returned in 1983 after a
                        failed bid to seize the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands by force, and has
                        persisted despite numerous challenges, the most formidable of which
                        was a severe economic crisis in 2001-02 that led to violent public
                        protests and the resignation of several interim presidents.

            Location:   Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between
                        Chile and Uruguay

          Geographic    34 00 S, 64 00 W

     Map references:    South America

               Area:    total: 2,766,890 sq km
                        land: 2,736,690 sq km
                        water: 30,200 sq km

  Area - comparative:   slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US

    Land boundaries:    total: 9,861 km
                        border countries: Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,261 km, Chile 5,308 km,
                        Paraguay 1,880 km, Uruguay 580 km

           Coastline:   4,989 km

    Maritime claims:    territorial sea: 12 nm
                        contiguous zone: 24 nm
                        exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
                        continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

             Climate:   mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest

             Terrain:   rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau of
                        Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border

  Elevation extremes:   lowest point: Laguna del Carbon -105 m (located between Puerto San
                        Julian and Comandante Luis Piedra Buena in the province of Santa
                        highest point: Cerro Aconcagua 6,960 m (located in the northwestern
                        corner of the province of Mendoza)

   Natural resources:   fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore, manganese,

                           petroleum, uranium

              Land use:    arable land: 10.03%
                           permanent crops: 0.36%
                           other: 89.61% (2005)

         Irrigated land:   15,500 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water      814 cu km (2000)

Freshwater withdrawal      total: 29.19 cu km/yr (17%/9%/74%)
 (domestic/industrial/a    per capita: 753 cu m/yr (2000)

       Natural hazards:    San Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes subject to
                           earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike the
                           pampas and northeast; heavy flooding

 Environment - current     environmental problems (urban and rural) typical of an industrializing
                issues:    economy such as deforestation, soil degradation, desertification, air
                           pollution, and water pollution
                           note: Argentina is a world leader in setting voluntary greenhouse gas

         Environment -     party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living
          international    Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate
           agreements:     Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered
                           Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
                           Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
                           Wetlands, Whaling
                           signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

     Geography - note:     second-largest country in South America (after Brazil); strategic
                           location relative to sea lanes between the South Atlantic and the South
                           Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage);
                           diverse geophysical landscapes range from tropical climates in the north
                           to tundra in the far south; Cerro Aconcagua is the Western
                           Hemisphere's tallest mountain, while Laguna del Carbon is the lowest
                           point in the Western Hemisphere

            Population:    40,913,584 (July 2009 est.)

       Age structure:     0-14 years: 25.6% (male 5,369,477/female 5,122,260)
                          15-64 years: 63.5% (male 12,961,725/female 13,029,265)
                          65 years and over: 10.8% (male 1,819,057/female 2,611,800) (2009

         Median age:      total: 30 years
                          male: 29 years
                          female: 31 years (2008 est.)

  Population growth       1.053% (2009 est.)

           Birth rate:    18.11 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)

          Death rate:     7.43 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)

  Net migration rate:     0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)

       Urbanization:      urban population: 92% of total population (2008)
                          rate of urbanization: 1.2% annual rate of change (2005-2010)

            Sex ratio:    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
                          under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
                          15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
                          65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
                          total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

Infant mortality rate:    total: 11.44 deaths/1,000 live births
                          male: 12.76 deaths/1,000 live births
                          female: 10.06 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

   Life expectancy at     total population: 76.56 years
               birth:     male: 73.32 years
                          female: 79.97 years (2009 est.)

  Total fertility rate:   2.35 children born/woman (2009 est.)

    HIV/AIDS - adult      0.5% (2007 est.)
    prevalence rate:

    HIV/AIDS - people     120,000 (2007 est.)
living with HIV/AIDS:

  HIV/AIDS - deaths:      7,000 (2007 est.)

    Major infectious      degree of risk: intermediate
                          food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A
            diseases:    water contact disease: leptospirosis (2008)

          Nationality:   noun: Argentine(s)
                         adjective: Argentine

       Ethnic groups:    white (mostly Spanish and Italian) 97%, mestizo (mixed white and
                         Amerindian ancestry), Amerindian, or other non-white groups 3%

            Religions:   nominally Roman Catholic 92% (less than 20% practicing), Protestant
                         2%, Jewish 2%, other 4%

          Languages:     Spanish (official), Italian, English, German, French

             Literacy:   definition: age 15 and over can read and write
                         total population: 97.2%
                         male: 97.2%
                         female: 97.2% (2001 census)

School life expectancy   total: 15 years
  (primary to tertiary   male: 14 years
             Education   3.8% of GDP (2004)

       Country name:     conventional long form: Argentine Republic
                         conventional short form: Argentina
                         local long form: Republica Argentina
                         local short form: Argentina

   Government type:      republic

              Capital:   name: Buenos Aires
                         geographic coordinates: 34 36 S, 58 40 W
                         time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
                         Standard Time)
                         daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in October; ends third
                         Saturday in March; note - a new policy of daylight saving time was
                         initiated by the government on 30 December 2007

       Administrative    23 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 autonomous city*
           divisions:    (distrito federal); Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires Capital Federal*,
                         Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Cordoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa,
                         Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Neuquen, Rio Negro,
                         Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero,
                         Tierra del Fuego - Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur, Tucuman

                      note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica

   Independence:      9 July 1816 (from Spain)

 National holiday:    Revolution Day, 25 May (1810)

     Constitution:    1 May 1853; amended many times starting in 1860

     Legal system:    mixture of US and West European legal systems; has not accepted
                      compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

         Suffrage:    18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:     chief of state: President Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER (since
                      10 December 2007); Vice President Julio COBOS (since 10 December
                      2007); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
                      head of government: President Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER
                      (since 10 December 2007); Vice President Julio COBOS (since 10
                      December 2007)
                      cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
                      elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
                      popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election
                      last held 28 October 2007 (next election to be held in 2011)
                      election results: Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER elected
                      president; percent of vote - Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER
                      45%, Elisa CARRIO 23%, Roberto LAVAGNA 17%, Alberto
                      Rodriguez SAA 8%

Legislative branch:   bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the
                      Senate (72 seats; members are elected by direct vote; presently one-
                      third of the members elected every two years to serve six-year terms)
                      and the Chamber of Deputies (257 seats; members are elected by direct
                      vote; one-half of the members elected every two years to serve four-
                      year terms)
                      elections: Senate - last held 28 October 2007 (next to be held in 2009);
                      Chamber of Deputies - last held last held 28 October 2007 (next to be
                      held in 2009)
                      election results: Senate - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA; seats by
                      bloc or party - FpV 12, UCR 4, CC 4, other 4; Chamber of Deputies -
                      percent of vote by bloc or party - NA; seats by bloc or party - FpV 5,
                      UCR 10, PJ 10, PRO 6, CC 16, FJ 2, other 31; note - as of 1 January
                      2009, the composition of the entire legislature is as follows: Senate -
                      seats by bloc or party - FpV 42, UCR 8, CC 2, other 20; Chamber of
                      Deputies - seats by bloc or party - FpV 119, UCR 24, CC 18, PS 10,

                         PRO 9, other 77

     Judicial branch:    Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (the Supreme Court judges are
                         appointed by the president with approval of the Senate)
                         note: the Supreme Court currently has seven judges, and the Argentine
                         Congress in 2006 passed a bill to gradually reduce the number of
                         Supreme Court judges to five

 Political parties and   Coalicion Civica (a broad coalition loosely affiliated with Elisa
              leaders:   CARRIO); Front for Victory or FpV (a broad coalition, including
                         elements of the UCR and numerous provincial parties) [Nestor
                         KIRCHNER]; Interbloque Federal or IF (a broad coalition of
                         approximately 12 parties including PRO); Justicialist Party or PJ
                         [Nestor KIRCHNER]; Radical Civic Union or UCR [Gerardo
                         MORALES]; Republican Proposal or PRO [Mauricio MACRI]
                         (including Federal Recreate Movement or RECREAR [Esteban
                         BULLRICH]; Socialist Party or PS [Ruben GIUSTINIANI]; Union For
                         All [Patricia BULLRICH]; several provincial parties

   Political pressure    Argentine Association of Pharmaceutical Labs (CILFA); Argentine
 groups and leaders:     Industrial Union (manufacturers' association); Argentine Rural
                         Confederation or CRA (small to medium landowners' association);
                         Argentine Rural Society (large landowners' association); Central of
                         Argentine Workers or CTA (a radical union for employed and
                         unemployed workers); General Confederation of Labor or CGT
                         (Peronist-leaning umbrella labor organization); White and Blue CGT
                         (dissident CGT labor confederation); Roman Catholic Church
                         other: business organizations; Peronist-dominated labor movement;
                         Piquetero groups (popular protest organizations that can be either pro or
                         anti-government); students

       International     AfDB (nonregional members), Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN
        organization     (associate), FAO, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
       participation:    ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
                         IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA,
                         Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, NSG, OAS, OPANAL,
                         OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP,
                         UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina (observer), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU,
                         WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

          Diplomatic     chief of mission: Ambassador Hector Marcos TIMERMAN
representation in the    chancery: 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
                  US:    telephone: [1] (202) 238-6400
                         FAX: [1] (202) 332-3171
                         consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
                         New York

          Diplomatic     chief of mission: Ambassador Earl Anthony WAYNE
 representation from     embassy: Avenida Colombia 4300, C1425GMN Buenos Aires
              the US:    mailing address: international mail: use embassy street address; APO
                         address: US Embassy Buenos Aires, Unit 4334, APO AA 34034
                         telephone: [54] (11) 5777-4533
                         FAX: [54] (11) 5777-4240

     Flag description:   three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top), white, and light blue;
                         centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a human face
                         known as the Sun of May

 Economy - overview:     Argentina benefits from rich natural resources, a highly literate
                         population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a diversified
                         industrial base. Although one of the world's wealthiest countries 100
                         years ago, Argentina suffered during most of the 20th century from
                         recurring economic crises, persistent fiscal and current account deficits,
                         high inflation, mounting external debt, and capital flight. A severe
                         depression, growing public and external indebtedness, and a bank run
                         culminated in 2001 in the most serious economic, social, and political
                         crisis in the country's turbulent history. Interim President Adolfo
                         RODRIGUEZ SAA declared a default - the largest in history - on the
                         government's foreign debt in December of that year, and abruptly
                         resigned only a few days after taking office. His successor, Eduardo
                         DUHALDE, announced an end to the peso's decade-long 1-to-1 peg to
                         the US dollar in early 2002. The economy bottomed out that year, with
                         real GDP 18% smaller than in 1998 and almost 60% of Argentines
                         under the poverty line. Real GDP rebounded to grow by an average 9%
                         annually over the subsequent five years, taking advantage of previously
                         idled industrial capacity and labor, an audacious debt restructuring and
                         reduced debt burden, excellent international financial conditions, and
                         expansionary monetary and fiscal policies. Inflation also increased,
                         however, during the administration of President Nestor KIRCHNER,
                         which responded with price restraints on businesses, as well as export
                         taxes and restraints, and beginning in early 2007, with understating
                         inflation data. Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER succeeded her
                         husband as President in late 2007, but was stymied in her efforts to hike
                         export taxes still further by protesting farmers. Her government
                         nationalized private pension funds in late 2008, which bolstered
                         government coffers, but failed to assuage investors' concerns about the

                          direction of economic policy.

      GDP (purchasing     $585 billion (2008 est.)
       power parity):

GDP (official exchange    $338.7 billion (2008 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:   6.6% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):   $14,500 (2008 est.)

 GDP - composition by     agriculture: 9.2%
              sector:     industry: 34.1%
                          services: 56.7% (2008 est.)

           Labor force:   16.27 million
                          note: urban areas only (2008 est.)

       Labor force - by   agriculture: 1%
          occupation:     industry: 23%
                          services: 76% (2008 est.)

  Unemployment rate:      7.8% (September 2008)

     Population below     23.4% (January-June 2007)
         poverty line:

 Household income or      lowest 10%: 1%
     consumption by       highest 10%: 35% (January-March 2007)
   percentage share:

 Distribution of family   49 (January-March 2007)
  income - Gini index:

     Investment (gross    24% of GDP (2008 est.)

               Budget:    revenues: $86.3 billion
                          expenditures: $80.4 billion (2008 est.)

           Fiscal year:   calendar year

           Public debt:   51% of GDP (June 2008)

         Inflation rate   22% based on non-official estimates; the much lower official rate lacks
    (consumer prices):    credibility (2008 est.)

Central bank discount       NA

     Commercial bank        28% (28 November 2008)
   prime lending rate:

       Stock of money:      $33.93 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of quasi money:       $45.92 billion (31 December 2007)

     Stock of domestic      $72.55 billion (31 December 2007)

       Market value of      $86.68 billion (31 December 2007)
publicly traded shares:

Agriculture - products:     sunflower seeds, lemons, soybeans, grapes, corn, tobacco, peanuts, tea,
                            wheat; livestock

             Industries:    food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles, chemicals
                            and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel

 Industrial production      6.5% (2008 est.)
          growth rate:

            Electricity -   109.4 billion kWh (2006 est.)

           Electricity -    97.72 billion kWh (2006 est.)

   Electricity - exports:   2.628 billion kWh (2007 est.)

  Electricity - imports:    10.27 billion kWh (2007 est.)

Electricity - production    fossil fuel: 52.2%
               by source:   hydro: 40.8%
                            nuclear: 6.7%
                            other: 0.2% (2001)

       Oil - production:    790,800 bbl/day (2007 est.)

    Oil - consumption:      440,000 bbl/day (2007 est.)

          Oil - exports:    339,900 bbl/day (2005)

          Oil - imports:    23,380 bbl/day (2005)

 Oil - proved reserves:   2.587 billion bbl (1 January 2008 est.)

          Natural gas -   44.8 billion cu m (2007 est.)

         Natural gas -    44.1 billion cu m (2007 est.)

 Natural gas - exports:   2.6 billion cu m (2007 est.)

 Natural gas - imports:   1.9 billion cu m (2007 est.)

  Natural gas - proved    446 billion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)
     Current account      $6 billion (2008 est.)

              Exports:    $73 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Exports - commodities:    soybeans and derivatives, petroleum and gas, vehicles, corn, wheat

    Exports - partners:   Brazil 19.1%, China 9.4%, US 7.9%, Chile 7.6% (2007)

              Imports:    $59.9 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

            Imports -     machinery, motor vehicles, petroleum and natural gas, organic
         commodities:     chemicals, plastics

   Imports - partners:    Brazil 34.6%, US 12.6%, China 12%, Germany 5% (2007)

        Economic aid -    $99.66 million (2005)

   Reserves of foreign    $45.9 billion (15 December 2008)
   exchange and gold:

       Debt - external:   $135.5 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of direct foreign   $69.1 billion (2008 est.)
investment - at home:

Stock of direct foreign   $26.81 billion (2008 est.)
 investment - abroad:
     Currency (code):     Argentine peso (ARS)

       Currency code:     ARS

       Exchange rates:    Argentine pesos (ARS) per US dollar - 3.1636 (2008 est.), 3.1105
                          (2007), 3.0543 (2006), 2.9037 (2005), 2.9233 (2004)

   Telephones - main      9.5 million (2007)
         lines in use:

  Telephones - mobile     40.402 million (2007)

   Telephone system:      general assessment: by opening the telecommunications market to
                          competition and foreign investment with the "Telecommunications
                          Liberalization Plan of 1998," Argentina encouraged the growth of
                          modern telecommunications technology; fiber-optic cable trunk lines
                          are being installed between all major cities; major networks are entirely
                          digital and the availability of telephone service is improving; fixed-line
                          telephone density is gradually increasing reaching nearly 25 lines per
                          100 people in 2007; mobile telephone subscribership has been
                          increasing rapidly and has reached a level of 100 telephones per 100
                          domestic: microwave radio relay, fiber-optic cable, and a domestic
                          satellite system with 40 earth stations serve the trunk network; more
                          than 110,000 pay telephones are installed and mobile telephone use is
                          rapidly expanding; broadband services are gaining ground
                          international: country code - 54; landing point for the Atlantis-2,
                          UNISUR, and South America-1 optical submarine cable systems that
                          provide links to Europe, Africa, South and Central America, and US;
                          satellite earth stations - 112; 2 international gateways near Buenos Aires

      Radio broadcast     AM 260 (includes 10 inactive stations), FM (probably more than 1,000,
             stations:    mostly unlicensed), shortwave 6 (1998)

               Radios:    24.3 million (1997)

 Television broadcast     42 (plus 444 repeaters) (1997)
          Televisions:    7.95 million (1997)

Internet country code:    .ar

       Internet hosts:    3.813 million (2008)

      Internet Service    33 (2000)
      Providers (ISPs):

       Internet users:    9.309 million (2007)

             Airports:   1,272 (2007)

 Airports - with paved   total: 154
             runways:    over 3,047 m: 4
                         2,438 to 3,047 m: 26
                         1,524 to 2,437 m: 65
                         914 to 1,523 m: 50
                         under 914 m: 9 (2007)

      Airports - with    total: 1,118
   unpaved runways:      over 3,047 m: 2
                         2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
                         1,524 to 2,437 m: 44
                         914 to 1,523 m: 515
                         under 914 m: 556 (2007)

            Heliports:   1 (2007)

            Pipelines:   gas 28,138 km; liquid petroleum gas 41 km; oil 5,939 km; refined
                         products 3,629 km (2008)

            Railways:    total: 31,902 km
                         broad gauge: 20,858 km 1.676-m gauge (141 km electrified)
                         standard gauge: 2,885 km 1.435-m gauge (26 km electrified)
                         narrow gauge: 7,922 km 1.000-m gauge; 237 km 0.750-m gauge

           Roadways:     total: 231,374 km
                         paved: 69,412 km (includes 734 km of expressways)
                         unpaved: 161,962 km (2004)

          Waterways:     11,000 km (2007)

    Merchant marine:     total: 46
                         by type: bulk carrier 3, cargo 9, chemical tanker 2, container 1,
                         passenger 1, passenger/cargo 3, petroleum tanker 24, refrigerated cargo
                         2, roll on/roll off 1
                         foreign-owned: 14 (Brazil 1, Chile 7, Spain 2, UK 4)
                         registered in other countries: 19 (Liberia 3, Panama 8, Paraguay 5,
                         Uruguay 3) (2008)

  Ports and terminals:   Arroyo Seco, Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, La Plata, Punta Colorada,
                         Rosario, San Lorenzo-San Martin

    Military branches:     Argentine Army (Ejercito Argentino), Navy of the Argentine Republic
                           (Armada Republica; includes naval aviation and naval infantry),
                           Argentine Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Argentina, FAA) (2009)

   Military service age    18-24 years of age for voluntary military service (18-21 requires
        and obligation:    parental permission); no conscription (2001)

  Manpower available       males age 16-49: 10,029,488
   for military service:   females age 16-49: 9,889,002 (2008 est.)

     Manpower fit for      males age 16-49: 8,264,853
      military service:    females age 16-49: 8,268,498 (2009 est.)

  Manpower reaching        male: 341,590
  militarily significant   female: 326,342 (2009 est.)
         age annually:

Military expenditures:     1.3% of GDP (2005 est.)

             Disputes -    Argentina continues to assert its claims to the UK-administered
         international:    Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), South Georgia, and the South
                           Sandwich Islands in its constitution, forcibly occupying the Falklands in
                           1982, but in 1995 agreed no longer to seek settlement by force;
                           territorial claim in Antarctica partially overlaps UK and Chilean claims;
                           unruly region at convergence of Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay borders is
                           locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and illegal narcotics
                           trafficking, and fundraising for extremist organizations; uncontested
                           dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in
                           the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in
                           question; in 2006, Argentina went to the ICJ to protest, on
                           environmental grounds, the construction of two pulp mills in Uruguay
                           on the Uruguay River, which forms the boundary; both parties
                           presented their pleadings in 2007 with Argentina's reply in January and
                           Uruguay's rejoinder in July 2008; the joint boundary commission,
                           established by Chile and Argentina in 2001 has yet to map and
                           demarcate the delimited boundary in the inhospitable Andean Southern
                           Ice Field (Campo de Hielo Sur)

 Trafficking in persons:   current situation: Argentina is a source, transit, and destination country
                           for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of commercial
                           sexual exploitation and forced labor; most victims are trafficked within
                 the country, from rural to urban areas; child sex tourism is a problem;
                 foreign women and children, primarily from Paraguay, Brazil, and the
                 Dominican Republic, are trafficked to Argentina for commercial sexual
                 exploitation; Argentine women and girls are also trafficked to
                 neighboring countries, Mexico, and Western Europe for sexual
                 exploitation; a significant number of Bolivians, Peruvians, and
                 Paraguayans are trafficked into the country for forced labor in
                 sweatshops, agriculture, and as domestic servants
                 tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - despite some progress, Argentina
                 remains on the Tier 2 Watch List for the third consecutive year for its
                 failure to show evidence of increasing efforts to combat human
                 trafficking, particularly in terms of providing adequate assistance to
                 victims and curbing official complicity with trafficking activity,
                 especially on the provincial and local levels; the Argentine Congress
                 has demonstrated progress by enacting much-needed and first-ever
                 federal anti-trafficking legislation (2008)

Illicit drugs:   a transshipment country for cocaine headed for Europe, heroin headed
                 for the US, and ephedrine and pseudoephedrine headed for Mexico;
                 some money-laundering activity, especially in the Tri-Border Area; law
                 enforcement corruption; a source for precursor chemicals; increasing
                 domestic consumption of drugs in urban centers, especially cocaine
                 base and synthetic drugs (2008)

                   This page was last updated on 19 March, 2009

Country Specific Information: Argentina

October 2, 2008

                                                    COUNTRY DESCRIPTION: Last year,
                                                    Argentina's charm, natural beauty and
                                                    diversity attracted more than 400,000
                                                    American citizen visitors, and this year's total
                                                    is expected to be even higher. Buenos Aires
                                                    and other large cities have well-developed
                                                    tourist facilities and services, including many
                                                    four- and five-star hotels. The quality of tourist
                                                    facilities in smaller towns outside the capital
                                                    varies. The country suffered a major financial
                                                    crisis in 2001-2002. While it has made a
                                                    dramatic recovery, continued economic
                                                    hardship has been linked to a rise in street
                                                    crime. Read the Department of State
                                                    Background Notes on Argentina for additional

                                                   ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: A valid
                                                   passport is required for U.S. citizens to enter
                                                   Argentina. U.S. citizens do not need a visa for
                                                   visits of up to 90 days for tourism and
                                                   business. U.S. citizens who arrive in Argentina
                                                   with expired or damaged passports may be
                                                   refused entry and returned to the United States
                                                   at their own expense. The U.S. Embassy
                                                   cannot provide guarantees on behalf of
                                                   travelers in such situations, and therefore
                                                   encourages U.S. citizens to ensure their travel
                                                   documents are valid and in good condition
                                                   prior to departure from the United
                                                   States. Different rules apply to U.S. citizens
                                                   who also have Argentine nationality,
depending on their dates of U.S. naturalization. For more information, check the Argentine
Ministry of the Interior web site at Most dual nationals are
permitted 60-day visits. Dual nationals who stay beyond their permitted time are required to
depart on an Argentine passport.
The application process for an Argentine passport is lengthy, and the U.S. Embassy is not able to
provide assistance in obtaining Argentine passports or other local identity documents. Children
under 21 years of age who reside in Argentina, regardless of nationality, are required to present a
notarized document that certifies both parents' permission for the child's departure from
Argentina when the child is traveling alone, with only one parent, or in someone else's custody
(click on the "international child abduction" link below for more information). An airport tax is
collected upon departure, payable in dollars or Argentine pesos.

American citizens wishing to enter Brazil from Argentina are required to obtain a visa in advance
from the Brazilian Embassy or consulate nearest to the traveler's place of residence. The U.S.
Embassy in Buenos Aires cannot assist travelers to obtain Brazilian visas. For more information,
see the Country Specific Information for Brazil.
Visit the Embassy of Argentina’s web site at for the most
current visa information.
Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found
on our web site. For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs
Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY: Traffic accidents are the primary threat to life and limb in
Argentina. Pedestrians and drivers should exercise caution. Drivers frequently ignore traffic laws
and vehicles often travel at excessive speeds. The rate and toll of traffic accidents has been a topic
of much media attention over the past year. The Institute of Road Safety and Education, a private
Buenos Aires organization dedicated to transportation safety issues, reports that Argentina has the
highest traffic mortality rate in South America per 100,000 inhabitants.

Care should be exercised when traveling in Brazil and Paraguay, near the Argentine border,
where criminal entities are known to operate. These organizations are involved in the trafficking
of illicit goods, and some individuals in the area have been designated by the U.S. Treasury
Department for financially supporting terrorist organizations.

The U.S. government is supportive of coordinated efforts by Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay to
combat illegal activity in that region. Americans crossing from Argentina into Paraguay or Brazil
may wish to consult the most recent Country Specific Information for those countries.

Demonstrations are common in metropolitan Buenos Aires and occur in other major cities as
well. Protesters on occasion block streets, highways, and major intersections, causing traffic jams
and delaying travel. While demonstrations are usually nonviolent, hooligans in some of the
groups sometimes seek confrontation with the police and vandalize private property. Groups
occasionally protest in front of the U.S. Embassy and U.S.-affiliated businesses. U.S. citizens
should take common-sense precautions and avoid gatherings or any other event where crowds
have congregated to protest. Information about the location of possible demonstrations is
available from a variety of sources, including the local media. Additional information and advice

may be obtained from the U.S. Embassy at the telephone numbers or email address listed at the
end of this document.

Domestic flight schedules can be unreliable. Occasional work stoppages, over-scheduling of
flights and other technical problems can result in flight delays, cancellations, or missed
connections. Consult local media for information about possible strikes or slow-downs before
planning travel within Argentina.
Public transportation is generally reliable and safe. The preferred option for travel within Buenos
Aires and other major cities is by radio taxi or "remise" (private car with driver). The best way to
obtain safe taxis and remises is to call for one or go to an established stand, rather than hailing
one on the street. Hotels, restaurants, and other businesses can order remises or radio taxis, or
provide phone numbers for such services, upon request. Passengers on buses, trains, and the
subway should be alert for pickpockets and should also be aware that these forms of transport are
sometimes interrupted by strikes or work stoppages.

Argentina is a geographically diverse country with mountains, forests, expansive deserts, and
glaciers, making it a popular destination for outdoor and adventure sports. Despite the best efforts
of local authorities, assisting visitors lost or injured in such remote areas can be
problematic. American citizens have been killed in recent years while mountain climbing, skiing,
trekking, and hunting. Travelers visiting isolated and wilderness areas should learn about local
hazards and weather conditions and always inform park or police authorities of their itineraries.
Reports of missing or injured persons should be made immediately to the police so that a search
can be mounted or assistance rendered.
For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the
Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs' web site at, where the
current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll
free in the United States, or for callers outside the United States and Canada, a regular toll line at
1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday
through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).
The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal
security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers
can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State pamphlet
A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME: Most American citizens visit Argentina without incident. Nevertheless, street crime in
the larger cities, especially greater Buenos Aires and Mendoza, is a problem for residents and
visitors alike. As in any big city, visitors to Buenos Aires and popular tourist destinations should
be alert to muggers, pickpockets, scam artists, and purse-snatchers on the street, in hotel lobbies,
at bus and train stations, and in cruise ship ports. Criminals usually work in groups and travelers
should assume they are armed. Criminals employ a variety of ruses to distract and victimize
unsuspecting visitors.

A common scam is to spray mustard or a similar substance on the tourist from a distance. A
pickpocket will then approach the tourist offering to help clean the stain, and while doing so, he
or an accomplice robs the victim. Thieves regularly nab unattended purses, backpacks, laptops,
and luggage, and criminals will often distract visitors for a few seconds to steal valuables. While
most American victims are not physically injured when robbed, criminals typically do not hesitate
to use force when they encounter resistance. Visitors are advised to immediately hand over all
cash and valuables if confronted. Thieves will target visitors wearing expensive watches or

Your passport is a valuable document and should be guarded. Passports and other valuables
should be locked in a hotel safe, and a photocopy of your passport should be carried for
identification purposes. The U.S. Embassy has observed a notable rise in reports of stolen
passports in the past year. Some travelers have received counterfeit currency in
Argentina. Unscrupulous vendors and taxi drivers sometimes pretend to help tourists review their
pesos, then trade bad bills for good ones. Characteristics of good currency can be reviewed at the
Argentine Central Bank web site at

Along with conventional muggings, so-called express kidnappings continue to occur. Victims are
grabbed off the street based on their appearance and vulnerability. They are made to withdraw as
much money as possible from ATM machines, and then their family or co-workers are contacted
and told to deliver all the cash that they have on hand or can gather in a couple of hours. Once the
ransom is paid, the victim is usually quickly released unharmed. There have been some foreign
victims. Visitors are particularly advised not to let children and adolescents travel alone.

Travelers worldwide are advised to avoid packing valuables in their checked baggage. In
Argentina, officials have publicly acknowledged the systematic theft of valuables and money
from checked baggage at Buenos Aires airports. Authorities are working to resolve the problem
and have made a number of arrests, but travelers should exercise continued care and caution.

In many countries around the world, counterfeit and pirated goods are widely
available. Transactions involving such products may be illegal under local law. In addition,
bringing them back to the United States may result in forfeitures and/or fines. More information
on this serious problem is available at

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport
should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If
you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please
contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can,
for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and
explain how funds can be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is
solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local
criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed. The Argentine Federal Police have
established a special Tourist Police Unit to receive complaints and investigate crimes against

tourists. The unit, located at Corrientes 436 in Buenos Aires, responds to calls around the clock at
4346-5748 or toll-free 0800-999-5000 from anywhere in the country. The local equivalent to the
"911" emergency line in the city of Buenos Aires or in the surrounding Province of Buenos Aires
is 911 for police assistance. In the city of Buenos Aires, dial 100 in case of fire and 107 for an
ambulance. In the Province of Buenos Aires, fire and ambulance numbers vary by location. See
our information for Victims of Crime.

Back to Top

Argentina provides emergency and non-emergency services free of charge to all, regardless of
nationality or immigration status. However, the quality of non-emergency care in public hospitals
is generally below U.S. standards. Medical care in private hospitals in Buenos Aires is generally
good, but varies in quality outside the capital. Serious medical problems requiring hospitalization
in private facilities and/or medical evacuation to the United States can cost thousands of dollars
or more. Private physicians, clinics, and hospitals often expect immediate cash payment for health

HIV/AIDS restrictions. The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any HIV/AIDS entry
restrictions for visitors to or foreign residents of Argentina.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions
and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions
hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC's Internet
site at For information about outbreaks of infectious
diseases abroad, consult the World Health Organization (WHO) web site at Further health information for travelers is available at

MEDICAL INSURANCE: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with
their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policies apply
overseas and will cover prior conditions and emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation,
which could cost tens of thousands of dollars. If not covered, visitors are encouraged to consider
purchasing travel insurance. No Medicare benefits are available abroad. Please see our
information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens
may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The
information below concerning Argentina is provided for general reference only, and may not be
totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Driving in Argentina is generally more dangerous than driving in the United States. By
comparison, drivers in Argentina tend to be very aggressive, especially in the capital city of

Buenos Aires, and frequently ignore traffic regulations. U.S. driver's licenses are valid in the
capital and the province of Buenos Aires, but Argentine or international licenses are required to
drive in the rest of the country. For further information, please contact the Argentine Automobile
Club, Av. Libertador 1850, 1112 Capital Federal, telephone (011) (54)(11) 4802-6061, or contact
the Embassy of Argentina as listed in the above section on Entry Requirements.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information. Visit the websites of Argentina's
national tourist office and national roadways office at and

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has
assessed the Government of Argentina’s Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of
Argentina’s air carrier operations. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA web site at

Domestic flight schedules can be unreliable. Occasional work stoppages, over-scheduling of
flights, and other technical problems can result in flight delays, cancellations, or missed
connections. Consult local media for information about possible strikes or slow-downs before
planning travel within Argentina.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: In addition to being subject to all Argentine laws affecting
U.S. citizens, dual nationals may also be subject to other laws that impose special obligations on
Argentine citizens. In some instances, dual nationality may hamper U.S. Government efforts to
provide protection abroad. Please see our information on Customs Regulations.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's
laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and
may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking
the law can also be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating
Argentina's laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for
possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Argentina are strict, and convicted offenders can
expect lengthy jail sentences and fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children and using or
disseminating child pornography in a foreign country are crimes prosecutable in the United
States. Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES: For information see our Office of Children's Issues web pages on
intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION: Americans living or traveling in Argentina are
encouraged to register with the U.S. Embassy through the State Department’s travel registration
web site, so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Argentina.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the U.S. Embassy. By registering,

American citizens make it much easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of
emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located at Avenida Colombia 4300 in the Palermo
neighborhood of Buenos Aires (near the Plaza Italia stop on the "D" line subway). The main
Embassy switchboard telephone is (54) (11) 5777-4533. Recorded consular information,
including instructions on whom to contact in case of an American citizen emergency, is available
at tel. (54) (11) 4514-1830. The Consular Section fax is (54) (11) 5777-4293. The Consular
Section is open to the public from 8:30 a.m. to noon and 2:30 p.m. to 4 p.m. Monday through
Friday, except on American and Argentine holidays. Additional information on Embassy services
is available on the Internet at or by e-mail: BuenosAires-


This replaces the Country Specific Information December 28, 2007, to update Sections on
Country Description, Safety and Security, Special Circumstances, Crime, Information for Victims
of Crime, Medical Facilities, Traffic Safety and Road Conditions, Children’s Issues, and
Registration/Embassy Locations.


Travel Notices in Effect
    •   Update: Dengue, Tropical and Subtropical
        Regions Monday, November 10, 2008
    •   Yellow Fever in South America and the
        Caribbean—Evolving Situation Tuesday,
        February 17, 2009
    •   2009 Measles Update Thursday, March 05,

Safety and Security Abroad

    •   Registration of Traveler Emergency Contact
        and Itinerary Information Monday, June 18,
    •   Transportation Security Administration
    •   U.S. Department of State

Preparing for Your Trip to Argentina
Before visiting Argentina, you may need to get the
following vaccinations and medications for
vaccine-preventable diseases and other diseases
you might be at risk for at your destination: (Note:
Your doctor or health-care provider will determine
what you will need, depending on factors such as your
health and immunization history, areas of the country
you will be visiting, and planned activities.)

To have the most benefit, see a health-care provider at least 4–6 weeks before your trip to allow
time for your vaccines to take effect.

Even if you have less than 4 weeks before you leave, you should still see a health-care provider
for needed vaccines, medications, and information about how to protect yourself from illness and
injury while traveling.

If your travel plans will take you to more than one country during a single trip, be sure to let your
health-care provider know so that you can receive the appropriate vaccinations and information
for all of your destinations. Long-term travelers, such as those who plan to work or study abroad,
may also need additional vaccinations as required by their employer or school.

Be sure your routine vaccinations are up-to-date. Check the links below to see which
vaccinations adults and children should get.

Routine vaccines, as they are often called, such as for influenza, chickenpox (or varicella), polio,
measles/mumps/rubella (MMR), and diphtheria/pertussis/tetanus (DPT) are given at all stages of
life; see the childhood and adolescent immunization schedule and routine adult immunization

Routine vaccines are recommended even if you do not travel. Although childhood diseases, such
as measles, rarely occur in the United States, they are still common in many parts of the world. A
traveler who is not vaccinated would be at risk for infection.

Vaccine-Preventable Diseases
Vaccine recommendations are based on the best available risk information. Please note that the
level of risk for vaccine-preventable diseases can change at any time.

Vaccination or
                     Recommendations or Requirements for Vaccine-Preventable Diseases

Routine          Recommended if you are not up-to-date with routine shots such as,
                 measles/mumps/rubella (MMR) vaccine, diphtheria/pertussis/tetanus (DPT)
                 vaccine, poliovirus vaccine, etc.

Yellow Fever     CDC yellow fever vaccination recommendation for travelers to Argentina: For
                 all travelers >9 months of age going to the northern and northeastern forested
                 areas, including Iguaçu Falls and all parts of Misiones Province, as well as all
                 areas bordering Paraguay and Brazil. These areas include: all departments of
                 Misiones and Formosa Provinces; Department of Bermejo in Chaco Province;
                 Departments of Berón de Astrada, Capital, General Alvear, General Paz,
                 Ituzaingó, Itatí, Paso de los Libres, San Cosme, San Miguel, San Martín and
                 Santo Tomé in Corrientes Province; Departments of Valle Grande, Ledesma,
                 Santa Bárbara and San Pedro in Jujuy Province; and Departments of General
                 José de San Martín, Oran, Rivadavia and Anta in Salta Province (see Updated
                 yellow fever risk map for Argentina). Updated April 17, 2008 Vaccination should
                 be given 10 days before travel and at 10 year intervals if there is on-going risk.
                 Find an authorized U.S. yellow fever vaccination clinic.

Hepatitis A or   Recommended for all unvaccinated people traveling to or working in countries
immune           with an intermediate or high level of hepatitis A virus infection (see map)
globulin (IG)    where exposure might occur through food or water. Cases of travel-related
                 hepatitis A can also occur in travelers to developing countries with "standard"
                 tourist itineraries, accommodations, and food consumption behaviors.

Hepatitis B      Recommended for all unvaccinated persons traveling to or working in countries
                 with intermediate to high levels of endemic HBV transmission (see map),
                 especially those who might be exposed to blood or body fluids, have sexual
                 contact with the local population, or be exposed through medical treatment
                 (e.g., for an accident).

Typhoid          Recommended for all unvaccinated people traveling to or working in
                 Temperate South America, especially if visiting smaller cities, villages, or rural
                 areas and staying with friends or relatives where exposure might occur through
                 food or water.

Rabies vaccination is only recommended for travelers involved in any activities that might bring
them into direct contact with bats, carnivores, and other mammals. These travelers include
wildlife professionals, researchers, veterinarians, or adventure travelers visiting areas where bats,
carnivores, and other mammals are commonly found.

Note: Rabies vaccine is temporarily in limited supply. For updates on the rabies vaccine
supply, please check the Rabies News and Highlights page regularly.

Malaria Contact for Health-Care Providers
For assistance with the diagnosis or management of suspected cases of malaria, call the CDC

Malaria Hotline: 770-488-7788 (M-F, 8 am-4:30 pm, Eastern time). For emergency consultation
after hours, call 770-488-7100 and ask to speak with a CDC Malaria Branch clinician.

Drugs to Prevent Malaria (Antimalarial drugs)

If you will be visiting a malaria risk area in Argentina, chloroquine is the recommended
antimalarial drug.

Malaria risk area in Argentina: Rural areas of Salta and Jujuy province (along border with
Bolivia) and Misiones and Corrientes province (along border with Paraguay).

To find out more information on malaria throughout the world, you can use the interactive CDC
malaria map. You can search or browse countries, cities, and place names for more specific
malaria risk information and the recommended prevention medicines for that area.

A Special Note about Antimalarial Drugs

You should purchase your antimalarial drugs before travel. Drugs purchased overseas may not
be manufactured according to United States standards and may not be effective. They also may
be dangerous, contain counterfeit medications or contaminants, or be combinations of drugs
that are not safe to use.

Halofantrine (marketed as Halfan) is widely used overseas to treat malaria. CDC recommends
that you do NOT use halofantrine because of serious heart-related side effects, including deaths.
You should avoid using antimalarial drugs that are not recommended unless you have been
diagnosed with life-threatening malaria and no other options are immediately available.

For detailed information about these antimalarial drugs, see Information for the Public:
Prescription Drugs for Malaria.

More Information About Malaria

Malaria is always a serious disease and may be a deadly illness. Humans get malaria from the
bite of a mosquito infected with the parasite. Prevent this serious disease by seeing your health-
care provider for a prescription antimalarial drug and by protecting yourself against mosquito
bites (see below).

Travelers to malaria risk-areas in Argentina, including infants, children, and former residents of
Argentina, should take one of the following antimalarial drugs listed above.


Malaria symptoms may include

  •   fever
  •   chills
  •   sweats
  •   headache
  •   body aches
  •   nausea and vomiting
  •   fatigue
Malaria symptoms will occur at least 7 to 9 days after being bitten by an infected mosquito.
Fever in the first week of travel in a malaria-risk area is unlikely to be malaria; however, you
should see a doctor right away if you develop a fever during your trip.

Malaria may cause anemia and jaundice. Malaria infections with Plasmodium falciparum, if not
promptly treated, may cause kidney failure, coma, and death. Despite using the protective
measures outlined above, travelers may still develop malaria up to a year after returning from a
malarious area. You should see a doctor immediately if you develop a fever anytime during the
year following your return and tell the physician of your travel.

Items to Bring with You

Medicines you may need:

    •   The prescription medicines you take every day. Make sure you have enough to last
        during your trip. Keep them in their original prescription bottles and always in your
        carry-on luggage. Be sure to follow security guidelines, if the medicines are liquids.

Note: Some drugs available by prescription in the US are illegal in other countries. Check the US
Department of State Consular Information Sheets for the country(s) you intend to visit or the
embassy or consulate for that country(s). If your medication is not allowed in the country you will
be visiting, ask your health-care provider to write a letter on office stationery stating the
medication has been prescribed for you.

Other items you may need:

See suggested over-the-counter medications and first aid items for a
travelers' health kit.

Note: Check the Air Travel section of the Transportation Security
Administration website for the latest information about airport screening
procedures and prohibited items.

See other suggested over-the-counter medications and first aid items for a travelers' health kit.

Note: Check the Air Travel section of the Transportation Security Administration website for the
latest information about airport screening procedures and prohibited items.

Other Diseases Found in South America
Risk can vary between countries within this region and also within a country; the
quality of in-country surveillance also varies.
The following are disease risks that might affect travelers; this is not a complete list of diseases
that can be present. Environmental conditions may also change, and up to date information
about risk by regions within a country may also not always be available.

Dengue outbreaks have occurred in several countries in Temperate South America. An outbreak
occurred on Easter Island (Chile) in 2002. American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease) and
leishmaniasis are diseases carried by insects that also occur in this region, mostly in rural areas.
Protecting yourself against insect bites (see below) will help to prevent these diseases. Sporadic
cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (Andes virus; rodent reservoir host) have been
reported from Argentina and Chile.

Other vector-borne infections include bartonellosis (limited to the slopes of the Andes in Chile).
Leishmaniasis (both cutaneous and mucocutaneous) is endemic in northern Argentina and may
be present in Uruguay.

Histoplasmosis is endemic in Uruguay. Coccidioidomycosis is found in focal areas of Argentina
and Chile.

For more information, see the Geographic Distribution of Potential Health Hazards to Travelers
and Goals and Limitations in determining actual disease risks by destination.

Staying Healthy During Your Trip
Prevent Insect Bites

Diseases, like dengue are spread through tick and sandfly bites respectively. One of the best
protections is to prevent such bites by:

    •   Using insect repellent with 30%-50% DEET. Picaridin, available in 7% and 15%
        concentrations, needs to be applied more frequently.
    •   Wearing long-sleeved shirts which should be tucked in, long pants, and hats outdoors.

For detailed information about insect repellent use, see Insect and Arthropod Protection.

Prevent Animal Bites and Scratches
Direct contact with animals can spread diseases like rabies or cause serious injury or illness. It is
important to prevent animal bites and scratches.

      •    Be sure you are up to date with tetanus vaccination.
      •    Do not touch or feed any animals, including dogs and cats. Even animals that look like
           healthy pets can have rabies or other diseases.
      •    Help children stay safe by supervising them carefully around all animals.
      •    If you are bitten or scratched, wash the wound well with soap and water and go to a
           doctor right away.
      •    After your trip, be sure to tell your doctor or state health department if you were bitten
           or scratched during travel.

For more information about rabies and travel, see the Rabies chapter of the Yellow Book or
CDC's Rabies homepage. For more information about how to protect yourself from other risks
related to animals, see Animal-Associated Hazards.

Be Careful about Food and Water

Diseases from food and water are the leading cause of illness in travelers. Follow these tips for
safe eating and drinking:

  •       Wash your hands often with soap and water, especially before eating. If soap and water
          are not available, use an alcohol-based hand gel (with at least 60% alcohol).
  •       Drink only bottled or boiled water, or carbonated (bubbly) drinks in cans or
          bottles. Avoid tap water, fountain drinks, and ice cubes. If this is not possible, learn how
          to make water safer to drink.
  •       Do not eat food purchased from street vendors.
  •       Make sure food is fully cooked.
  •       Avoid dairy products, unless you know they have been pasteurized.

Diseases from food and water often cause vomiting and diarrhea.

Avoid Injuries

Car crashes are a leading cause of injury among travelers. Protect yourself from these injuries

      •    Not drinking and driving.
      •    Wearing your seat belt and using car seats or booster seats in the backseat for children.
      •    Following local traffic laws.
      •    Wearing helmets when you ride bikes, motorcycles, and motor bikes.
      •    Hiring a local driver, when possible.
      •    Avoiding night driving.

Prevent Altitude Illness and Sunburn
If you visit the Andes Mountains, ascend gradually to allow time for your body to adjust to the
high altitude, which can cause insomnia, headaches, nausea, and altitude illness. If you
experience these symptoms descend to a lower altitude and seek medical attention. Untreated
altitude illness can be fatal.

Use sunblock rated at least 15 SPF, especially at high altitudes, where the risk of sunburn is

Other Health Tips

    •   To avoid infections such as HIV and viral hepatitis do not share needles for tattoos, body
        piercing, or injections.
    •   To reduce the risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases always use latex

After You Return Home

If you are not feeling well, you should see your doctor and mention that you have recently
traveled. Also tell your doctor if you were bitten or scratched by an animal while traveling.

Important Note: This document is not a complete medical guide for travelers to this region.
Consult with your doctor for specific information related to your needs and your medical
history; recommendations may differ for pregnant women, young children, and persons who
have chronic medical conditions.

Map Disclaimer - The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on maps do not
imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its
authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Approximate border
lines for which there may not yet be full agreement are generally marked.

Page Located on the Web at

Risks from Food and Water

         Contaminated food and drink are common sources for the introduction of infection into
the body. Among the more common infections that travelers can acquire from contaminated
food and drink are Escherichia coli infections, shigellosis or bacillary dysentery, giardiasis,
cryptosporidiosis, noroviruses, and hepatitis A. Other less common infectious disease risks for
travelers include typhoid fever and other salmonelloses, cholera, rotavirus infections, and a
variety of protozoan and helminthic parasites (other than those that cause giardiasis and
cryptosporidiosis). Many infectious diseases transmitted in food and water can also be acquired
directly through the fecal-oral route.


         To avoid illness, travelers should be advised to select food with care. All raw food is
subject to contamination. Particularly in areas where hygiene and sanitation are inadequate, the
traveler should be advised to avoid salads, uncooked vegetables, and unpasteurized milk and
milk products such as cheese, and to eat only food that has been cooked and is still hot or fruit
that has been washed in clean water and then peeled by the traveler personally. Undercooked
and raw meat, fish, and shellfish can carry various intestinal pathogens. Cooked food that has
been allowed to stand for several hours at ambient temperature can provide a fertile medium
for bacterial growth and should be thoroughly reheated before serving. Consumption of food
and beverages obtained from street vendors has been associated with an increased risk of

       The easiest way to guarantee a safe food source for an infant <6 months of age is to
have the infant breastfeed. If the infant has already been weaned from the breast, formula
prepared from commercial powder and boiled water is the safest and most practical food.

        Cholera cases have occurred in people who ate crab brought back from Latin America by
travelers. Travelers should be advised not to bring perishable seafood with them when they
return to the United States from high-risk areas. Moreover, travelers may assume incorrectly
that food and water aboard commercial aircraft are safe. Food and water may be obtained in
the country of departure, where items may be contaminated.


        A variety of infections (e.g., skin, ear, eye, respiratory, neurologic, and diarrheal
infections) have been linked to wading or swimming in the ocean, freshwater lakes and rivers,
and swimming pools, particularly if the swimmer's head is submerged. Water may be
contaminated by other people and from sewage, animal wastes, and wastewater run-off.
Diarrhea and other serious waterborne infections can be spread when disease-causing
organisms from human or animal feces are introduced into the water. Travelers who swim
should be advised to avoid beaches that may be contaminated with human sewage or dog feces.

        Accidentally swallowing small amounts of fecally contaminated water can cause illness.
Travelers should be warned to try to avoid swallowing water while engaging in aquatic activities.
Generally, for infectious disease prevention, pools that contain chlorinated water can be
considered safe places to swim if the disinfectant levels and pH are properly maintained.
However, some organisms (e.g., Cryptosporidium, Giardia, hepatitis A, and Norovirus) have
moderate to very high resistance to chlorine levels commonly found in chlorinated swimming
pools, so travelers also should avoid swallowing chlorinated swimming pool water. All travelers
who have diarrhea should refrain from swimming to avoid contaminating recreational water.

        Travelers should be advised to avoid swimming or wading with open cuts or abrasions
that might serve as entry points for pathogens. In certain areas, fatal primary amebic
meningoencephalitis has occurred after swimming in warm freshwater lakes or rivers, thermally
polluted areas around industrial complexes, and hot springs, so travelers should avoid
submerging the head and should wear nose plugs when entering untreated water to prevent
water getting up the nose. Travelers should also be advised to avoid wading or swimming in
freshwater streams, canals, and lakes in schistosomiasis-endemic areas of the Caribbean, South
America, Africa, and Asia (see Map 4-10, Geographic distribution of schistosomiasis), or in
bodies of water that may be contaminated with urine from animals infected with Leptospira.


      Water that has been adequately chlorinated according to the minimum recommended
water treatment standards used in the United States will afford substantial protection against
viral and bacterial waterborne diseases. However, chlorine treatment alone, as used in the
routine disinfection of water, may not kill some enteric viruses and the parasitic organisms that
cause giardiasis, amebiasis, and cryptosporidiosis. In areas where chlorinated tap water is not
available or where hygiene and sanitation are poor, travelers should be advised that only the
following may be safe to drink:

     • Beverages, such as tea and coffee, made with boiled water.

     • Canned or bottled beverages, including water, carbonated mineral water, and soft
     • Beer and wine.

     Where water might be contaminated, travelers should be advised that ice should also be
considered contaminated and should not be used in beverages. If ice has been in contact with
containers used for drinking, travelers should be advised to clean the containers thoroughly,
preferably with soap and hot water, after the ice has been discarded.

     It is safer to drink a beverage directly from the can or bottle than from a questionable
container. However, water on the outside of beverage cans or bottles may also be
contaminated. Therefore, travelers should be advised to dry wet cans or bottles before they are
opened and to wipe clean surfaces with which the mouth will have direct contact. Where water
may be contaminated, travelers should be advised to avoid brushing their teeth with tap water.

Treatment of Drinking Water

         Travelers should be advised of the following methods for treating water to make it safe
for drinking and other purposes.


        Boiling is by far the most reliable method to make water of uncertain purity safe for
drinking. Water should be brought to a vigorous rolling boil for 1 minute and allowed to cool to
room temperature; ice should not be added. This procedure will kill bacterial and parasitic
causes of diarrhea at all altitudes and viruses at low altitudes. To kill viruses at altitudes >2,000
m (6,562 ft), water should be boiled for 3 minutes or chemical disinfection should be used after
the water has boiled for 1 minute. Adding a pinch of salt to each quart or pouring the water
several times from one clean container to another will improve the taste.

Chemical Disinfection

   Chemical disinfection with iodine is an alternative method of water treatment when it is not
feasible to boil water. However, this method cannot be relied on to kill Cryptosporidium. Two
well-tested methods for disinfection with iodine are the use of tincture of iodine (Table 2-2) and
tetraglycine hydroperiodide tablets (e.g., Globaline, Potable-Aqua, or Coghlan's). These tablets
are available from pharmacies and sporting goods stores. The manufacturer's instructions
should be followed. If water is cloudy, the number of tablets used should be doubled; if water is
extremely cold (<5°C; <41°F]), an attempt should be made to warm the water, and the
recommended contact time should be increased to achieve reliable disinfection. Cloudy water
should be strained through a clean cloth into a container to remove any sediment or floating
matter, and then the water should be boiled or treated with iodine. Iodine treatment of water is
intended for short-term use only. When the only water available is iodine treated, it should be
used for only a few weeks.

  Table 2-2. Treatment of water with tincture of iodine

                                                              Drops to be added per quart or liter
              Tincture of iodine
                                                Clear water                        Cold or cloudy water

2%                                       5                             10

         One drop = 0.05 mL. Water must stand for a minimum of 30 minutes before it is safe to use.
         Very turbid or cold water can require prolonged contact time; if possible, such water should be

     allowed to stand several hours before use. To ensure that Cryptosporidium is killed, water must

     stand for 15 hours before drinking.

   Chlorine, in various forms, can also be used for chemical disinfection. However, its germicidal
activity varies greatly with the pH, temperature, and organic content of the water to be purified;
therefore, it can produce less consistent levels of disinfection in many types of water.

Water Filters

         Portable filters currently on the market will provide various degrees of protection
against microbes. Reverse-osmosis filters provide protection against viruses, bacteria, and
protozoa, but they are expensive and larger than most filters used by backpackers, and the small
pores on this type of filter are rapidly plugged by muddy or cloudy water. In addition, the
membranes in some filters can be damaged by chlorine in water. Microstrainer filters with pore
sizes in the 0.1- to 0.3-μm range can remove bacteria and protozoa from drinking water, but
they do not remove viruses. To kill viruses, travelers using microstrainer filters should be advised
to disinfect the water with iodine or chlorine after filtration, as described previously. Some
filtration kits come with an additional filter effective against viruses. Filters with iodine-
impregnated resins are most effective against bacteria, and the iodine will kill some viruses;
however, the contact time with the iodine in the filter is too short to kill the protozoa
Cryptosporidium and, in cold water, Giardia.

   Filters that are designed to remove Cryptosporidium and Giardia carry one of the four
messages below—verbatim—on the package label.

         •   Reverse osmosis
         •   Absolute pore size of 1 micron
         •   Tested and certified by NSF International (formerly the National Sanitation Foundation)
             Standard 53 or NSF Standard 58 for cyst removal
         •   Tested and certified by NSF Standard 53 or NSF Standard 58 for cyst reduction

    Filters may not be designed to remove Cryptosporidium and Giardia if they are labeled only
with these words:

    •   Nominal pore size of 1 micron
    •   One-micron filter
    •   Effective against Giardia
    •   Effective against parasites
    •   Carbon filter
    •   Water purifier
    •   Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-approved (Caution: EPA does not approve or
        test filters.)
    •   EPA-registered (Caution: EPA does not register filters for Cryptosporidium removal)
    •   Activated carbon
    •   Removes chlorine
    •   Ultraviolet light
    •   Pentiodide resins
    •   Water softener

     Filters collect organisms from water. Anyone changing cartridges should wash hands
afterwards. Filters may not remove Cryptosporidium as well as boiling does, because even good
brands of filters may sometimes have manufacturing flaws that allow small numbers of
organisms to pass through the filter. In addition, poor filter maintenance or failure to replace
filter cartridges as recommended by the manufacturer can cause a filter to fail.

    A travelers' guide to buying water filters for preventing cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis can
be found at URL:
These two organisms are either highly (Cryptosporidium) or moderately (Giardia) resistant to
chlorine; so conventional halogen disinfection may be ineffective. Boiling water or filtration can
be used as an alternative to chemical disinfection.

    Proper selection, operation, care, and maintenance of water filters are essential to
producing safe water. The manufacturers' instructions should be followed. NSF International, an
independent testing company, tests and certifies water filters for their ability to remove
protozoa, but not for their ability to remove bacteria or viruses. Few published scientific reports
have evaluated the efficacy of specific brands or models of filters against bacteria and viruses in
water. Until such information becomes available, CDC cannot identify which specific brands or
models of filters are most likely to remove bacteria and viruses. To find out if a particular filter is
certified to remove cryptosporidia, contact NSF International by calling 1-877-867-3435; by fax
to 313-769-0109; or by writing to 789 North Dixboro Road, P.O. Box 130140, Ann Arbor,
Michigan 48113-0140; or online at Under "Reduction
claims for drinking water treatment units—health effects," check the box in front of the words
"Cyst Reduction."

     As a last resort, if no source of safe drinking water is available or can be obtained, tap water
that is uncomfortably hot to touch might be safer than cold tap water; however, proper
disinfection, filtering, or boiling is still advised.


      • Backer H. Water disinfection for international and wilderness travelers. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34:355-64.

      • Goodyer L, Behrens RH. Safety of iodine based water sterilization for travelers. J Trav Med. 2000;7:38.

      • Schlosser O, Robert C, Bourderioux C, et al. Bacterial removal from inexpensive portable water treatment
           systems for travelers. 2001; J Travel Med. 8:12-8.

      • Slifko TR, Smith HV, Rose JB. Emerging parasite zoonoses associated with water and food. Int J Parasitol.

                                                                                 -Robert Quick and Michael Beach

Important: For current travel notices, such as outbreak and travel precaution advisories, and additional
recommendations, see this site's Destinations section.

Travelers' Diarrhea
                Disease Listing | General Information | Technical Information | Additional Information

Frequently Asked Questions
  Who gets travelers' diarrhea?

  What are common symptoms of travelers' diarrhea?

  What causes travelers' diarrhea?

  What preventative measures are effective for travelers' diarrhea?

  Is prophylaxis of travelers' diarrhea recommended?

  What treatment measures are effective for travelers' diarrhea?

  When should antimotility agents not be used to treat travelers' diarrhea?

  What is CDC doing to prevent travelers' diarrhea?

  How can I learn more about travelers' diarrhea?

Who gets travelers' diarrhea?

         Travelers' diarrhea (TD) is the most common illness affecting travelers. Each year
between 20%-50% of international travelers, an estimated 10 million persons, develop diarrhea.
The onset of TD usually occurs within the first week of travel but may occur at any time while
traveling, and even after returning home. The most important determinant of risk is the
traveler's destination. High-risk destinations are the developing countries of Latin America,
Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Persons at particular high-risk include young adults,
immunosuppressed persons, persons with inflammatory-bowel disease or diabetes, and persons
taking H-2 blockers or antacids. Attack rates are similar for men and women. The primary source
of infection is ingestion of fecally contaminated food or water.

What are common symptoms of travelers' diarrhea?

         Most TD cases begin abruptly. The illness usually results in increased frequency, volume,
and weight of stool. Altered stool consistency also is common. Typically, a traveler experiences
four to five loose or watery bowel movements each day. Other commonly associated symptoms
are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramping, bloating, fever, urgency, and malaise. Most
cases are benign and resolve in 1-2 days without treatment. TD is rarely life-threatening. The
natural history of TD is that 90% of cases resolve within 1 week, and 98% resolve within 1

What causes travelers' diarrhea?

        Infectious agents are the primary cause of TD. Bacterial enteropathogens cause
approximately 80% of TD cases. The most common causative agent isolated in countries
surveyed has been enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). ETEC produce watery diarrhea with
associated cramps and low-grade or no fever. Besides ETEC and other bacterial pathogens, a
variety of viral and parasitic enteric pathogens also are potential causative agents.

What preventive measures are effective for travelers' diarrhea?

      Travelers can minimize their risk for TD by practicing the following effective preventive

   Avoid eating foods or drinking beverages purchased from street vendors or other
   establishments where unhygienic conditions are present
   Avoid eating raw or undercooked meat and seafood

   Avoid eating raw fruits (e.g., oranges, bananas, avocados) and vegetables unless the traveler
   peels them.

        If handled properly well-cooked and packaged foods usually are safe. Tap water, ice,
unpasteurized milk, and dairy products are associated with increased risk for TD. Safe beverages
include bottled carbonated beverages, hot tea or coffee, beer, wine, and water boiled or
appropriately treated with iodine or chlorine.

Is prophylaxis of travelers' diarrhea recommended?

         CDC does not recommend antimicrobial drugs to prevent TD. Studies show a decrease in
the incidence of TD with use of bismuth subsalicylate and with use of antimicrobial
chemoprophylaxis. Several studies show that bismuth subsalicylate taken as either 2 tablets 4
times daily or 2 fluid ounces 4 times daily reduces the incidence of travelers' diarrhea. The
mechanism of action appears to be both antibacterial and antisecretory. Use of bismuth
subsalicylate should be avoided by persons who are allergic to aspirin, during pregnancy, and by
persons taking certain other medications (e.g., anticoagulants, probenecid, or methotrexate). In
addition, persons should be informed about potential side effects, in particular about temporary
blackening of the tongue and stool, and rarely ringing in the ears. Because of potential adverse
side effects, prophylactic bismuth subsalicylate should not be used for more than 3 weeks.

        Some antibiotics administered in a once-a-day dose are 90% effective at preventing
travelers' diarrhea; however, antibiotics are not recommended as prophylaxis. Routine
antimicrobial prophylaxis increases the traveler's risk for adverse reactions and for infections
with resistant organisms. Because antimicrobials can increase a traveler 's susceptibility to
resistant bacterial pathogens and provide no protection against either viral or parasitic
pathogens, they can give travelers a false sense of security. As a result, strict adherence to
preventive measures is encouraged, and bismuth subsalicylate should be used as an adjunct if
prophylaxis is needed.

What treatment measures are effective for travelers' diarrhea?

        TD usually is a self-limited disorder and often resolves without specific treatment;
however, oral rehydration is often beneficial to replace lost fluids and electrolytes. Clear liquids
are routinely recommended for adults. Travelers who develop three or more loose stools in an
8-hour period---especially if associated with nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, fever, or
blood in stools---may benefit from antimicrobial therapy. Antibiotics usually are given for 3-5
days. Currently, fluoroquinolones are the drugs of choice. Commonly prescribed regimens are
500 mg of ciprofloxacin twice a day or 400 mg of norfloxacin twice a day for 3-5 days.
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and doxycycline are no longer recommended because of the
high level of resistance to these agents. Bismuth subsalicylate also may be used as treatment: 1
fluid ounce or 2 262 mg tablets every 30 minutes for up to eight doses in a 24-hour period,
which can be repeated on a second day. If diarrhea persists despite therapy, travelers should be
evaluated by a doctor and treated for possible parasitic infection.

When should antimotility agents not be used to treat travelers' diarrhea?

        Antimotility agents (loperamide, diphenoxylate, and paregoric) primarily reduce
diarrhea by slowing transit time in the gut, and, thus, allows more time for absorption. Some
persons believe diarrhea is the body's defense mechanism to minimize contact time between
gut pathogens and intestinal mucosa. In several studies, antimotility agents have been useful in
treating travelers' diarrhea by decreasing the duration of diarrhea. However, these agents
should not be used by travelers with fever or bloody diarrhea, because they can increase the
severity of disease by delaying clearance of causative organisms. Because antimotility agents are
now available over the counter, their injudicious use is of concern. Adverse complications (toxic
megacolon, sepsis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation) have been reported as a result
of using these medications to treat diarrhea.

What is CDC doing to prevent travelers' diarrhea?

        CDC, in collaboration with the World Health Organization and several Ministries of
Health, is working to improve food and water safety around the world. CDC also investigates risk
factors associated with acquisition of TD, to assist in identifying more effective preventive
measures. CDC continues to monitor antimicrobial resistance in other countries and in the
United States. In addition, CDC, in collaboration with international agencies, is working to
improve sanitary conditions in foreign accommodations (e.g., tourist resorts) and frequently
consults with travel medicine specialists and local and state health departments. CDC is
responsible for evaluating sanitation on cruise ships docking in US ports.

Please visit CDC's Traveler's Health site for more information about the vessel sanitation
program and for a summary of recent vessel inspections.

How can I learn more about travelers' diarrhea?

        Potential travelers should consult with a doctor or a travel medicine specialist before
departing on a trip abroad. Information about TD is available from your local or state health
departments or the World Health Organization (WHO).

Other information that may be of interest to travelers can be found at the CDC Travelers' Health
homepage at

 For information about avian influenza and travel, please go to the
        Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website: avel/contentAvianFluInfor mation.aspx

Worldwide Caution

February 2, 2009

        This Worldwide Caution updates information on the continuing threat of terrorist
actions and violence against Americans and interests throughout the world. In some countries,
the worldwide recession has contributed to political and economic instability and social
unrest. The armed conflict between Israeli forces and Hamas in Gaza, which began in December
2008, raised tensions and sparked demonstrations throughout the world. U.S. citizens and
others were killed in recent terrorist attacks in India and Pakistan. American citizens are
reminded to maintain a high level of vigilance and to take appropriate steps to increase their
security awareness. This replaces the Worldwide Caution dated July 16, 2008 to provide
updated information on security threats and terrorist activities worldwide.

         The Department of State remains concerned about the continued threat of terrorist
attacks, demonstrations, and other violent actions against U.S. citizens and interests
overseas. Americans are reminded that demonstrations and rioting can occur with little or no
warning. Current information suggests that al-Qaida and affiliated organizations continue to
plan terrorist attacks against U.S. interests in multiple regions, including Europe, Asia, Africa,
and the Middle East. These attacks may employ a wide variety of tactics including suicide
operations, assassinations, kidnappings, hijackings, and bombings. The September 2006 attack
on the U.S. Embassy in Syria and the March 2006 bombing near the U.S. Consulate in Karachi,
Pakistan illustrate the continuing desire of extremists to strike American targets.

          Extremists may elect to use conventional or non-conventional weapons, and target both
official and private interests. Examples of such targets include high-profile sporting events,
residential areas, business offices, hotels, clubs, restaurants, places of worship, schools, public
areas, and locales where Americans gather in large numbers, including during
holidays. Terrorists attacked two hotels, a railway station, restaurant, hospital, and other
locations in Mumbai, India, frequented by Westerners on November 26, 2008. Over 100
persons are believed to have been killed, including six Americans, and hundreds were
injured. On September 20, terrorist bombed the Islamabad Marriott Hotel killing two U.S.
Department of Defense employees and one Department of State contractor, whose remains are
still unaccounted for. One private American sustained minor injuries. A July 9, 2008, terrorist
attack on Turkish police guarding the U.S. Consulate General in Istanbul, Turkey, killed three
police officers and wounded other police personnel. On March 15, 2008, a bomb at an Italian
restaurant in Islamabad, Pakistan, killed two and injured twelve, including five Americans. Also
on March 15, two bombs exploded at the CS Pattani Hotel in southern Thailand, killing two and
injuring thirteen.

         Americans are reminded of the potential for terrorists to attack public transportation
systems. Bombs exploded near city buses in Tripoli, Lebanon, on August 13 and September 29,
2008, killing twenty-one people. Other examples include multiple anti-personnel mine
detonations on passenger buses in June 2008 in Sri Lanka, multiple terrorist attacks on trains in
India in 2006, the July 2005 London Underground bombings, and the March 2004 train attacks in
Madrid. Extremists also may select aviation and maritime services as possible targets, such as
the August 2006 plot against aircraft in London, or the December 2006 bomb at Madrid's
Barajas International Airport. In June 2007, a vehicle was driven into the main terminal at
Glasgow International Airport and burst into flames, but the bomb failed to detonate.

                             The Middle East and North Africa
         Credible information indicates terrorist groups seek to continue attacks against U.S.
interests in the Middle East and North Africa. Terrorist actions may include bombings,
hijackings, hostage taking, kidnappings, and assassinations. While conventional weapons such
as explosive devices are a more immediate threat in many areas, use of non-conventional
weapons, including chemical or biological agents, must be considered a possible
threat. Terrorists do not distinguish between official and civilian targets. Increased security at
official U.S. facilities has led terrorists and their sympathizers to seek softer targets such as
public transportation, residential areas, and public areas where people congregate, including
restaurants, hotels, clubs, and shopping areas.

          On September 17, 2008, armed terrorists attacked the U.S. Embassy in Sana'a, Yemen,
killing several Yemeni personnel, one embassy security guard, and a few individuals waiting to
gain entry to the embassy. On March 18, 2008, a mortar attack on the U.S. Embassy in Yemen
injured several Yemeni citizens in the vicinity. On January 15, 2008, a roadside explosion in
Beirut, Lebanon killed three Lebanese and injured an American citizen. On December 11, 2007,
two vehicle-borne explosive devices were detonated at the UN headquarters in Algiers and the
Algerian Constitutional Council. Three suicide bomb attacks in July and September of 2007 in
Algeria killed more than 80 people. In July 2007, suspected al-Qaida operatives carried out a
vehicle-borne explosive device attack on tourists at the Bilquis Temple in Yemen, killing eight
Spanish tourists and their two Yemeni drivers. There were a series of bombings in Morocco in
March and April 2007, two of which occurred simultaneously outside the U.S. Consulate General
and the private American Language Center in Casablanca. Additionally, an attack took place on
the American International School in Gaza in April 2007. These events underscore the intent of
terrorist entities to target facilities perceived to cater to Westerners.

         Potential targets are not limited to those companies or establishments with overt U.S.
ties. For instance, terrorists may target movie theaters, liquor stores, bars, casinos, or any
similar type of establishment, regardless of whether they are owned and operated by host
country nationals. Due to varying degrees of security at all such locations, Americans should be
particularly vigilant when visiting these establishments.

         The violence in Iraq and conflict between Palestinians and Israelis has the potential to
produce demonstrations and unrest throughout the region. The armed conflict between Israeli
forces and Hamas in Gaza, which began in December 2008, raised tensions and sparked
demonstrations throughout the world. The Department of State continues to warn of the
possibility for violent actions against U.S. citizens and interests in the region. Anti-American
violence could include possible terrorist actions against aviation, ground transportation, and
maritime interests, specifically in the Middle East, including the Red Sea, Persian Gulf, the
Arabian Peninsula, and North Africa.

        The Department is concerned that extremists may be planning to carry out attacks
against Westerners and oil workers on the Arabian Peninsula. Armed attacks targeting foreign
nationals in Saudi Arabia that resulted in many deaths and injuries, including U.S. citizens,
appear to have been preceded by extensive surveillance. Tourist destinations in Egypt
frequented by Westerners were attacked in April 2006 resulting in many deaths and injuries,
including Americans. Extremists may be surveilling Westerners, particularly at hotels, housing
areas, and rental car facilities. Potential targets may include U.S. contractors, particularly those
related to military interests. Financial or economic venues of value also could be considered as
possible targets; the failed attack on the Abqaiq oil processing facility in Saudi Arabia in late
February 2006 and the September 2006 attack on oil facilities in Yemen are examples.

                                            East Africa
          A number of al-Qaida operatives and other extremists are believed to be operating in
and around East Africa. As a result of the conflict in Somalia, some of these individuals may seek
to relocate elsewhere in the region. Americans considering travel to the region and those
already there should review their plans carefully, remain vigilant with regard to their personal
security, and exercise caution. Terrorist actions may include suicide operations, bombings,
kidnappings, or targeting maritime vessels. Terrorists do not distinguish between official and
civilian targets. Increased security at official U.S. facilities has led terrorists to seek softer
targets such as hotels, beach resorts, prominent public places, and landmarks. In particular,
terrorists and likeminded extremists may target international aid workers, civil aviation, and
seaports in various locations throughout East Africa, including Somalia. Americans in remote
areas or border regions where military or police authority is limited or non-existent could also
become targets.

        Americans considering travel by sea near the Horn of Africa or in the southern Red Sea
should exercise extreme caution, as there has been a notable increase in armed attacks,
robberies, and kidnappings for ransom at sea by pirates in recent months. Merchant vessels
continue to be hijacked in Somali territorial waters, while others have been hijacked as far as
300 nautical miles off the coast of Somalia, Yemen, and Kenya in international waters.

      The U.S. Government maritime authorities advise mariners to avoid the port of
Mogadishu, and to remain at least 200 nautical miles off the coast of Somalia. In addition, when
transiting around the Horn of Africa or in the Red Sea, it is strongly recommended that vessels
travel in convoys, and maintain good communications contact at all times. Americans traveling
on commercial passenger vessels should consult with the shipping or cruise Ship Company
regarding precautions that will be taken to avoid hijacking incidents. Commercial vessels should
review the Department of Transportation Maritime Administration's suggested piracy
countermeasures for vessels transiting the Gulf of Aden.

                                   South and Central Asia
          The U.S. Government continues to receive information that terrorist groups in South
and Central Asia may be planning attacks in the region, possibly against U.S. Government
facilities, American citizens, or American interests. The presence of al-Qaida, Taliban elements,
indigenous sectarian groups, and other terror organizations, many of which are on the U.S.
Government's list of foreign terror organizations, poses a potential danger to American citizens
in the region. Continuing tensions in the Middle East may also increase the threat of anti-
Western or anti-American violence in the region.

          Terrorists and their sympathizers have demonstrated their willingness and capability to
attack targets where Americans or Westerners are known to congregate or visit. Their actions
may include, but are not limited to, vehicle-born explosives, improvised explosive devices,
assassinations, carjacking, rocket attacks, assaults or kidnappings. In November 2008,
coordinated terrorist attacks on luxury hotels, a Jewish community center, a restaurant, train
station, hospital, and other facilities frequented by foreigners in Mumbai, India killed more than
170, including six Americans. On November 12, 2008, an American government contractor and
his driver in Peshawar, Pakistan were shot and killed in their car. In September 2008, more than
fifty people, including three Americans, were killed and hundreds were injured when a suicide
bomber set off a truck filled with explosives outside a major international hotel in Islamabad,
Pakistan. In August 2008, gunmen stopped and shot at the vehicle of an American diplomat in
Peshawar. In August, three female western non-governmental organization (NGO) employees,
along with their male Afghan driver, were gunned down as they traveled south of Kabul,
Afghanistan. On June 2, 2008, a large bomb exploded in front of the Danish Embassy in
Islamabad killing at least six people and wounding nearly 20. In May 2008, a series of
coordinated bombings occurred in market and temple areas of the tourist city of Jaipur in
Rajasthan, India. In Afghanistan, kidnappings and terrorist attacks on international
organizations, international aid workers, and foreign interests continue. In Sri Lanka, the
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam and other groups have conducted suicide bombings at political
rallies, government buildings, and major economic targets, and in recent months have
increasingly targeted public transportation. Although there is no indication that American
citizens were targeted in these attacks, and none were injured, there is a heightened risk of
American citizens being victims of violence by being in the wrong place at the wrong time.

        Previous terrorist attacks conducted in Central Asia have involved improvised explosive
devices and suicide bombers and have targeted public areas, such as markets, local government
facilities, and, in 2004, the U.S. and Israeli Embassies in Uzbekistan. In addition, hostage-takings
and skirmishes have occurred near the Uzbek-Tajik-Kyrgyz border areas.

                                         Before You Go
        U.S. citizens living or traveling abroad are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S.
Embassy or Consulate through the State Department's travel registration web site at so that they can obtain updated information on
travel and security. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest
U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or
Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.

        U.S. citizens are strongly encouraged to maintain a high level of vigilance, be aware of
local events, and take the appropriate steps to bolster their personal security. For additional
information, please refer to "A Safe Trip Abroad" found at

          U.S. Government facilities worldwide remain at a heightened state of alert. These
facilities may temporarily close or periodically suspend public services to assess their security
posture. In those instances, U.S. embassies and consulates will make every effort to provide
emergency services to U.S. citizens. Americans abroad are urged to monitor the local news and
maintain contact with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.

         As the Department continues to develop information on any potential security threats
to U.S. citizens overseas, it shares credible threat information through its Consular Information
Program documents, available on the Internet at In addition to
information on the Internet, travelers may obtain up-to-date information on security conditions
by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll-free in the United States and Canada or, outside the United States
and Canada on a regular toll line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 am
to 8:00 pm Monday through Friday, Eastern Time (except U.S. federal holidays.)



Your parents can contact you and leave messages for you at:

            Universidad Nacional de Cuyo
            Facultad de Filosofía y Letras
         Centro Universitario 5500 Mendoza
              Contact: Amparo Argerich
         tel.: 011-54-61-420-5115 ext. 2232

             Dial telephone numbers as shown.


                     Sarita Rai

              Study Abroad Director

                  Moore Hall 115

               1890 East-West Road

             Honolulu, Hawaii 96822

           TELEPHONE (808) 956-4738

                FAX (808) 956-9319



            Overseas Citizens Services

             U.S. Department of State

        Office of Citizens Consular Services

              Washington D.C. 20520

           TELEPHONE 1-202-647-4000

             Toll-free 1-888-407-4747

      Public Affairs Office Fax (202) 647-6074



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