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Research Project on Nokia Mobile

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					Lesson 3
Measurement & Attitude
Scales
in Marketing Research




                         1
Lesson outline:
  Considerations in Choosing a
  Question-Response Format

  Some Basic Concepts in Measurement

  The Four Types of Scales used by
  Marketing Researchers

  Reliability & Validity of Measurements

                                     2
Basic Question-Response
Formats
 Designing a questionnaire can be compared
 with Backstreet Boys composing a song, or
 Vincent Van Gogh painting a landscape… it
 requires creativity!
 There are however, some basic aspects to
 questionnaire should be taken into
 consideration
 There are basically three basic question-
 response formats for a researcher to
 choose

                                      3
BASIC QUESTION-
RESPONSE FORMATS
(1) Open-Ended Response Format Questions
  Unprobed
  Probed Format

(2) Closed-Ended Response Format Questions
  Dichotomous
  Multiple Category

(3) Scaled-Response Format Questions
  Labeled
  Unlabeled



                                             4
 BASIC QUESTION-
 RESPONSE FORMATS
(1) Open-Ended Response Format Questions
  Unprobed
  Probed Format
 There is no response options for the
 respondent
 Respondent is instructed to respond in
 his/her own words
 The response naturally depends on the
 topic

                                          5
 BASIC QUESTION-
 RESPONSE FORMATS
(1) Open-Ended Response Format Questions
   Unprobed OR Probed Format
  An unprobed format seeks no additional
  information from the respondent
  When the researcher wants comments or
  statements or simply wants the respondent
  to indicate the name of a brand or the name
  of a movie or store – he uses a probed
  format

                                         6
 BASIC QUESTION-
 RESPONSE FORMATS
(1) Open-Ended Response Format Questions
   Unprobed
  Q1 „What do you think of the latest Nokia
  mobile phone?‟
  „I don‟t like it!.‟




                                        7
  BASIC QUESTION-RESPONSE
  FORMATS
(1) Open-Ended Response Format Questions
   Probed Format
    „Did you watch F4 in concert last week?
    „Yes‟
    What do you think of the concert?‟
    „It was terrible!‟
    Why was it terrible?
    „They danced funny and their dressing were
    so obiang!‟
                                        8
BASIC QUESTION-
RESPONSE FORMATS
(2) Closed-Ended Response Format Questions
     Provides response options to questions

  Can be Dichotomous OR Multiple Category

    A dichotomous close ended question has
    only two response options, e.g. „yes‟ or „no‟,
    „agree‟ or „disagree‟
    If there are more than two options for the
    response, then the researcher is using a
    multiple category closed-ended question
                                           9
 BASIC QUESTION-
 RESPONSE FORMATS
(2) Examples:

   Dichotomous
     Do you agree or disagree with the statement „Nokia
     handphones are more durable than Motorola
     handphones?

   Multiple Category
    If you were to buy a handphone tomorrow, which
    brand would you be most likely to purchase? Would
    it be: (a) Nokia (b) Motorola c) Ericsson (d) Siemens
    (e) National Panasonic (f) other brands?

                                                 10
BASIC QUESTION-
RESPONSE FORMATS
(3) Scaled-Response Format Questions
  Labeled OR Unlabeled
   A Scaled-Response question uses a scale
   developed by the researcher to measure
   the attributes
   The response options are identified on the
   questionnaire


                                          11
BASIC QUESTION-
RESPONSE FORMATS
(3) Scaled-Response Format Questions
  Labeled scaled-response format uses a
   scale in which all of the scale positions
   are identified with some descriptors
  Eg. Do you strongly disagree, disagree,
   agree or strongly agree with the
   statement “Nokia handphones are of
   better value than Motorola
   handphones?”
                                         12
BASIC QUESTION-
RESPONSE FORMATS
(3) Scaled-Response Format Questions
  For Unlabeled scaled-response format,
    the scale may be purely numerical and
    only end-points of the scale are
    identified
  E.g. On the scale of 1 to 5, how do you
    rate the Nokia handphone on the ease
    of operation?
  (1 = very easy to 5 = very difficult)
                                      13
       MORE EXAMPLES…
        Labeled scaled-response format

     Marketing Research is an interesting subject

       Strongly Agree      Agree       Disagree       Strongly Disagree

            1               2            3                     4
       Unlabeled scaled-response format
     In choosing a Poly, it must have modern teaching facilities
Not Important at all                                      V. Important

       1               2           3              4                5

                                                              14
 Pros & Cons of Alternative
 Response Formats
Example:
Unprobed open-ended question
+ allows respondents to use his/her own
  words
- Difficult to code and interpret
Probed open-ended question
+ able to get complete answers
- Difficult to code and interpret

Please read Chapter 9 page 305 for more
  details!                              15
   CONSIDERATIONS IN
   CHOOSING A QUESTION
   RESPONSE FORMAT
Nature of the Property being Measured


  Previous Research Studies


    Data Collection Mode                Correct Format!
     Ability of the Respondent


      Scale Level Desired

                                                  16
Nature of the Property Being
Measured
 The inherent nature of the response
 often determines the question-response
 format
   For instance, if the F4 pop group wants to
   know if the respondents have seen their
   last MTV, the only answers are ‘yes’, ‘no’
   and perhaps ‘do not recall.’
   But if Kit Kat wants to know how much
   consumers like their new chocolate bar,
   then a scaled-response approach is better

                                        17
Previous Research Studies
 Sometimes a survey follows an earlier one,
 and there may be a desire to compare new
 findings with the previous survey
 Researchers may want to try to use question
 formats that are tried and used before,
 proven to be reliable and valid and suits the
 purpose of the current study, it is then a good
 practice to adopt or adapt it rather than ‘re-
 inventing the wheel’


                                          18
 Data Collection Mode
Some data collection modes are better suited for
certain question formats

It can be difficult to administer certain types of
response formats (e.g. scaled response type) over the
telephone as some require detailed explanation before
the respondent can envision the response-scale items

However, mail or other self-administered
questionnaires accommodates scaled-response
questions well because the respondent can see the
response categories on the questionnaire itself



                                              19
Ability of the Respondent
Some respondents may relate better to one type of
response format than another

For instance, if the respondent is not as articulate
or may be reluctant to verbalize their opinions, open-
ended option is not a wise move

Some respondents may not be used to rating objects
on numerical scales (unlabeled format). It is then
appropriate to use a label format, or perhaps to move
back to a „yes‟ „no‟ dichotomous closed-ended
question format
                                               20
Scale Level Desired
If response options are simply „yes‟ or „no‟, the
researcher can report the percentages - (60%
answered „yes‟, 40% answered „no‟)

But if the question asks how many times respondents
used an ATM machine during the past month, the
researcher could calculate an average number of times
e.g. 8.5 times a month

An average is different from a percent, dichotomous
yes-no response is less informative than a scaled-
response option such as „0‟, „1‟ or „2‟…


                                                21
Basic Concepts in Measurement
In research, what are we really measuring?
We are measuring ‘properties’ – ‘attributes’ or
‘qualities’ – of objects
Objects refer to consumers, brands, stores,
advertisements or whatever of interests to the
researcher in the research project
Properties are the specific features or
characteristics of an object that can be used
to distinguish it from another object
In research, measurement is determining
HOW MUCH of a property is possessed by
an object
                                            22
MEASUREMENT IN
MARKETING RESEARCH


Basic Concepts in Measurement
    • Objective Properties
    • Subjective Properties


                              23
MEASUREMENT IN
MARKETING RESEARCH
 Objective properties are physically
 verifiable characteristics such as age,
 income, gender, race, number of times
 xxx etc. Easy to measure
 Sometimes market researcher often
 desire to measure subjective properties
 which cannot be directly observed e.g. a
 person’s attitudes, beliefs or intentions

                                     24
MARKETING RESEARCH DONE
BY A DRINK MANUFACTURER
Object             Mr. Kiasu   Ms. Heow

Properties
Age                20          32
Annual Income      $40,000     $25,000
Gender             Male        Female
Canned Drink
Last bought        Coca-cola   Pepsi
Evaluation
Of ‘our’ brand     Good        Fair
Intention to buy
Our brand          Strong      Weak



                                          25
 Levels of Measurement of Scales

4 types
Nominal Scale – using only
labels/characteristics of descriptions
Ordinal Scale – ability to rank-order
Interval Scale – distance between descriptor
is known
Ratio Scale – ones in which a true zero
origin exists

                                     26
Nominal Scaled Question
Please indicate your housing type 1) HDB 2) Private Apts
Please indicate your gender 1) Male 2) Female

Ordinal Scaled Question
Please rank your preference of the following mobile phone
brands (1 – most preferred to 3 – least preferred)
Nokia       _____
Motorola _____
Siemens     _____

In your opinion, can you say the prices of NTUC are
_____ higher than Carrefour
_____ about the same as Carrefour
_____ lower than Carrefour
                                                      27
 Interval Scaled Questions
 Please rate each car brand in terms of its overall performance
             Very Poor                  Very Good
  Toyota          1      2     3      4       5
  Mitsubishi      1      2     3      4       5
  Nissan          1      2     3      4       5


Ratio Scaled Questions
1. Please indicate your weight.        _______ kg
2. About how many times have you spend more than $10 in
  NTUC last week?
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 >7 (please specify_____)
3. What’s the probability that you will take a cab if you want
   go to Orchard Road?
   _______ percent
                                                       28

				
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