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Next Generation Networks and IP issues - ITU-Arab Regional Office

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					International Telecommunication Union




                        Regional Symposium on
                           E-government and IP
                    Dubai (UAE), 22-25 November 2004

         Next Generation Networks and IP issues:Exploiting
         advanced visions to optimize network services and
        applications, INTERNET EXCHANGE, WiFi and WiMax

                                                                                           Désiré KARYABWITE
                                                                                                  IP Coordinator,
                                                                                                  E-Strategy Unit,
                                                                                 Email: desire.karyabwite@itu.int
                                                                       Tel: +41 22 730 5009 Fax: +41 22 730 5484
The views expressed in this paper are those of the author and may not necessarily reflect the opinions of the
ITU or its membership..
    International Telecommunication Union

                     Table of Contents


     1. Introduction
     2. Challenges of Change: NGN, Internet
        Interconnections and IXPs
     3. Wireless Access Systems (WAS) ITU
        Standards, Wi-Fi and WiMax
     4. Conclusion




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     1. INTRODUCTION
      Quality of Service

           H.323, H.248
             (SS7/SIP)                    PSTN
            Gatekeeper


                 IP        H.323, H.248
                           (SS7/SIP)
               Network
                            Gatway




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                                            GSM / 3G /4G
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     Open standard : DVB-RCS (Digital Video Broadcast - Return
     Channel System) (up to 8 Mbps downstream and up to 2 Mbps
     upstream).
         Class 1 (0 to 150 ms for really time com) Tel. Com
         Class 2 (150 to 300 ms) bi-directional not really time
         Class 3 (300 to 700 ms) half-duplex
4        Class 4 (> 700 ms) mil radio …
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       2. Challenges of Change: NGN, Internet
       Interconnections and IXPs
         2.1 Definition of Next Generation Network

         A Next Generation Network (NGN) is a packet-based network able
         to provide services including Telecommunication Services and able
         to make use of multiple broadband, QoS-enabled transport
         technologies and in which service-related functions are
         independent from underlying transport-related technologies. It
         offers unrestricted access by users to different service providers.
         It supports generalized mobility which will allow consistent and
         ubiquitous provision of services to users.

         The NGN is characterized by the following fundamental aspects:
             •Packet-based transfer
             •Separation of control functions among bearer capabilities,
             call/session, and application/ service
             •Decoupling of service provision from network, and provision
             of open interfaces

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          •Support for a wide range of services, applications and mechanisms
          based on service building blocks (including real time/ streaming/ non-
          real time services and multi-media)
          •Broadband capabilities with end-to-end QoS and transparency
          •Interworking with legacy networks via open interfaces
          •Generalized mobility
          •Unrestricted access by users to different service providers
          •A variety of identification schemes which can be resolved to IP
          addresses for the purposes of routing in IP networks
          •Unified service characteristics for the same service as perceived by
          the user
          •Converged services between Fixed/Mobile
          •Independence of service-related functions from underlying transport
          technologies
          •Compliant with all Regulatory requirements, for example concerning
          emergency communications and security/privacy, etc
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      Seven ITU-T working groups and their leadership

                  WG                         Area                            Leader(s)


                 WG 1       SR (Service Requirements) Group        Marco Carugi,
                                                                   Brent Hirschman


               WG 2[note    FAM (Functional Architecture and       Keith Knightson, Thomas
                   1]       Mobility) Group                        Towle,
                                                                   Naotaka Morita

                 WG 3       QoS Group                              Hui-Lan Lu, Keith
                                                                   Mainwaring,
                                                                   Hans Kim

               WG 4[note    CSC (Control and Signalling            (leaders to be appointed)
                   2]       Capability) Group: Defer to the next
                            meeting

                 WG 5       SeC (Security Capability) Group        Igor Faynberg



                 WG 6       Evol (Evolution) Group                 Ghassem Koleyni, Rainer
                                                                   Muench,
                                                                   Fan Dongyang

                 WG7        FPBN (Future Packet-based Bearer       Jiang Lintao
                            Network) Group

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       2.2 Interconnections are the Key issues on Internet




                                          Direct connection




              ISP 1
              Cloud                                                      ISP 2
                                                                         Cloud




                                                 IX

                              Interconnecting via third party operated   ISP 3
                ISP 4                Internet Exchange Point


       Economy of scale advantages through interconnection over an IX:
       - cost for maintenance and administration
       - cost for equipment
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      Two different types of interconnections; peering and transit.


             Peering:
             is an interconnection business
             relationship whereby ISPs provide
             connectivity to each others´customers


             Transit:
             From an ASP (Access Service Provider)
             to ISPs. The Internet business in most
             Developing Countries is mainly based
             on transit bandwidth...
             It is the business relationship whereby
             one ISP provides (usually sells)
             access to all destinations in its routing
             table.

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         ISPs : From Transit to Peering in order to improve
         and optimize the network efficiency




              Transit Provider / Access Service Provider




                  Transit = $$$, ~3 s                    Transit = $$$, ~3 s




              ISP 1                                                      ISP 2


10                                      Peering = $, ~3 ms
     International Telecommunication Union

       Peering has emerged as one of the important and effective ways
       for ISPs to improve and optimise the network efficiency
            .
       ISP seek peering relationships with their competitors primarily for two
       reasons:

       1)   to minimize transit costs. Peering decreases the cost and
            reliance on purchased Internet transit.
       2)   to avoid a transit provider hop in between.

       This will lead to:

       Access Customers will recognize a better quality of their Internet
          connection.
       Opportunity to develop national Internet content and services that
          are dependant on low latency:
            Sell access to Content Providers
            E-commerce, E-banking, M-Commerce etc
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            Develop own services to strengthen the value of the network
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           2.3 Topology: solutions when designing an IXP


                                        There are some different
                                        solutions when
                                        designing an IXP

                                        Layer 2 solutions:
                                        Switch as central traffic
                                        relaying device

                                        Layer 3 solutions:
                                        Router as central traffic
                                        relaying device




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       Layer 2 Solutions




                             Advantages:
                             •The ISPs control the traffic
                             •Cheap for the IXP operator
                             •Scalable
13                           •Etc.
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        Layer 3 Solutions




                                  Advantages:

                                  •The ISPs control the traffic
                                  •Cheap for the ISPs
                                  •Etc




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           Business agreement between two ISPs and has
           actually nothing to do with the IX.

           Transit is a non-core business for an IXP.
           The objective is to keep the local traffic local.

                                                               Internet
                                                                 Cloud
       Internet
         Cloud




                         ISP 1                       ISP 2




                                 IX




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        2.4 Policy and Administration of IXP

        The decision to be made is on having Bi-lateral or
        Multi-lateral peering agreements to rule over the traffic
        exchange over the IX:
        1. Multi-lateral peering agreement implies that all
           connected ISPs must peer with all other ISPs
           connected to the IX, on the same conditions.
        2. Bi-lateral leaves it to the ISP to decide with whom
           to peer and on what conditions, but they must
           have peering agreements with at least two if they
           want to use the IX.

       Documents                               Procedures
        Policy of IXP                          Joining

        Connection agreement                   Termination

        Service definition                     Payment of fees

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          3. Wireless Access Systems (WAS) ITU Standards,
                         Wi-Fi and WiMax




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       Advances in technology and competitive
       access are driving the revolution towards
       wireless access infrastructure for the
       provision of basic telephone service and IP-
       based applications.
       ITU-BDT (Telecommunication Development
       Bureau) is advising and promoting Wireless
       Access Systems in developing countries
       where there is a a lack of infrastructure for
       data/telecom but still in the same time have
       a great demand for broadband
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       connections.(Convergence issue).
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       3.1 ITU Studies can be categorised as follows:
        1. Preferred frequency bands, spectrum
           requirements and frequency channelling plan.
        2. Suitable technology for WAS.
        3. System characteristics and operational
           requirements including interface to switched
           networks.
        4. Performance and availability objectives.
        5. Frequency sharing criteria, interference
           effects and service area boundary.
        6. Radio local area networks (RLANs).
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      3.2 The following ITU-R Recom.have
           already been established:


      • Rec. F.1104: Requirements for point-to-
        multipoint radio systems used in the local grade
        portion of an ISDN connection

      • Rec. F.1244: Radio local area networks (RLANs)

      • Rec. F.1399-1: Vocabulary of terms for wireless
        access
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      • Rec. F.1400: Performance and availability requirements
        and objectives for fixed wireless access (FWA) to PSTN
      • Rec. F.1401: Frequency bands for FWA systems and the
        identification methodology
      • Rec. F.1402: Frequency sharing between a land-mobile
        wireless access (MWA) system and a fixed wireless access
        (FWA) system using the same equipment type as the MWA
        system.
      • Rec. F.1488: Frequency block arrangements for fixed
        wireless access (FWA) systems in the range 3 400-3 800
        MHz
      • Rec. F.1489: A methodology for assessing the level of
        operational compatibility between fixed wireless access
        (FWA) and radiolocation systems when sharing the band
        3.4-3.7 GHz
      • Rec. F.1490: Generic requirements for fixed wireless
        access (FWA) systems

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       • Rec. F.1518: Spectrum requirement methodology for
         fixed wireless access and mobile wireless access networks
         using the same type of equipment, when coexisting in the
         same frequency band
       • Rec. M.819-2: International Mobile Telecommunications
         (IMT-2000) for developing countries
       • Rec. M.1450: Characteristics of broadband radio local
         area networks (RLANS)
       • Rec. M.1454: operational restrictions for RLANS or other
         wireless access transmitters in order to ensure the
         protection of feeder links of non-geostationary systems in
         the mobile-satellite service in the frequency band 5 150-5
         250 MHz




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         Radio local area networks (RLANs / WLANs)
                                                           U
                                                      FI G RE3
                                                pl             s    i
                                                                    c    l
                                                                         s
                                            Exam e of s ys t em of m rocel


                                  Fr equency2
                                                                                    UM
                                         UM

         Fr equency1                                                                                Fr equency3

                       UM                                                                 UM          UM
                                       UM                                     UM
                            UM                           UM
                                                                                   UM
               CM                                                                              CM
         UM
                            UM




                                                                       v
                                                              Tr ans cei er        control modules (CM)
                                  h      t
                                         r       e
                                 Et er net unkcabl                                 and user modules (UM).


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                 h
              Toot er
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      3.3 Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity)
      • WECA (Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance).
      • Standards: Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE)

      IEEE 802.11b: bit rate 11 Mbit/s, range from 50 to 100 mètres.
         (2,4 Ghz ISM-industrial, scientific and medical applications
         band);


      802.11g: 54 Mbit/s (2,4 Ghz ISM-industrial, scientific and
        medical applications band);


      802.11a: 54 Mbit/s @ 5 Ghz.


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       Access Points




       Access Cards




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      Hard and Software to boost the Wi-Fi bit rate


                                  US Robotics & Intersil
                                     up to 20 Mbit/s



       Security Networks and Wi-Fi by the Wi-Fi Alliance

             WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) standards

             WPA : Wi-Fi Protected Access (data encryption and Access
             management)

             Security protocol used IEEE 802.11i: in progress
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       Bluetooth

              By Ericsson in 1994,
              Communication and data flow between many
                  devices PDA, Telephones, PCs, Camera
              Bit rate (up to 1 Mbits/s, range 10 - 30 meters,
                  2.4 Ghz).

       HomeRF

             Compaq, HP, IBM, Intel & Microsoft,
             HomeRF has the same performances as
             Wi-Fi (11 Mbits/s).


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          HiperLan1 & 2
            • By ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute)
            • Hiperlan is exclusively European
            standard.

            • Hiperlan1 (20 Mbit/s)

            • Hiperlan2 (54 Mbit/s) as Wi-Fi and
            HomeRF (up to 100 meters).

            •5 Ghz
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      convergence/interoperability (802.11a et d'Hiperlan2)
                    54 Mbit/s technologies




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         3.4 WiMax              (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access )

       The Interoperability Challenge

       • IEEE 802.16 Air Interface Specification is a very large
       specification. It was designed to cover the fixed broadband
       wireless access needs of a variety of different situations.

       •In order to ensure interoperability between vendors
       competing in the same market, the WiMAX technical
       working groups were created by the leaders in IEEE 802.16
       technology

       •Began in 2001 in Antibes-France

       •Founding Companies:
                                  - Ensemble
                                  - Nokia
                                  - Harris
                                  - CrossSpan
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        •The initial version of IEEE 802.16 was developed with
        the goal of meeting the requirements of a vast array of
        deployment scenarios for BWA systems operating
        between 10 and 66 GHz.
        •An amendment is almost finished to do the same for
        systems operating between 2 and 11 GHz.
        •Abstract Test Suite specifications according to the ISO/IEC
        9464 series are equivalent to ITU-T x.290 series of conformance
        testing standards.
        •ITU guidelines (See ITU-T X.29x series)




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      4. Conclusion
       Data traffic is growing more (10 times)
       compared to the voice traffic and as a
       consequence, the past concept of telephone
       networks, which also carry data might be
       replaced by the concept of data networks that
       also carry voice.
       In this regard, seam-less interworking
       between IP-based networks and PSTN and
       the interoperability of their respective
       applications or services is essential in
       meeting the business requirements placed on
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       modern communication networks.
     International Telecommunication Union


      •   Best practices for DNS and IP addresses
          Management
      •   Governing Law and Dispute Resolution
      •   Clear responsibilities IXP/ Member
          Responsibilites
      •   Clear Membership policy and Connection
          to IXP
      •   Fees



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               Thank you for your Attention

         For more details: www.itu.int/itu-d



             Désiré KARYABWITE
             IP Coordinator,
             E-Strategy Unit,
             Email: desire.karyabwite@itu.int
             Tel: +41 22 730 5009 Fax: +41 22 730 5484




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