Research Project on Dumping of China Mobiles in India by pxg20930


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									    India to have satellite to monitor green house emission
A dedicated satellite would be launched with the support of
Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) by 2012 to monitor
India's greenhouse gas emission, Union Minister for
Environment and Forests Mr. Jairam Ramesh disclosed.

"Currently, Japan and European countries have this satellite
but by 2012 we will have a dedicated satellite that will monitor
greenhouse gas emission across the country and globe," Mr.
               The                                             change
Ramesh added. “The objective is to study the impact of climate change,        fallout of
greenhouse gas emissions on the environment by monitoring it through satellite
technology,” he said.

Another satellite for protection and development of the forest cover in India would be
ready by 2013. "As the forests are getting depleted at a rapid pace elsewhere in the
world, there seems to be a need for a satellite," Mr. Ramesh said. The Minister pointed
out that India will be more impacted by climate change than any other country. "In many
ways, we have the highest vulnerability on multiple dimensions including dependence on
                                                   eco-system among others," Mr.
monsoon, less forest cover and no proper Himalayan eco      m
Ramesh said.

  “There should be emphasis on pollution and public health,” he said, adding “in
Bathinda (Punjab), there are growing incidence of cancer being linked to environmental
pollution. Also, in Chandrapur (Maharashtra), incidence of respiratory tract problems in
children are increasing."
               Solar energy to light up 191 remote villages

In a bid to save energy, Jammu and Kashmir
government under its ‘Green Campaign' will light up 191
remote and mountainous hamlets with solar energy.

“The state government will light up 191 remote villages
and hilly hamlets in J&K with solar lights after lighting
up border tehsil of Gurez in North Kashmir,” officials of
Science and Technology Department disclosed.

In this direction, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
has agreed to provide 41,000 additional solar home lighting systems to 191
villages at a cost of Rs. 54 crores under a project drawn by J&K Science and
Technology Department, they said.

The beneficiaries are required to buy a small component of about Rs 750 whereas
assistance of more than Rs 11,000 is available from central government, they

The solar plants will also be provided to Dargah Sharief Hazratbal in Srinagar,
Mata Vaishno Devi in Reasi district, Ziarat Charar-e-Sharief in Budgam besides,
Raj Bhavans and State Legislature Complexes at Jammu and Srinagar capital
cities, the officials said.

The solar power plants would also come up at state's 22 health institutes, they

Situated close to Indo-Pak border in northern Kashmir's Kupwara district,
mountain locked Gurez has shown the way in solar lighting in the state.

As many 27 remote and mountainous hamlets in Gurez have been provided with
3,726 solar home lighting systems till now.
                        Mounting threat from e
India, one of the two largest markets for mobile
phones in the world along with China, faces a
mounting problem — how to get rid of the
discarded mobiles.

For, by the year 2020, the size of the discarded
mobile mound will grow by 18 times from the 2007
level, says a United Nations Environment
Programme study.

                              e-waste recycling mechanism is put in place, these abandoned
Health problems: If no proper e
phones are going to create environmental damage and health problems, the study warns.

The study, ‘Recycling from e-waste to resources,' was released at a combined meeting of the
bodies of UN Conventions on hazardous chemical wastes, organized by the UNEP, at Bali. It
warns developing countries, especially fast growing economies like India, China, Brazil and
South Africa, that if efforts are not made to recycle the abandoned electronic equipment, they
will be in for big environmental trouble.

Apart from mobile phones, old computers, TVs and refrigerators added to the e          e-waste
mountain in these countries. For instance, computer e waste in India will have risen by five
times in 2020 from the 2007 level. Discarded refrigerators will double or even triple.

The report estimates that India's current e waste generation is: 2.75 lakh tonnes from TVs,
over one lakh tonnes from refrigerators, 56,300 tonnes from personal computers, 1,700
tonnes from mobiles and 4,700 from printers.

         ,                        e-waste
However, China's problem from e waste is much more than that of India. It now generates five
lakh tonnes of refrigerator waste and three lakh tonnes of PC waste. Apart from the e-waste
generated by domestic consumption, India, China and other developing countries also have
to confront the legal and illegal dumping of e waste by western countries, mainly the United
States which is, as of now, not bound by international agreements on hazardous wastes as it
has refused to sign such treaties.

Global environmental NGOs have in the past caught several shipments of e waste on the way
to the illegal dumping yards in developing countries. For instance, Jim Puckett, leader of a
global NGO battling such dumping, pointed out at a media meeting that as recent as this
week the Indonesian government, alerted by his group, had sent back two ship containers
carrying computer waste sent by an American company. The UNEP report also notes that
global e-waste generation is growing by 40 million tonnes a year. In 2007, more than one
billion mobiles were sold in the world and the sales are set to jump in the coming years,
particularly in developing countries which are home to large populations.
     Super material will make lighting cheaper and fully recyclable

Swedish and American researchers have succeeded in
producing a new type of lighting component, using a new
‘super-material’ grapheme, which is inexpensive to produce
and can be fully recycled.

The invention, which paves the way for glowing wallpaper
made entirely of plastic, for example, is published in the
scientific journal ACS Nano by scientists at LinkÖping
University and Umeå University, in Sweden, and Rutgers, The
State University of New Jersey.

Ultra-thin and electricity-saving organic light diodes, so-called OLEDs, have recently
been introduced commercially in mobiles phones, cameras and super-thin TVs. An OLED
consists of a light-generating layer of plastic placed between two electrodes, one of
which must be transparent. Today’s OLEDs have two drawbacks-they are relatively
expensive to produce, and the transparent electrode consists of the metal alloy indium
tin oxide. The latter presents a problem because indium is both rare and expensive and
moreover is complicated to recycle.

Now researchers at LinkÖping and Umeå universities, working with American
colleagues, are presenting an alternative to PLEDs, an organic light-emitting
electrochemical cell (LEC). It is inexpensive to produce, and the transparent electrode is
made of the carbon material graphene.

Major step: “This is a major step forward in the development of organic lighting
components, from both a technological and an environmental perspective. Organic
electronics components promise to become extremely common in exciting new
applications in the future, but this can create major recycling problems. By using
graphene instead of conventional metal electrodes, components of the future will be
much easier to recycle and thereby environmentally attractive,” says one of the
scientists, Nathaniel Robinson from LinkÖping University.

Since all the LEC’s parts can be produced from liquid solutions, it will also be possible to
make LEC’s in a roll-to-roll process on, for example, a printing press in a highly cost-
effective way.

Graphene consists of a single layer of carbon atoms and has many attractive properties
as an electronic material. It has high conductivity, is virtually transparent, and can
moreover be produced as a solution in the form of graphene oxide. Researchers all over
the world have been trying to replace indium tin oxide for more than 15 years. Indium is
in short supply, and the alloy has a complicated life cycle. The raw material for the fully
organic and metal-free LEC, on the other hand, is inexhaustible and can be fully
recycled- as fuel, for example.

Note: The author may have used various references in the preparation of this article. For further details please contact him/her.

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