1. Project information
Title: Poultry feeding systems in PNG
Applicant Name and Organisation: Commissioned Organisation:
Dr Phil Glatz
Phone: 08 8303 7786 SARDI – South Australian Research
Fax: 08 8303 7689 and Development Institute (a Division
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Project Type: Medium
2. 1.1 Funding request
Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Total
$178,293 $146,055 $75, 627 $399,975
1.2 Duration of the project
Proposed start date: 1 July 2002
Proposed finish date: 30 June 2005
Duration: 3 years
Proposal stage: Full
1.3 ACIAR information
ACIAR Research Program Area: Animal Science 2
Project number: AS2/2001/077
Geographic region and country: PNG
1.4 Key contacts
Project leader: Australian Commissioned Organisation
Title: Dr Name: Phil Glatz Position: SRS
Phone: 08 8303 7786 Fax: 08 8303 7689
Email: email@example.com Mobile: 0401 120 982
Postal Address: SARDI, Pig & Poultry Production Institute
Davies Building, Roseworthy Campus
Roseworthy, SA, 5371 Australia
Administrative contact: Australian Commissioned Organisation/ IARC
Title: Mr Name: Dennis O’Malley Position: External Funds Administrator
Phone: 08 83039323 Fax: 08 83039309
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Mobile: 0417835226
Postal Address: GPO Box 397, Adelaide, SA, 5001
Street Address: Plant Research Centre, 2B Hartley Grove,
Urrbrae, SA, 5064
Project leader: Partner country
Title: Dr Name: Pikah J Kohun Position: Principal Scientist- National
Phone: (675) 475 1248 Fax: (675) 475 1034
Email: email@example.com Mobile:
Postal Address: National Agricultural Research Institute, P.O. Box 1639, Lae,
Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea
Partner country collaborating organization: Morobe Provincial Division of
Agriculture and Livestock
Title: Mr Name: Geoving Bilong Position: Provincial Agricultural Adviser
Phone: (675) 473 1659 Fax: (675) 472 1668
Postal Address: PO Box 73, Lae, Morobe Province, PNG
Partner country collaborating organization: Madang Provincial Department of
Title: Mr Name: Paschal Feria Position: Provincial Agricultural Adviser
Ph: (675) 8523371 Ph/Fax: (675) 8522737
Fax: (675) 852 3038
Postal Address: PO Box 2108, Madang, Madang Province, PNG
Partner country collaborating organization: Salvation Army Agricultural
Title: Mr Name: Markus Muntwiler Position: Agricultural Adviser
Phone: (675) 675 737 1279 Fax: (675) 675 737 1279
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Mobile:
Postal Address: Private Mail Bag 3, Kainantu, Eastern Highlands Province, PNG
Partner country collaborating organization: Lae Feed Mills (Associated Mills,
Goodman Fielder International)
Title: Name: Andrew Smith Position: General Manager, PNG,
Goodman Fielder International
Phone: (675) 308 2200 Fax: (675) 321 2732
Email: email@example.com Mobile:
Postal Address: PO Box 486, Port Moresby, PNG
1.5 Project summary
During 2001 NARI conducted a series of provincial consultations and a workshop to
determine the key livestock R&D issues for PNG. The workshop was supported by
ACIAR and involved smallholders, researchers, extension staff and other stakeholders,
including the private sector and NGOs. Reducing the cost of livestock feeding was
identified as the highest priority. In particular, the smallholder broiler chicken production
that produces about 6 million birds per year with a value of A$54M was identified as a
sector where feed costs could be reduced and profitability increased if there was greater
use of local feed resources.
This project arose from ACIAR’s involvement in the prioritizing activity. NARI is the
appropriate agency to conduct the research activity in PNG. Lae Feed Mills from the
private sector are the primary source of compounded feeds for independent smallholder
broiler producers. Two Provincial Government agencies and an NGO will be primarily
responsible for interaction with the smallholder farmers. The SARDI Pig and Poultry
Institute was chosen as the Australian partner because they operate a feed testing
facility for the poultry industry and are currently researching alternative broiler production
systems that are akin to smallholder systems.
Currently there is no national facility in PNG for the live bird testing of feedstuffs
for poultry. Establishment of such a facility is seen as essential for the systematic
evaluation of locally available feeds and for the formulation of rations using those feeds.
These rations will be specific to areas where the feeds are available, will take account of
seasonal changes in availability and quality, and the requirements of the birds during
their different growth phases.
The research approaches are to:
establish a quality assured feed testing facility to appropriate standards to enable
PNG to assess feeds available for broiler and layer production;
profile, according to feeding value, including seasonal and varietal variation,
availability and cost, a selected range of feeds abundant in PNG but not well
documented according to modern standards;
conduct on-station feeding trials at both Labu (NARI) and SARDI with broiler
chickens to determine production performance on rations derived from the tested
and (as necessary) other feeds; and
field-test and demonstrate on-farm in a participatory manner the use of
appropriate rations determined by the testing procedures and taking into account
regional availability of feeds.
It is intended that NARI and the other participating agencies will have the capacity to
sustain both the feed testing and extension activities post-project, due to the on-going
need and the capacity building included in the project. The project will serve as a model
for extension of activities to the provinces. Lae Feed Mills will be able to manufacture
broiler rations containing local feedstuffs based on the research outputs. It is expected a
greater number of smallholder farmers will purchase the cheaper feed.
In Australia, the egg and broiler sectors are diversifying into less intensive
production systems. These include more fibrous diets to slow growth, and free-range
systems to allow freedom of movement and so reduce physiological stress on birds
resulting from rapid growth. The Australian component of the project will investigate
alternative production systems that have some commonality with the smallholder
systems under study in PNG, particularly in the type and quality of diets.
2. Project justification
2.1 Issues addressed for partner country and Australia, and their priority
The production of cheaper or more appropriate feeds for livestock was one of the main
research opportunities identified by NARI during the nation-wide prioritizing activity
conducted during 2001 (see Healy, 2001). This ACIAR supported activity involved
smallholders, researchers, extension staff and other stakeholders, including the private
sector and NGOs. Reducing the cost of feeds was identified as the primary means of
improving or maintaining profitability of smallholder broiler chicken production,
particularly through greater use of locally available feed resources.
This investment opportunity arose from ACIAR’s involvement in the prioritizing
activity. NARI is the appropriate agency to conduct the research activity in PNG. Two
Provincial Government agencies and an NGO will be primarily responsible for interaction
with the smallholder farmers, while Lae Feed Mills is the major supplier of broiler feed to
these farmers. The SARDI Pig and Poultry Institute was chosen as the Australian partner
because they operate a feed testing facility for the poultry industry and are currently
researching alternative broiler production systems that are more akin to smallholder
PNG smallholders who operate independently from the vertically-integrated
commercial frozen carcass broiler industry currently produce about 6 million birds per
year for sale in informal local markets. The sale of chickens is the major source of
income from the livestock sector of traditional smallholder farming systems, with an
estimated 50,000 families currently producing broilers. Smallholders purchase day-old
chicks with high genetic merit from the commercial sector, usually in lots of 50, grow
them out for 6-8 weeks using commercial feeds and some locally available feedstuffs,
and sell them as live birds in local markets. The large-scale commercial producers do not
consider this sector as competitors for their fresh or frozen market in the urban areas
(personal communication - Mark Low, General Manager, Tablebirds, Lae, PNG). Chicks
are moved to remote communities by road, plane or boat, sometimes supported by
government and/or NGOs.
Profitability of raising broilers is primarily constrained by input costs. Commercial
feed costs continue to rise as most dietary ingredients are imported. For birds grown to
2.5 kg in 49 days, commercial feed costs are 7-9 Kina from a selling price of 12-14 Kina.
This margin continues to tighten, hence stimulating more interest in alternative cheaper
feed sources that may lengthen the grow-out period by 7-10 days, but increase the profit
margin. Lae Feed Mills representatives also consider development of cheaper broiler
diets as critical to viability of smallholder farmers and to maintain turnover of broiler feed
from the mill. Agro-industrial by-products such as copra meal and palm kernel meal are
available at some locations and could be used more widely. The high cost of transport
prohibits their use in small lots away from the source. However, the feed mills have
demonstrated that they can purchase and transport these products at reasonable costs
in bulk, as demonstrated by current use of byproducts in pelleted rabbit feed. Other
feeds that are or could be available within the villages, such as root crops and forages,
can be used as poultry feeds but farmers have limited or no information on how to
formulate balanced rations from these feeds. This project proposes to redress this
In Australia, the egg and broiler sectors are developing alternative less intensive
systems of production. These include more fibrous diets to slow growth, and free-range
systems to allow freedom of movement and reduce physiological stress on birds caused
by rapid growth. Intensive selection programs in broiler chickens to improve live weight
gain and meat yield has been very successful. Modern broilers grow 4 times faster and
have an 8-fold increase in breast muscle growth (Havenstein et al., 1994) compared to
“layer” and control lines. However, the rapid growth of broilers is accompanied by a
number of undesirable consequences that 00have raised ethical concerns (Savory,
One such problem in broiler production is the high incidence of skeletal disorders,
particularly leg problems, and research is being supported by RIRDC and key producers
from industry to address this problem. Options include feeding protocols for free-range
broilers and information for the intensive commercial industry on suitable higher fibre and
lower energy diets that ameliorate the effects of conventional diets. The Australian
component of the project will concentrate on aspects of these alternative production
systems that have some commonality with the smallholder systems under study in PNG.
2.2 Project strategy: relationship to previous ACIAR research and other
Currently there is no national facility in PNG for the testing of locally available
feedstuffs to determine their value as components of poultry rations. Establishment of
such a facility is considered essential for the long-term viability of the smallholder
production sector through the development of lower cost rations utilizing local products to
replace high-cost imported components. NARI recognizes that this will be an ongoing
activity as only a limited number of feedstuffs and complete rations will be tested in the
course of this project and because the price and availability of individual feeds will
change over time, so requiring reformulation of rations. These formulations will be
designed specifically for use by smallholder farmers and by local feed mills and will be
specific to areas where the feeds are available, will take account of seasonal changes in
availability, quality and price, and the requirements of the birds during the different
The research approaches are to:
establish a quality assured live bird feed testing facility to appropriate standards to
enable PNG to assess locally available feeds for both broiler and layer chickens;
profile, according to feeding value, including seasonal and varietal variation,
availability and cost, a selected range of feeds abundant in PNG but not well
documented according to modern standards;
conduct on-station feeding trials at both Labu (NARI) and SARDI with broiler
chickens to determine production performance on rations derived from the tested
and (as necessary) other feeds; and
field-test diets manufactured by Lae Feed Mills and demonstrate on-farm in a
participatory manner the use of appropriate rations determined by the testing
procedures and taking into account regional availability of feeds.
The project is designed to achieve a balance of research and development with
the establishment of a feed testing service, on-station and on-farm testing and feeding
trials and the development of feeding strategies for village farmers. Preparation of
extension materials and extension officer training will assist in uptake of the research.
The training of scientific and technical staff from NARI at SARDI in Australia will
strengthen the linkages, communication and collaboration amongst the stakeholders.
The timing of the project is appropriate because NARI as an institution has the
capacity to use up-to-date facilities and methods to develop rations meeting farmer
expectations, making optimal use of local resources, and communicating this technology
to farmers either directly or through the range of extension providers. NARI is committed
to maintaining the bioassay facility and feed testing service. This commitment recognises
that there is an ongoing need for testing seasonal variation in quality in existing crops
and other feed sources and evaluating new crops and by-products as they become
available and as costs of ingredients change. A dual approach is being used to maintain
an ongoing capacity in PNG to service the important poultry smallholder production
sector. During the project, staff will be recruited and trained to operate and maintain the
feed testing facility. In addition the extension service capability and support activities with
Provincial partners will be further developed to ensure smallholder farmers are
continually encouraged to adopt the new feeding strategies.
Smallholder farmers are clearly expressing their needs, aspirations and
willingness to be more innovative in their approach to broiler feeding than in the past.
Early poultry research in PNG (1975-85) on smallholder commercial broiler production
was aimed at developing and demonstrating modern production systems using
conventional feeds (see Moat & Bilong, 2000). This work underpinned the current frozen
and live-bird broiler industries. However, the lack of an on-going systematic evaluation of
the nutritional value of local feedstuffs and reliance on imported feed ingredients has
resulted in the rapid escalation of feed costs. The AusAID funded project, Australian
Contribution to the National Agricultural Research System (ACNARS), working with
NARI, has identified local feed ingredients that could substantially lower the cost of
broiler feed in PNG.
The probability of success of the project is high because the demand for
appropriate technology has received strong support from the farmers and Lae Feed Mills.
The development of a quality assured standard facility to test feeds and rations and the
development of teamwork in the dissemination of technology to farmers through
collaboration of scientists, extension providers, development agencies, feed millers, and
farmers will underpin the success of the project. It is anticipated that the availability of
cheaper feed will lead to rapid uptake of the technology, as many smallholders will not
have to change their current practices. The ACNARS project is currently strengthening
the NARI outreach and liaison capacity and this will support the dissemination of the
results from this project, particularly through the development of procedures for field-
testing of extension aids.
3. Project operations
The aim of this project is to increase or maintain the profitability of smallholder poultry
production in PNG through the provision of information that will enable farmers or
commercial millers to formulate or use lower-cost poultry rations utilizing locally available
feeds, and in Australia to evaluate free-range production systems.
Objective 1: To establish a quality-assured research facility in PNG to determine the
quality of poultry feeds.
Objective 2: To formulate and evaluate low-cost milled and home mix rations based on
locally available feeds.
High quality, low cost poultry rations can be formulated from locally available feeds in PNG.
Evaluation of rations in growth studies can demonstrate an improvement in profitability of
growing broilers to market age in PNG.
Objective 3: To establish a system for the exchange of information with smallholder
farmers about low-cost rations for poultry production.
An efficient and effective extension program can be established in PNG to train farmers to
prepare and/or use low cost rations.
Targeted extension activities can result in a 50% increase in PNG village farms adopting new
The profitability of smallholder broiler production in PNG can be improved by 50% using
rations formulated from local feed sources.
Objective 4: To establish a free-range broiler production facility, evaluate local feeds and
communicate information to industry.
Low cost, high quality forage based rations to improve bird welfare can be formulated for
broilers from Southern Australian forage sources.
Evaluation of low cost rations can demonstrate an improvement in profitability of free-range
broiler production in Australia.
The sustainability of broiler free-range systems in Australia can be improved by integrating
broilers with pasture/cropping rotation systems.
Objectives Outputs Assumptions Applications
1. Establish the Research facility Equipment and facility built Facility functional and
research facility. producing quality on time and can operate useable for evaluating
assured results (P). under local conditions (P). feeds (P).
Trial protocols Local problems can be
understood by local staff overcome simply, e.g.
(P). environmental constraints
2. Formulation and The nutritive value of Locally available feedstuffs Broiler rations appropriate
evaluation of rations. industrial by-products and forage sources are for smallholder farmers (P).
and village feedstuffs suitable for broiler
assessed (P) production (P).
Complete rations Commercial feed mills use
formulated and tested more locally available
(P). feeds (P).
3. Communicating with A baseline study of Farmers prepared to Evaluation study shows
farmers. current feeding practices change from current uptake of new rations (P).
in villages (P). rations and practices (P).
Provincial extension Trainees willing and able to High use of local feed
agents and NGO staff develop new skills. (P) resources (P).
trained in communication
with smallholder farmers Extension materials widely
(P). used (P).
Establish demonstration Farmers willing to
activities with farmers participate in
(P). demonstration trials (P).
leaflets suitable for
extension and NGO staff
and farmers (P).
4. Free-range facility, Ecoshelter functional (A). Local problems can be Facility functional and
feed evaluation & overcome simply, e.g. useable for evaluating
communication environmental constraints feeds (A).
Rations formulated and (A).
tested (A). Locally available feedstuffs Broiler rations appropriate
and forage sources are for free-range farmers (A).
suitable for broiler
Website established and production (A).
factsheets developed Farmers willing to use crop Extension materials widely
(A). and pasture sources (A). used (A).
P= Partner developing country A= Australia
3.3 Research methodologies and project travel
1. PNG Bioassay Facility
Rationale: The first phase of the project is to establish a poultry bioassay facility for accurate
evaluation of nutritional values of locally available feed resources.
A user brief (identifying the required infrastructure and new equipment required in an
existing building at Labu, NARI) for the poultry bioassay facility will be developed,
taking account of local conditions and long-term management and operation. A test
run using improvised equipment from Labu will provide the guidelines for the
operation and development of the new facilities at Labu.
NARI technical and professional staff will receive training at SARDI during the
development of NARI’s bioassay facility.
The facility will be constructed and commissioned on the basis of best tender price
received either in PNG or Australia. QA protocols for operation of bioassay facility will
be prepared. Standardisation of bioassay facility will be achieved by comparison of
bird AME [Apparent Metabolisable Energy] (to 2.5% accuracy) at SARDI and PNG
site using a sorghum ration (internal standard) used at SARDI. The feasibility of
modifying AME procedures (eg. collection periods, sub-sampling), making it more
cost effective for servicing local needs will be examined. Technical and professional
staff from SARDI will assist in the onsite development and operation of QA protocols
at NARI during the standardisation phase.
2. Formulation and evaluation of rations
Rationale: The feed evaluation at Labu (NARI) will cover feeds that are firstly suitable for
inclusion in milled, pelleted feeds and secondly those most suitable for small-scale
farmer mixing and feeding on site.
Design least cost poultry diets suitable for peri-urban and village chicken meat
In PNG, palm kernel expeller meal, wheat mill run, copra meal, fish meal and leaf
meal have been identified as potential feed sources of suitable quality and availability
for use by local feed mills to produce low cost feeds.
In addition, farmers who cannot source milled feeds have access to rice bran, root
crops, banana, sago and green vegetable for developing home mixed poultry feeds
The above ingredients will be sampled over two periods (6 monthly interval) from the
various provinces in PNG for evaluation of quality.
Metabolism trials will be conducted on these feeds to assess their AME quality, with
other quality factors, including specific amino acids, lipids, minerals and anti-nutrient
factors determined under contract, by the NARI chemistry laboratory or elsewhere as
A spreadsheet of nutritional values to enable least cost feed formulation of broiler
diets will be developed. Low and medium quality diets for chicken meat birds for both
milled and home mixed diets will be formulated.
The diets proposed will be compared to a standard milled commercial broiler diet in 2
major broiler grow out experiments conducted at Labu (NARI).
3. Communicating with farmers
3.a PNG Extension Officer Training and production of training materials
Rationale: Development of extension materials and training of extension staff to conduct
demonstration trials on village farms will involve researchers, policy makers, extension
agencies, millers, farmers and other stakeholders.
Posters and leaflets written in plain English, PNG Tok Pisin and Motu will be prepared
by NARI staff providing information to villagers on how to mix home feeds and
manage village chicken meat units.
Extension staff will be trained on best methods including radio talks to disseminate
information and conduct demonstration trials on village farms.
15 extension staff from each of the 5 sites (3 sites in Morobe Province and one each
in Madang and the Eastern Highlands) will attend 3-day workshops to demonstrate
feed mixing, and the feeding and management of broilers.
3.b Village Monitoring
Rationale: Monitoring the economic impact of introducing least cost diets on village meat
production units will involve farmer surveys to collect initial and subsequent data on
broiler production. The survey will include current broiler producers, farmers with facilities
but not currently producing broilers, and farmers with similar resources who have never
produced broilers. The survey will be designed to determine the reasons for the
observed behaviour patterns and assess the resources available for broiler production.
The initial survey will be conducted before the on-farm and extension work.
Baseline economic, management and social data will be obtained before and after
introduction of new feeding strategies in the 5 regions of PNG. The initial survey will
establish farmers' current knowledge of poultry feeding, what feeding practices they
are currently using and the level of gross margins they are achieving. These data will
be compared with similar data to be collected in a follow up survey after new feeding
strategies are introduced.
Information will be used to select the farmers and villagers to be involved in the
Results and implications drawn from this work (including short term progress and long
term prospects) will be disseminated to provincial extension personnel via workshops
and seminars. This information will include the economic benefits of adopting new
3.c PNG Village Trials
Rationale: Demonstration of the most effective least cost diets (milled and home mix) on
village production units. Demonstration trials will be conducted on 5-10 village farms at
each site at no cost to the villagers.
The most suitable diets for the peri-urban and home mix village farms will be selected
on the basis of the production performance of broilers in grow out trials conducted at
Milled diets will be prepared by Lae Feed Mills and evaluated on village farms.
Each evaluation trial will comprise 3 treatments (peri-urban milled, home mix, control
milled) with 5-10 village farms matched closely on the basis of housing and
management. Body weight, feed intake and mortality will be measured.
4. Free-range broiler production systems – SARDI
4.a Free-range feed evaluation
Rationale: Construct a free-range chicken meat facility for demonstration to the free-
range chicken meat farmers; determine nutritional value of crop stubble, medic pastures
and vetch hay; and develop least costs diets suitable for feeding free-range poultry in
Establish a free-range chicken meat facility at Roseworthy Campus comprising a
100m2 field divided into 6 smaller paddocks. An ecoshelter enclosing 6 broiler pens
each for 50 birds on litter will be built. (Ecoshelters comprise solid hardwood walls 60 cm high,
wire mesh to ceiling, aluminium/steel support frames, canvas blinds with the roof area covered by high
uv waterproof protective shade cloth)
Crop stubble (wheat), 2 medic pastures and vetch hay will be sampled during the
early and latter part of the season and evaluated for AME value. In vitro AME
estimates of crop contents (pasture, stubble, insects, seeds, etc) or forage samples
may be required.
Forage intake of broilers given access to the free-range will be determined at 14 and
28 days for 10 individual birds at each age.
Nutritional profiles of the forage sources (protein, fibre, amino acids and minerals)
will be obtained.
A spreadsheet of nutritional values of crop and stubble forage sources will be
Formulation of least costs diets suitable for feeding free-range poultry.
Two least cost diets (one based on birds grazing crop stubble, the other on pasture)
taking into account the forage intake of broilers will be prepared.
Conduct 2 experiments to compare the growth of broilers feeding on crop stubble,
pasture based and a standard milled commercial broiler diet using the ecoshelter
4.b Communication of free-range broiler production information.
Rationale: Recommendations to the Australian free-range chicken meat producers will
be provided on the SARDI website to assist in industry uptake of the R&D. Fact sheets
will be made available for distribution by the PIRSA Farm Information Centre at
Provide information to smallholder free-range chicken meat producers on housing
and management of broiler chickens.
Recommendations to smallholder chicken meat producers on supplementary diets
and feeding protocols for successful free-range chicken meat production.
Recommendations to intensive broiler industry on economic feeding strategies to
reduce growth and improve broiler welfare.
3.3.2 Flow Chart
Objective Activity Time (m/ yr) Milestone
1. Establish the 1. Train PNG staff in the 2/1 1. Staff training completed.
facility management of the testing facility 3/1 2. Infrastructure completed
(A) 5/1-8/1 (P)
2. Infrastructure – test runs, 2. Quality control
design, construction, acquire 5/1-8/1 established (P)
equipment (P) 3. QA documentation
3. Testing the equipment and prepared (P)
4. Develop written protocols and
2. Formulation 1. The nutritive value of industrial 10/1-3/2 1. Spreadsheet of PNG
and evaluation by products and village feedstuffs feed nutritive values
of rations assessed (P). documented (P).
2.Complete rations formulated 4/2 2. Rations validated (P).
and tested (P)
3.Extension and 1. Baseline studies of current 3/1-9/3 1. Training courses
on farm feeding practices in study villages conducted.
evaluation (P) 2. Feeding practices in
2. Develop training materials and 3/3-9/3 villages determined (P)
conduct training activities. (P) 3. On-farm demonstration
3. Establish demonstration 1/3-9/3 trials completed (P&A)
activities with smallholder farmers 4. Extension materials
(P) distributed (P)
4. Produce information leaflets
suitable for extension and NGO
staff and farmers (P)
4. Free-range 1.Ecoshelter constructed (A) 4/1 1. Ecoshelter functional (A)
feed evaluation 2. Crop stubble and pasture 5/1 – 3/2 2. Spreadsheet of
& nutritive value assessed (A) crop/pasture nutritive
communication 3.Complete rations formulated 4/2 values documented (A)
and tested (A) 3. Rations validated (A).
4. Prepare website and fact 1/3-9/3 4. Website established and
sheets (A) fact sheets available (A)
P = partner developing country A = Australia
3.3.3. Travel table
Person traveling Approx. From where to Purpose Duration
m/yr where (days TA)
Kohun 2/1 Lae - Adel Inspect facilities, project coordination, 5
design Lae facilities
Quartermain 2/1 Lae - Adel Inspect facilities, project coordination, 5
design Lae facilities
Schultz 2/1 Adel – Lae Design of Lae facility. Participate in 7
Hughes 2/1 Adel – Lae Trial runs to assess protocols for Labu 7
Schultz 5/1 Adel - Lae Establishment of Lae facility 7
Hughes 5/1 Adel - Lae Start research and QA procedures 7
PNG TO 5/1 Lae - Adel Staff training at SARDI 21
Kohun 9/1 Lae – regional sites Discussions with extension staff and 12
farmers re demonstration activities
Quartermain 9/1 Lae – regional sites Discussions with extension staff and 12
farmers re demonstration activities
Gwabu 10/1 Lae – regional sites Collect baseline data on farmers and 12
Glatz 10/1 Adel – Lae Annual meeting 7
Feria 10/1 Madang – Lae Annual meeting 3
Muntwiler 10/1 Kainantu – Lae Annual meeting 3
Hughes 2/2 Adel - Lae Review research activities 7
Smith 2/2 POM - Lae Review AME results 2
Kohun 9/2 Lae – regional sites Conduct extension staff training 12
Quartermain 9/2 Lae – regional sites Conduct extension staff training 12
Bilong 9/2 Lae – regional sites Conduct extension staff training 6
Glatz 10/2 Adel – Lae Annual meeting 7
Hughes 10/2 Adel – Lae Annual meeting 7
Ru 10/2 Adel –Lae Annual meeting 7
Feria 10/2 Madang – Lae Annual meeting 3
Muntwiler 10/2 Kainantu – Lae Annual meeting 3
Smith 10/2 POM - Lae Annual meeting 2
Glatz 4/3 Adel – Lae Assessment of demonstration and 7
Kohun 4/3 Lae – regional sites Assessment of demonstration and 14
Quartermain 4/3 Lae – regional sites Assessment of demonstration and 14
Bilong 4/3 Lae – Morobe sites Assessment of demonstration and 7
Kohun 8/3 Lae – Syd/Adel Attend conference, prepare for final 10
Kohun 10/3 Lae – regional sites Final assessment & farmer survey 7
Quartermain 10/3 Lae – regional sites Final assessment & farmer survey 7
Gwabu 10/3 Lae – regional sites Final assessment & farmer survey 7
Glatz 12/3 Adel – Lae Final project meeting 7
Hughes 12/3 Adel – Lae Final project meeting 7
Ru 12/3 Adel – Lae Final project meeting 7
Feria 12/3 Madang – Lae Final project meeting 3
Muntwiler 12/3 Kainantu – Lae Final project meeting 3
Smith 12/3 POM - Lae Final project meeting 2
3.4 Intellectual Property and other legal matters
This project will generate information on how well various feed ingredients and feeds are
utilised by chickens. This information will be widely publicised in the public domain. This
information will also be used to formulate complete rations by project investigators.
These formulations will be tested and information on ration composition will also be
widely publicised in the public domain. For example it is anticipated that newsletters with
information about rations will be sent to key extension providers in other provinces in
PNG. Details on diets will be placed on the NARI and SARDI website to assist in the
communication of information. Commercial feed manufacturers or farmers may wish to
use results from the project to formulate proprietary rations. The project participants
have no claim over such rations. Methodologies transferred from SARDI to PNG are in
the public domain. Lae Feed Mills will have primary, but not exclusive, access to
information on diets formulated during the course of the project.
3.5 Project personnel
SARDI Pig and Poultry Production Institute operates a facility for evaluating the quality of
feeds and ration formulation for the poultry industry in South Australia, elsewhere in
Australia and internationally. They are also conducting research on novel feeds and
alternative production systems that have some similarity with those proposed for broiler
raising in PNG, particularly the use of more fibrous diets that have trade-offs in cost of
feeds and time to finishing the bird to market weight.
NARI is the designated national agency for conduct of strategic livestock research
in PNG and is the agency that has a mandate for the provision of information to
Provincial Government agencies on matters such as feed quality. They have the skills
(livestock science, economics, social sciences) and infrastructure (poultry sheds, drying
oven, chemical analyses service) that, with some development, will enable them to
continue to provide services to other agencies beyond the life of this project.
The Morobe and Madang Provincial Governments are two accessible and
progressive agencies with extension staff capable to assist with the on-farm research
and demonstration work and continue with the development and extension work post-
project. Similarly the Salvation Army Agricultural Development Program is strategically
placed in the Eastern Highlands Province and has the required extension staff and
established training programs. Lae Feed Mills in Morobe Province is the main supplier of
feeds to smallholder broiler producers and have a demonstrated willingness to produce
feeds for low intensity livestock feeding if the demand exists, e.g. rabbit feed.
Australian commissioned organisation
Name Gender Agency Position Time in Funded by
Glatz M SARDI Senior Research 20 SARDI
Hughes M SARDI Senior Research Scientist 15 7.5% ACIAR
Ru M SARDI Research scientist 15 ACIAR
Tba ? SARDI Technical officer 100 ACIAR
Schultz M SARDI Technical officer 5 (Y1 only) ACIAR
Phil Glatz (BAgSc (Hons), PhD) has a lifetime involvement in the poultry industry in
South Australia, having managed his family commercial poultry farm for 15 years during
the early stages of his research career. More recently he has been involved in extending
the information from his RIRDC funded poultry housing systems, husbandry and welfare
research to the poultry industry through production of CD ROMs, videos, fact sheets and
training manuals for farmers. He has led numerous research projects and has been
Chairman of 4 industry research project management committees responsible for
implementing research outputs into the poultry industry.
Bob Hughes (BSc, MAgSc, Grad Dip Applied Statistics) has over 30 years experience in
poultry nutrition research, including collaboration with plant breeders to improve the
quality of cereal grains. He has successfully commercialised an AME bioassay in
broilers which has been used extensively by Australian and international companies.
Derek Schultz (BAgSc) has over eight years experience in development and modification
of equipment and procedures to support poultry research and in the conduct of nutrition
experiments designed by Bob Hughes. Currently, Derek manages staff engaged in
research, production and teaching activities on the PPPI poultry research unit and
associated analytical support in the PPPI Nutrition Research Laboratory.
Yingjun Ru (BAgSc, MAgSc, PhD) is an experienced researcher in feed evaluation for
pigs, poultry and ruminants. He is involved in the development of an innovative free-
range pig and poultry production system at Roseworthy Campus and is managing the
PPPI Nutrition Research Laboratory, which offers a commercial feed evaluation service
for national and international clients.
Partner country institutions
Name Gender Agency Position Time in Funded by
Kohun M NARI Principal Scientist 30 NARI
PNG Project Leader
Quartermain M NARI Livestock adviser. Project 20 ACIAR
Mazi F NARI Technical officer 15 ACIAR
Gwabu M NARI Economist 10-40 over 5-20% NARI
time 5-20% ACIAR
Tba ? NARI Technical officer 100 ACIAR
Tba ? NARI Livestock scientist 40 20% ACIAR
Smith M GF Int. PNG General Manager 5 Goodman
Lino Moro M Lae Feed Mills Site Manager Fielder
Paul Mondo M Lae Feed Mills Feed Mill Supervisor
Feria M Madang Provincial agricultural 5 Madang Prov
Provincial Govt adviser Govt.
Bilong M Morobe Provincial agricultural 5 Morobe Prov.
Provincial Govt adviser Govt
Muntwiler M Salvation Army Agricultural adviser 5 Salvation Army
Alan Quartermain (MAgrSc, PhD) has been involved with livestock research, tertiary
education and international development for over 40 years. He has had two 8-year terms
in PNG and is currently Livestock Research Adviser to NARI on an AusAID funded
project. His experience has included poultry research and development in 14 Pacific
Island countries as well as SE Asia and Africa.
Note that Quartermain is included in the project as a contractor. He will be retained by NARI on a
contractual basis after completing his current contract in September 2002. He will play an
important role in the project through intellectual input, mentoring of young research and technical
staff, and his contacts within the Provincial Government agencies, with the NGOs and with
commercial companies involved in the broiler industry.
Pikah Kohun (MAgric, PhD) has over 15 years of teaching and research experience at
tertiary level. During the last two years he has been the Principal Livestock Scientist with
NARI, concentrating on research with poultry, small ruminants, rabbits and pigs. He has
excellent computer skills and uses the SAS software in data analysis.
Monica Mazi (DipAgric) has seven years of experience as a livestock research
technician. Much of her work has involved the care of poultry, particularly broiler
chickens. She has excellent skills in running chicken feeding trials and entering data into
Excel databases for analyses.
Clifton Gwabu (BEcon) is a Junior Scientist with NARI attached to the Outreach and
Liaison Programme. He has some experience in survey questionnaire development and
use for collecting and interpreting livestock and crop information. Part of his work and
training to date has involved economic analysis of smallholder farm enterprises and
assessment of change impact on the livelihoods of rural households.
Geoving Bilong (BAgricHons, GradDipPoultryTech, MAgricStudies) has had 20 years of
work experience in the public service. Seven years of his earlier work was in poultry
research at the Labu Poultry Research Centre. Later experience has included six years
managing the Village Livestock Development Project, based in the Eastern Highlands,
and six years in charge of agricultural extension in Morobe Province.
Paschal Feria (DipTropAgric) has had 36 years of experience in the public service,
initially as smallholder cattle extension specialist, then veterinary laboratory technician,
Provincial Livestock Officer and Senior Rural Development Officer. Since 1996 he has
been Adviser in the Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries Branch of the Madang Provincial
Government. He thus holds the most senior post in agriculture in the provincial
administration and is responsible for all aspects of agricultural development, including
Andrew Smith (BComm, MBA, FCPA) has 22 years of experience in middle and senior
management roles within the stockfeed and poultry industries, including terms as
General Manager with Ridley Agriproducts 1994-1998 and Steggles Feeds 1992-1994.
While GM of Ridley Agriproducts he was involved in a number of collaborative research
projects with organizations including CSIRO, SARDI and livestock industry groups. He
has been General Manager for PNG with Goodman Fielder International Ltd for the past
Markus Muntwiler (BSc, BA) has been responsible for the coordination and
administration of agricultural and development projects in the northern region of PNG for
the Salvation Army since 1997. Over the past 20 years he has worked in various
development roles, including 2 years as agricultural coordinator in Sri Lanka for the
Salvation Army, technical assistant in Haiti orphanage, training officer in Pratteln, and
agricultural adviser in Basel.
4. Project outcomes and adoption pathways
4.1 Communication and dissemination
Details of the communication and dissemination strategies have been outlined in the
methodology associated with Objective 3. In general, the approach adopted in this
project is to access farmers by working with community-based groups in areas where the
density of broiler production is greatest. Collaboration in this project with the Morobe and
Madang government extension agencies and the Salvation Army builds upon the current
good interaction they each have with NARI.
The proposed communication and dissemination strategies have been carefully
chosen to suit local needs. Information gathered in PNG by the extension agencies
indicates that farmers are influenced most by other farmers, on-farm demonstrations,
and advisers such as extension and NGO staff. Consequently, the strategy adopted in
this project has two main thrusts that reflect this model. First, the extension agencies are
involved as full partners from the outset to ensure ownership of outputs and relevance of
the rations to be tested. Up to 75 on-the-ground advice providers will receive training in
poultry management, including the use of lower-cost rations. Second, about 35 farmer
demonstration trials will be conducted in villages that compare currently utilized
commercial feeds with lower-cost rations. These trials will be managed by the advice
providers who attended the training courses, and will be located throughout the 3
provinces. They will utilize feeds that are relevant to each area, including any new
formulations from the Lae Feed Mills.
Information leaflets on feeds and ration formulation will be produced by NARI for
use by advice providers and leading farmers. NARI has recently acquired the capacity to
produce such material through the ACNARS project funded by AusAID. These leaflets
will initially be used during the training activities and thereafter will be produced on a
regular basis as new rations are developed and the quality and quantity of feedstuffs
A baseline study will be conducted in several villages early in the life of the
project. Results of this study will be used initially to identify potential collaborating
villages and farmers, and at the end of the project to assess the extent of change and
attitude of the villagers toward the proposed new practices. Undoubtedly the social and
economic data obtained from the baseline study will have most value 2-3 years after the
end of this project when there has been sufficient time for adoption of project outputs, but
it is considered worthwhile to complete the cycle of evaluation during the life of the
project for the information per se and as a component of local capacity development.
In Australia SARDI staff receive numerous enquiries from smallholder farmers on
housing, management and feeding of birds in free-range production units. Information in
this area is scant and not well documented, particularly for the modern strains of birds.
Inclusion of free-range information on the website will provide a new source of
information for smallholder farmers operating in the emerging niche market in Australia.
Fact sheets will be prepared and made available for distribution in Australia and
worldwide from the PIRSA Farm Information Centre at Roseworthy Campus. Rapid
communication of information to industry is anticipated given the participation by key
producers on the current free-range Project Management Group at Roseworthy. In
addition diets devised in this research will be made available to the intensive broiler
industry if they choose to utilise feeding strategies to improve bird welfare.
4.2 Enhancing research and development capacity
The development of personnel capacity in this project is intended to improve the
sustainability of activities beyond the life of financial support from ACIAR. Activities
The training of a senior NARI technician at Roseworthy in the operation of a
quality assured feed evaluation facility;
Involvement of Dr Quartermain to mentor new research and technical staff in the
conduct of quality research;
Training of Mr Gwabu in the conduct of village baseline and assessment studies.
Training of up to 75 advisory staff attached to the Morobe and Madang Provincial
Government agencies and the Salvation Army NGO.
The improved infrastructure and staff skills will provide a sound platform for NARI to
sustain activities beyond the life of this project. The evaluation of feeds and formulation
of rations, along with the associated production of extension materials and outreach
activities, are ongoing activities for NARI. Further, if impact is achieved in the three
Provinces involved in this project, NARI will have the skills to enable transfer and
adaptation of the technology to other Provinces.
4.3 Expected economic benefit
Currently the targeted smallholder broiler production system, involving an estimated
50,000 families, produces about 6 million birds each year. This production level has
remained static for the last 2-3 years against a general decline in total meat consumed
as the PNG economy has slowed. If the economy improves it is anticipated that demand
and production will increase. If the economy continues to decline, the cost of imported
inputs to the broiler sector will become prohibitive. The value of current smallholder
broiler production is about A$54 million.
Smallholder broiler production is widespread in PNG, but the main areas of
concentration are in Morobe, Madang and the Highland Provinces where the project will
concentrate its communication efforts. This geographic distribution of production is
largely in response to the cost and accessibility of inputs, mainly day-old chicks and
concentrate feeds, but distribution could expand with the successful development of
home mixed feeding systems.
The aim of this project is to improve profitability through a reduction in the cost of
production rather than increasing production per se. Smallholder farmers prefer to use
concentrate feeds that make up the major proportion of production costs of 7-9 Kina per
bird, amounting to about 400 Kina per 50-bird batch. We anticipate that the use of locally
available feeds can reduce the cost per bird by up to 3 Kina, or 150 Kina (about A$100)
per batch. Data from Lae Feed Mills indicate that such a reduction is possible, as feeds
formulated from local products (copra meal and millrun) for rabbits are about half the cost
of broiler concentrate made from imported ingredients. A commensurate halving of
production costs will not be achieved by farmers because transport costs will be the
same regardless of the price of the feed at the factory gate.
If the proposed reduction in feed costs can be achieved it would amount to almost
a doubling of profit per batch, provided that the sale price does not decline. The whole
sector benefit would be in the order of A$10 m additional profit. A decline in price to
benefit consumers is possible in response to improved profitability and thence supply,
but we believe that there is an unsatisfied demand at present that should moderate any
price decline. Consumers would benefit even if prices are maintained at current levels.
Even if the price drops, the lower cost of production would still leave higher levels of
profitability for producers.
The timeframe for the adoption of lower-cost rations is difficult to estimate. One
element can change quickly, i.e. rations provided by the mills. They have indicated a
willingness to produce rations using locally available products, as at present for the much
smaller rabbit sector, provided that there is a market. Their concern is that the sector of
broiler production supplied by their products is under threat from the increasing costs of
imported feeds. Getting farmers to formulate and prepare their own rations may be more
problematic as this would be a substantial change from current practices of using bagged
feeds as the main feed for broilers in the villages. The baseline study is intended to
provide insights into this issue.
There are potential spill-overs of outputs from this project to the commercial
broiler production sector. Lower cost ingredients could be used in diets for this sector to
offset rising costs of imported ingredients. This might help to restrict price increases to
The evaluation of the alternative forage resources in Australia will offer
alternatives for the feed manufacturers and home mixers to prepare cheaper rations.
While these rations may not achieve current growth rates, the cost benefits may enable
sustainability of poultry businesses operating alternative production systems. Thus the
proposed studies in Australia will:
i) demonstrate a cheap housing and foraging system for free-range broiler production,
ii) identify supplementary diets and feeding protocols for free-range broilers, and
iii) provide the intensive commercial industry diets using Australian feed resources which
could ameliorate some of the physiological problems associated with feeding
4.4 Social benefits
The primary beneficiaries of this project in PNG are the smallholder broiler producers
through increased profitability. The production of broilers is one of the few cash
generating activities for many of these farmers. Unfortunately, this production system is
under threat because of the rising cost of feeds and the livelihood of these family farmers
would be adversely affected if they were forced from the industry. Further, if the supply of
live birds into the informal market decreases there will be a decline in the provision of
one of the few sources of high quality protein for many people, particularly in inland
It is worth repeating that the initiative for this work arose from consultation with the
smallholder farmers and communities. They expressed concern about the threats to this
important sector posed by the rising cost of feeds and the potential negative flow-on
effects to the community at large if the problem is not resolved.
In Australia, ACIAR will support work at SARDI that aims to develop less intensive
poultry raising systems, including the use of free-ranging on high quality forages, and the
development of diets that slow the growth rate of birds and enable physiological capacity
of the birds to match growth and development. These initiatives are in response to
industry, food sector and public concerns about these issues and industry support for the
less intensive egg and meat production systems that currently provide about 5% of the
4.5.1 Environmental benefits
There are no anticipated changes to the environmental status of smallholder broiler
production in PNG from this project. Current smallholder broiler production systems are
well integrated with other feed production activities, with manure collected and mainly
used as fertilizer in the feed gardens. Feeds do not contain antibiotics and these small-
scale systems are remarkably free of disease and pest problems.
The free-range system being investigated in Australia is a component of a larger
initiative at SARDI to develop sustainable crop/livestock systems. This initiative is
directed by a research management committee that includes free-range producers.
Knowledge developed from this project is intended to contribute to the development of
environmentally sustainable, lower stocking density, free-range systems that integrate
dryland cropping with broiler production, including the use of inexpensive mobile
4.5.2 Canvass any possible negative environmental outcomes.
There are no anticipated negative environmental outcomes if technologies developed by
this project are adopted by smallholder broiler producers.
5. References cited in submission
Havenstein, G.B. Ferket, P.R., Scheideler, S.E. and B.T. Larson (1994). Growth, Livability, and feed
conversion of 1957 vs. 1991 broilers fed typical 1957 and 1992 broiler diets. Poultry Science, 73: 1785-
Healy, A.T.A. (2001). Developing Agricultural Research Priorities for Papua New Guinea. National
Consultation Workshop, 29-31 August 2001. Workshop Report. Mimeo 14pp.
Moat, M. and Bilong, G.P. (2000). Past Labu Poultry Research and Extension Efforts. In: Quartermain,
A.R. ed. Proceedings of the NARI Poultry Workshop held at the Forest Research Institute, 26 August 1999.
NARI Proceedings Series, Proceedings No. 1, National Agricultural Research Institute, Papua New
Guinea, pp 8-16.
Quartermain, A.R. 2000. Non-commercial Poultry Production in Papua New Guinea. Asian-Australasian
Journal of Animal Science 13 Supplement July 2000 C: 304-307.
Savory, C.J. (1995). Broiler welfare-problems and prospects. Archiv fur Geflugelkunde, 6:48-52.