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The Nature and Origins of Communism in China

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The Nature and Origins of Communism in China Powered By Docstoc
					Reading on “global commodity
chains” and sweatshop labor
   What happens in global commodity chains?
       Production of shoes, clothes, toys, consumer electronics
            Design
            Factory investment, ownership, & management
            Manufacturing (some call ―sweatshop labor‖)
            Marketing

   Where does each function take place?
       Core?
       Semi-periphery?
       Periphery?

   Which functions command the biggest share of the
    profits?
                                                                   1
Background to reading on “global
commodity chains” and sweatshop labor
Dependency                  World Systems
Core                        Core
Periphery                   Semi-periphery
                            Periphery

   World systems theory
     There is some potential for countries in the periphery
      to develop and move into the ―semi-periphery,‖
      although they are unlikely to catch up to core countries.
   Global commodity chain studies draw on the
    insights of dependency/world systems theory
                                                             2
Chinese Development in Comparative
Perspective


   China was extremely
    backward in late 19th
    and early 20th C
          Agriculture—failed to
           keep up with population
           growth leading to
           extreme poverty
          Little industrial
           development
    China Faced Severe Military Threats

   Repeatedly defeat in war
       Opium Wars 1842, 1860
       Sino-Japanese War 1895

   Resulted in limits on
    sovereignty
       China ―carved up like a ripe
        melon‖
            treaty ports, foreign
             ―concessions,‖
            extra-territoriality
Chinese Development in Comparative
Perspective

   China’s early failed response to the
    challenge of the West
     Contrasts       w/ Japan
          resistance to ―Westernization‖
               China: how to adopt Western technology without
                Western values?
     Internal     crisis
          population pressure
               1600s: 125 million; mid-1800s: 400 million
          peasant rebellions
               1850-1880—est. 100 million deaths
    Chinese Development in Comparative
    Perspective
   China begins to
    catch up
      Successful
      industrialization
           Military
            implications
Origins of the Chinese Communist System

   Communist Party of
    China founded 1921
     Fights   for power
   People’s Republic of
    China founded 1949
Origins of the Chinese Communist System
   Sources of support for
    Communist revolution
    in China
     redistributionof land to
      peasants (land reform)
       appeal to socio-
      economic interests
     resistance to Japanese
      invasion (1937-45)
       appeal to
      nationalism
Origins of the Chinese Communist System

   China looks to Soviet Union for model of ―catch-
    up‖ development
     Soviet-style  planned economy
     Totalitarian regime under Mao Zedong
Chinese Development in Comparative
Perspective

   China attempts to adopt Soviet-style planned
    economy
     Contrasts     w/ Soviet Union
          Compare starting points of ―First Five-Year Plans‖
             Soviet—1927
             China—1953

          Even more backward (Gerschenkron)
             China: Lower agricultural output (Soviet 5x higher)
             China: Lower industrial output (Soviet 4x higher)
Chinese Development in Comparative
Perspective
   Lenin’s innovation
       vanguard party leads
        proletariat in establishing
        socialism
   Mao’s innovations
     vanguard party leads
      peasantry–not proletariat—in
      establishing socialism
     voluntarism (where there’s a
      will there’s a way)
            Contrast orthodox Marxist
             emphasis on real material
             conditions
       mass mobilization
Chinese Development in Comparative
Perspective
   Mao tries to compensate for China’s relative
    backwardness
       ―Great Leap Forward‖ 1958-61
    Chinese Development in Comparative
    Perspective
   Mao tries to compensate
    for China’s relative
    backwardness
      ―Great Proletarian
        Cultural Revolution‖
        1966-76
           part struggle over
            correct model for
            economic development
           part struggle for power
            w/in CCP (Chinese
            Communist Party)
    Impetus for Reform in China
   Crisis of political legitimacy
   Communist utopia?  or
    economic stagnation
     Percapita household
      expenditures
           Increased only 2.2% 1952-75
     1975     per capita consumption
           Grain, cooking oil, meat
             lower than in 1950s


                                          14
Impetus for Reform in China
 Crisis of political legitimacy
 Nationalism (wealthy/strong China)?
  Demonstration effect/challenge of East
  Asian ―tigers‖
     South   Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore




                                              15
Reform in China and Comparisons with
Russia

   Communist Party welcomes reform
     CulturalRevolution chaos in China
       made reform more welcome/more urgent
      to Communist Party cadres
     Contrast: entrenched bureaucracy in Soviet
      Union
Reform in China and Comparisons with
Russia

   China introduces market forces
          death creates political opportunity
     Mao’s
     Communist Party begins economic reform 1978
          Under new leader Deng Xiaoping
    Reform in China and Comparisons with
    Russia
   Economic
      China   still a largely agricultural economy as of
      1978
          Huge opportunities for growth through industrialization
      Contrast: Soviet Union had already completed
      transition from agricultural to industrial economy
Reform in China and Comparisons with
Russia
     Contrast: “Shock therapy” in Russia
     Gradualism in China
          Introduce market forces into agricultural sector first
Reform in China and Comparisons with
Russia

    Contrast “Shock therapy” in Russia
    Gradualism in China
         Gradual change in smaller industrial sector
               Froze plan obligations at 1984 levels
               Introduced prices ―on the margin‖
               made reform less painful in China
Reform in China and Comparisons with
Russia


   Russia—neo-liberal-informed             policies destroy state
    sector
   China—market-oriented policies link state and market
        Fundamental change in strategy
             From planned to market economy
             With active but more selective state intervention
                 Pre-WTO:        high tariff barriers,
                                  bank loans for state industry
                                  tax breaks for exporters, key industries
Developmental Outcomes in China
   Spectacular economic growth
       About 9-10 percent per year since the late 1970s
   Increasing incomes on average (7-fold increase in 20 years)
     1985: $293
     2006: $2,025
   Improving literacy
       1978: 37 % of adults illiterate
       2005: <10 %
   Improving infant survival
       1978:   41 deaths per 1,000 live births
       2005:   23
   Major drop in absolute poverty
     Between 1990 and 2004 the number of people living on a dollar per
      day fell by 246 million, while total population rose by over 156
      million.
     Growth has helped to lift several hundred million people out of
      absolute poverty, with the result that China alone accounted for
      over 75 percent of poverty reduction in the developing world over
      the last 20 years.
Social Implications of China’s
Economic Reforms
   Symptoms of a ―19th-Century-style‖ capitalism
     Large and growing income           inequality
        1983: 0.28 (gini coefficient)

        2001: 0.447

     Environmental degradation
        China has 20 of the world's 30 most polluted cities, largely
         due to high coal use and motorization.
     Lack of protection    for vulnerable social groups
        Poor

        Unemployed

        Elderly

        Sick

				
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posted:7/15/2011
language:English
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