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					National Parks

A National Park is an area of outstanding natural beauty
which needs protecting. It is not owned by the nation, it is
owned by the people who live in it.

  1. To protect the scenery and wildlife.
  2. To provide facilities for tourists.
  3. To look after the people who live and work in the
     National Park.

What does the National Park Authority do?
       Provide information services
       Manage traffic and provide car parks.
       Sign post and maintain footpaths for walkers
       Provide wardens to help visitors
       Buy land to assign for new buildings
       Manage and plant woodland
       Advise farmers and land owners
       Encourage job creation for local people


The ice age began over 2 million years ago and lasted until
about ten thousand years ago. Temperatures began to fall,
snow fell in the winters and did not melt in the summer.
Therefore, snow built up layer upon layer compressing the
snow below into hard ice. Britain became covered in thick
ice which extended from Scotland right down to the River
Thames and the Bristol Channel.

10,000 years ago the ice melted and the mountains of Britain
had been changed.

                      Process of Erosion

How does ice shape the landscape?
  1. Freeze Thaw Weathering.
  Water gets into cracks and freezes. It then expands by
  about a ninth making the crack bigger. This happens
  over and over again and eventually the rock shatters.

     a. Water fills a crack in a rock
     b. The water freezes and the crack is made wider
     c. The rock breaks into several pieces

2. Plucking.
   The ice freezes and sticks to the rock. When the ice
   moves it pulls out large pieces of rock

3. Abrasion.
   Abrasion is when the rocks which are stuck to the
   glacier grind and scrape on the landscape
   underneath. This causes the glacier to act like a
   massive grinding machine, sandpapering the
   landscape away.

                 Features of Glactiation

1. Corrie – a deep hollow in the side of a mountain.
      Snow gathers in a north facing hollow and is
        compressed into ice.
      Gravity and the weight of the ice cause it to move
      Freeze thaw weathering makes the back wall
        steeper and adds rocks to the glacier.
      The ice sticks to the landscape and pulls rocks out,
        this is called plucking.
      The rocks which are stuck to the glacier scrape
        and grind on the landscape, this is called
      A rock lip is formed at the front of the hollow,
        where erosion is less and rocks are deposited.
      The rock lip acts like a dam, trapping water and
        forming a lake called a tarn.

2. Arete (striding edge) – A steep knife edge ridge. It is
   formed when two glaciers on either side of the
  mountain erode the mountain by plucking, freeze thaw
  weathering and abrasion. The mountain gets narrower
  and narrower.

3. Pyramidal Peak (Helvellyn) – A sharp pointed summit of
   a mountain. This is formed when 3 glaciers erode the
   same mountain by plucking, abrasion and freeze thaw
   weathering. The glaciers are back to back to back.

4. U shaped Valley – Snow gathers in a U shaped river
   called and is compressed into ice. Due to gravity the
   ice starts to move down the valet. The ice pulls the
   rock out by plucking. The rock embedded in the
   glacier scrape and grind on the landscape below. This
   is called abrasion. As the glacier bull dozes its way
   down the mountain it removes the interlocking spurs
   leaving a steep sided flat bottomed U shaped valley.
   The steep sides are called truncated spurs.

5. Hanging Valley – It is a small U Shaped valley on the
   side of a main valley a small glacier in a U shaped
   valley. It did not erode as deeply as the main glacier.
   When the ice melted the smaller valley was left
   hanging above the main valley. It often has a

6. Ribbon Lakes - Is a long narrow lake found in the
   bottom of a U Shaped Valley. The glacier eroded the
   valley more deeply where the rock was softer. When
   the ice melted the water was trapped. Also the glacier
   may have dumped rocks which act like a dam which
   also traps the water.

Lake District Examples
   Corrie – Red Tarn
   Arete – Striding Edge
   Pyramidal Peak – Helvellyn
   U Shaped Valley – Borrowdale
   Hanging Valley – Base Brown
   Ribbon Lake – Windermere
Land Uses in the Lake District

  1. Tourism and Recreation

Rock Climbing                      Helvellyn
Water Sports, for example, jet     Striding Edge
skiing, canoeing on Lake
Windermere, Hill Walking
Enjoying Scenery                   Viewpoint 268189 overlooking
                                   Derwent Water(Ribbon Lake)
Places to stay                     Keswick Hotel at 275231
Caravan and Camping sites          259233
in and around Keswick

Beautiful Scenery, lots of activities to do. Places to visit like
museums, Beatrix Potter House.

  2. Farming

The slopes are very steep, therefore the land is suitable for
sheep farming. It is not suitable for crop farming as the
machinery can not work on steep slopes as it would topple
over. It is also too cold and too wet for crop growing. There
is lots of open land for the sheep to wander across looking for
grazing land.

  3. Forest

Commercial Forestry – The land is suitable for forestry
because trees can grow on quite steep slopes where the
soils are thinner and the climate is cool and wet. Trees are
planted around the lakes to hold the soil in place. This stops
the soil from being washed into the lakes which could cause
flooding. Forestry is planted close to roads so that the timber
can be transported. Timber is used for making furniture.

  4. Settlement Towns and Villages
These are found on the flat land in the U Shaped Valleys
where it is easy to build on. (for example, Keswick is at the
top of the Derwent Water where the land is flat.)

  5. Water Supply

The Lake District is suitable for water supply because:
        High rainfall
        U Shaped Valleys where water can be stored
        Impermeable Rock
        Hard rock suitable for building dams. For Example,
          Thirlmere and Ullswater
        The water provides drinking water for Manchester

  6. Quarrying

Slate and granite are quarried to provide building materials
mainly to keep the traditional style of houses.

What is HoneyPot Site?

A honeypot site is a place of natural or historic interest that
attracts people in large numbers. What features make Lake
Windermere a Honeypot site?

Lake Windermere is a honeypot site because of lots of water
sports, beautiful scenery, clean air, restaurants and café’s
and peace and quiet. Another Honeypot is Grassmere,
where Wordsworth lived.

Land Use Conflicts

Tourists V Conservationists

Conservationists want to protect the landscape and the
wildlife but tourists want to use the landscape this can cause
Watersports – Motor Boats are noisy and leak diesel. The
noise disturbs other people using the lake, for example,
fishermen and sightseers. The boats cause large waves
which erode the banks of the lake and disturbs the wildlife,
for example, Lake Windermere.

Solution – The have imposed a 10 mile speed limit.

Tourists and Locals – Housing

People coming from Manchester and London to Ambleside.
   Causes housing problems
   Buy up holiday homes
   No homes left for locals
   Less people for the schools

They want more homes built that are affordable for local
people. This will not solve the problem but it will help.

Problems -

second homes conflict

Tourists and Locals
Rich people with money buy second homes in the Lake
District. This pushes the price up and local people can’t
afford to buy the houses. The people who own the second
homes bring shopping from the cities and do not need to use
local shops or post offices. The schools are not used so the
schools close and the local shops close. These houses lie
empty most of the year.
This is happening in Ambleside.
The solution is to build affordable housing but only sell them
to local people who have lived in the area for three years or
more. However, you cannot build enough as it will spoil the
landscape. They will convert the old school into flats.

Footpath Erosion
Footpaths have become eroded, they have become wider
with people walking on them, killing the vegetation. The
result of that is it leaves a huge scar on the landscape. This is
happening in Hellvelyn.
The solution is to build paths out of local stone which are
easy to walk in and fit in with the landscape. They fly it in on
a helicopter and drop the bag and then people help make
the paths. This is effective as it fits in with the landscape but it
costs a lot of money.

Hotels and Caravans
Tourists v Visual Pollution

The solution? To paint caravans green to blend in with the
landscape. Plant shrubs and trees around them to hide
them and build the hotels out of local stone.

Tourists V Farming
Tourists walk on the farmers land, leave gates open, break
the walls and drop litter.


Limestone is made form the shells of dead sea creatures
which sank to the bottom of the warm shallow seas. They
built up in layers and were compressed into limestone. Huge
movements in the earth’s crust uplifted the limestone forming
mountains. Limestone is made of Calcium Carbonate.

Rock Structure – As the limestone built up in layers there are
horizontal lines called bedding planes. As the rock dried out
the vertical cracks, called joints, were formed.

Permeability - limestone is permeable rock. This means
water goes into the limestone and disappears underground.
Water passes easily through the rock by following the
bedding planes and joints.

Chemical Weathering - All rain is acidic. This acid dissolves
the limestone which is made of calcium carbonate.
1. Limestone Pavement
As acid rain falls in the bare limestone it goes into the cracks
and it dissolves the limestone. This makes the crack bigger
and leaves blocks of limestone separated by cracks. The
cracks are called grykes and the blocks of limestone are
called clints.

2. Swallow Hole (pothole)
A large hole in the limestone down which a river disappears.
Rivers flow over impermeable rock but when they meet
limestone they dissolve the limestone at a crack or joint and
eventually they create a hole large enough for the river to
disappear underground.

3. Resurgent Stream
When the river meets impermeable rock underneath the
limestone it flows horizontally along it until it appears on the
surface. This is called a resurgent stream.

4. A Cave
As the water works its way down the vertical joints the acid in
the water dissolves the limestone until a hole opens up, a
cave is formed.

Stalactites and Stalagmites

Stalactite - water which is full of dissolved limestone drops
from the foot of a cave. The water evaporates leaving
behind a deposit of calcite.

Stalagmite – When the water hits the floor it splashes, leaving
behind a deposit of calcite.

Yorkshire Dales

Land use
Popular for cycling and mountain biking.
White Scar caves and other caves.
Pot holing, rock climbing, camping.
National Parks. Nature Reserve.
Farming Hill, farming diversification.

Quarry – noise, eye sore, dust, narrow roads, traffic pollution.

Wash lorries before they leave.

Dogs chase livestock. Walkers. Motor Bikes. Conflict on farm
land. Can cause congestion and pollution.

Farmers feel National Parks have too much say.
Environmentally sensitive areas.
Farmers get grants not to use artificial fertiliser.
They get grants to maintain dry stone walls.
They get grants not to cut the hay too early.
They get money to allow people to walk on their land.

   Provides jobs
   People have money to spend in local ships, for
    example, food shops, flower shops, post offices.
   Roads are improved to make room for the lorries.
   The quarry firms pay rates to the local council and this is
    used to improve services.
   The quarry provides limestone for building.

    It looks ugly, it leaves a scar on the landscape
    Heavy lorries cause noise, dust and blocks the narrow
    The blasting of rocks causes noise, dust and vibration.
    Wildlife lose their homes and are scared away.
    Plant trees and shrubs to screen it.
    Put machinery in the bottom of the quarry.
    Wash the lorries to cut down the dust.

Limestone pavement is caused by acid rain. It falls on the
bare limestone, it goes into the cracks and it dissolves the
limestone. This makes the cracks bigger. The cracks are
called Grykes and the blocks are called clints.

Tourist information, places to eat and drink. Places to stay
and see the limestone pavement.


The census is a count of all the people in the UK on one
particular day and is normally taken every ten years. The first
one in Britain was 1801 and has been done every 10 years
apart from 1941 when the war stopped it taking place.

What is in the census?
   Health
   Age/Sex
   Work Place
   Employment

It is the law to fill it in or you will be fined.

Who uses the census?
   Housing
   Health Care
   Schools
   Jobs

Businesses use it, for example, Marks and Spencers could use
it when deciding the location of a new shop. People use it ti
trace their family trees.
Reason for larger families in poorer countries

   They have more children because most of the children
    die as young infants.
   So they can use the children to help work on the crops
   The need the children to look after them when they are
   They don’t have access to contraception.

The estimate of the population of the following places:

     Bridge of Earn – 1002
     Perth = 48000
     London 7.5 million
     UK – 60 million

These are al tiny compared to the world population.

Population distribution and density
Population distribution means how people are spread out
across the world. They are not evenly spread out. Some
areas are very crowded. This is called densely populated.
Places with only a few people are called sparsely populated.

Densely                         Sparsely
London                          Sahara Desert
Perth                           Himalayas
Australia                       Amazon
China                           Antarctica

Population Changes

Birth Rate: Is the average number of live births in a year from
every 1000 people in the total population.

Death Rate: Is the number of deaths per 1000 people per
The natural increase or decrease is the difference between
birth rate and death rate.

Reason for high birth rate

   More babies born, more chance of some of them
   Lack of contraception
   They need more children to work on farms
   To look after parents when they are old
   Religion

Reasons for high death rate
   They die from diseases like Malaria and Aids
   They don’t have as many hospitals, doctors and
   Lack of food
   Lack of clean water

Positive factors giving areas with high population densities
Physical Factors
   No climate extremes
   Relief, flat land, easy to build on
   Natural Vegetation, Grass
   Deep and fertile soil
   Natural Resources – good water supply, coal, oil, gold.
Human Factors
   Economics, money and job
   Social, good housing, schools and hospitals
   Political, good Government that spends money on

Negative factors giving areas with low population densities
Physical Factors
   Climate extremes, too hot, too dry too wet.
   Relief, steep mountains
   Soils too thin, too dry
   Natural resources, lack of water and minerals

Human Factors
   Economic, lack of money and jobs
   Social – poor housing, no hospitals or schools
   Political – poor government investment.

Places like the Amazon forest, Sahara Desert and Himalayas
are not good environments for people to live in. There are
no hospitals so people get diseases. There is little housing or
none. There is a lack of water and the ground is not good for
growing crops.
The climates are extreme so it can be too hot, too cold, too
dry or too wet.
Some parts of Australia are good to live in because they
have nice beaches and shops but other parts like The Bush
and Outback have very little and it could be dangerous
because of the snakes and animals.

Reasons for a fall in death rate – stage 2
   Vaccinations, e.g. TB, measles. This means less children
    will die. This reduces the infant mortality.
   Providing clean water, less children will die from
   A better food supply and better diet.
   More hospitals, doctors, nurses and medication.

Reasons for a fall in death rate – stage 3
   Introduce contraception, make it available to
   A child policy, only allowing one child per family.
   Building village clinics and providing health care so that
    children will survive.
   People choose to have less children as they are
    expensive. People prefer holidays and cars.
   Women then have the confidence to choose if they
    have been educated.
   People prefer to choose careers.

China’s One Child Policy
   The One Child Policy was introduced in 1979.
   Its aim was to reduce the rate of population growth.
     The policy aimed to persuade couples to not have
      more than one child through the use of strict penalties.

The Policy
  Promotes :
   later marriage and child bearing.
   Fewer and healthier babies
   One child per couple.

   Preferential treatment in education
   Preferential healthcare
   Better quality housing
   Better wages

   Population has fallen
   Chinese Males 117:100 Chinese Females

    It has led to spoiled children

Population Pyramid for ELDC eg. Tanzania

It has a wide base which shows it has a high birth rate. It
then goes in which shows a high infant mortality rate. It is a
triangular shape. It shows us that there is a short life
expectancy. High birth rate because they have more
children as there’s no contraception and they need children
to help work. Infant mortality rate means die before 5 due to
lack of vaccinations.

Problems of the population pyramid

There are too many children. This means they will need more
and more food, more and more schools, more doctors, more
houses and more clean water and sanitation.

There may not be enough jobs in the future and people will
be unemployed. More teachers will also be needed.
Population Pyramid for EMDC eg. Japan

This shows a narrow base. This means this has a low birth
rate. There is a low infant mortality rate. It is a rectangle
shape. It narrows, gradually. There is a long life expectancy.

Problems of this population structure
As people get older and older they get confused and so we
need homes to look after them. Home Helps, meals and
health care.


Migration is the movement of people and usually means a
change of home.

Push Factors: these are the negative – bad things about an
area that cause people to move:

   Bad climate e.g too cold
   War
   Standard of living, poor housing, poor health, poor
   Lack of jobs
   Famine/no food

Pull Factors: these are the good things about an area that
attract you to move there:

   Better weather, sun
   No war
   Good standard of living, good health care, housing,
    education, jobs, better pay.
   No famine, plenty of food

Rich World
    Canada
    USA
    France
    Germany
     Russia
     Australia
     Sweden
     Poland
     UK

Poor World
   Mexico
   Brazil
   Argentina
   Algeria
   Libya
   Egypt
   Sudan
   Ethiopia
   Nigeria
   Zaire
   Kenya
   Tanzania
   South Africa
   Saudi Arabia
   India
   China

What is development?

Development is the change and progress a country makes in
wealth and standard of living.
Standard of living is health care, education and housing.

We can measure the development of a country using
development indicators. These are economic, social and
combined indicators.

Economic Indicators
1. GDP (Per capita) gross domestic product. This is a
measure of the wealth of a country. The richer a country the
more developed the country. It means they have more
money to spend on education and healthcare. However,
sometimes the money is not evenly divided. However, GDP
per capita is an average figure. The money may be in the
hands of only a few people. For example Saudi Arabia.
They have made money from oil but have not spent it on
improving the country’s standard of living. It is always in US

MEDC – More Economically developed countries
LEDC – less economically developed countries

   GDP per capita is very easy to calculate
   It is easy to compare countries

    Some produce is not recorded. For example,
     subsistence farming.
    Money is not the only thing that improves quality of life.
    The wealth is not evenly distributed in some countries.

  2. Unemployment Rate %
  3. Average annual income – how much people earn in a

Social Indicators

1. Birth Rate per 1,000. The higher the birth rate the less
developed the country.

2. Life expectancy. The higher the life expectancy the more
developed the country.

3. Infant mortality rate. The number of babies who die under
the age of 5.

4. Number of people per doctor. The higher the number of
people per doctor the less developed the county.
5. Adult literacy %. This is the number of people who can
read and write. The higher it is the more developed the
country is.

The Human Development Index HDI

This is a combination or composite of three indicators. They

   Income per person
   Literacy rates
   Life expectancy

It is therefore measuring wealth, education and healthcare.
It gives a much better overall picture of a countries level of
development than a single indicator. It goes from 0.00 up to
1.00. The closer to one, the more developed the country.

Developed counties are usually over 0.9. Norway has the
highest HDI. Countries in Africa have the lowest HDI.

Australia 0.939
Russia 0.817
North Korea 0.766

Causes of Different Levels of Development

Physical Factors
   Climate
   Relief
   Resources
   Environment
   Unattractive Scenery
   Diseases
   Natural Disasters

Human Factors
     Debt
     Industrialisation
     Trade
     Technology
     Urbanisation
     Civil War

                     Environmental Hazards

The structure of the earth

1. Crust.   2. Mantle.    3. Outer core.   4. Inner core.

The earth is not a solid rock planet. The diagram has four
main layers of zones. These are 1 the crust 2 the mantle 3the
outer core 4 the inner core.
The outer layer (the crust) is made of solid rock. The thickest
layer the mantle is thought to be plastic like plastercine. The
centre section of the earth is called the inner core and it is
said to be solid it is surrounded by the outer core.

Hot volcanic materials that sometimes come near to or onto
the surface come from the mantle.

                         Plate Movement
The Earth’s crust is divided into large sections called plates.
These plates are floating like rafts on the mantle underneath.
Convection currents in the mantle move the plates.
The plates only move a few centimetres each year. They are
moving in different directions.
               1. Two plates move apart this is called a
                   constructive boundary e.g. North America
                   is moving away from the Eurasian plate.
               2. Two plates move towards each other, one
                   goes under the other and is destroyed this is
                 called a destructive boundary e.g. Juande
                 Fucca and North America.
              3. Two plates moving towards each other and
                 colliding this called a collision boundary.
              4. Two plates slide past each other this is
                 called a conservative boundary. e.g.
                 Caribbean plate and the North American

              What effects do earthquakes have?

              Immediate effects
              Debris causes injury and death.
              Roads destroyed
              Electricity cut off.
              Buildings collapse.
              Water or gas burst.

              Knock on effects
              Mental trauma
              People lose livelihood.

              How can the effects of an earthquake be

. Set up sensitive instruments called seismographs.
. Radon gas seeps out of the ground.
. Plotting earthquake regularity helps predict when the
earthquake might happen.
. Observe animal behaviour.

. Emergency services can practise for disaster.
. Stock pile medicine food blankets etc.
. Educate the population in what to do during and after.

. Construct building and roads that withstand shaking.

TRIBUTARY- A river which joins a larger river.

SOURCE- The upland area where the river begins.

WATERSHED- The boundary dividing one drainage basin from
another- a ridge of high land.

MOUTH- Where the river flows into the sea or sometimes a

CATCHMENT- The area from which water drains into a
particular drainage basin.

DRAINAGE DENSITY- The total length of all the streams in the
basin divided by the total are of the basin.

                        Drainage Basin

INPUTS     precipitation

PROCESSES percolation (into the rocks)
through flow (through soil)
surface runoff (over surface)
groundwater flow (through rocks)
infiltration (into soil)
OUTPUTS evapotranspiration (river run off)

                       River Features

  1. The river erodes downwards as boulders stones and
     rock particles are bounced and scraped along the
     channel bed.
  2. As the river cuts down the steep sides are attacked by
     weathering. This breaks up and loosens the soil and
  3. The loosened material slowly creeps down the slope
     because of gravity or is washed into the river by rain
     water. The river carries it away.
  4. The end result is a steep sided valley that has the shape
     of a letter ‘v’.
                       Now look at picture 1

                      Processes of Erosion

  Hydraulic Action this is the force of the water against the
  bed and banks if the river.

  Abrasion/Corrasion the stones which the river is carrying
  along grind and scrape at the bed and bank of the river.

  Attrition the stones bump against each other and are
  smoothed and broken up into smaller and smaller pieces.

  Corrosion acids in the river slowly dissolve the bed and the


  Waterfalls are formed when there are two layers of
  different rock type. One hard rock one soft rock. Water
  flows over the hard rock but erodes the soft rock by
  hydraulic action and corrosion. The soft rock undercuts
  the hard rock leaving the hard rock over hanging.
  Eventually the hard rock collapses. A plunge pool is
formed at the bottom of the waterfall where collapsed
rock swirls around eroding the soft rock. In this way the
waterfall moves back off retreats leaving a gorge.
                   Now look at picture 2


A meander is a large bend in a river. As a river goes round
a bend most of the water is pushed towards the outside it
is deeper faster and erodes the riverbank. The river is
slower and more shallow on the inside therefore it cannot
move as much sand and stones so it deposits it. This forms
a beach or a slip off slope on the inside.

When the river deposits stones and sand in the middle and
lower course where the land is flatter it then divides up to
flow around the island of material. This is called braiding
e.g. Moncrieff Island.

Lower Course
Oxbow Lake.

Fastest current is now in the middle of the river. Material is
deposited in slower water near the river banks including
across the former meander.
The river erodes on the outside and the neck of the
meander gets narrower and narrower. Eventually at a
time of flood the river cuts straight through the meander
neck taking a quicker and easier route. This leaves the
meander loop cut off as an oxbow lake. Over time the
water will evaporate plants will grow and the oxbow lake
will dry up.

                Now look at picture3,4,and 5
                  FLOOD PLAINS AND LEVEES

A floodplain is the flat land on either side of a river. A
levee is the banks that build up beside the river. When the
river floods it carries sand and silt on to the land. It deposits
the largest material first and this builds up to form a bank
or levee. The smallest material is carried the furthest.

                      Now look at 6

Traction- Boulders are rolled or dragged along.

Saltation- Smaller material is bounced along.

Suspension- Very small material floats along.

Solution- Some materials are dissolved.


River width is it wide or narrow.

Features e.g. meanders waterfalls.

Direction it is flowing.

Numbers of tributaries

Speed look at the contours fast or slow.

Valley U shaped or V shaped

Sides of valley steep or gentle

Valley floor wide or narrow
                     Now look at 7and 8

                    Processes of Erosion

Hydraulic pressure: is the sheer force of the waves,
especially when they trap and compress air in cracks and
holes in a cliff.

Attrition: is when waves cause rocks and pebbles on the
beach to bump into each other and to break down in

Corrosion: is when certain types of cliff are slowly dissolved
by acids in the sea water.

Corrasion: results from large waves hurling beach material
against the cliff.

                   Why Do Waves Break

Waves are caused by the wind blowing over the sea.
When the bottom of the wave touches the sand it slows
down due to friction. The top of the wave gets higher until
it topples over.
The wave breaking up the beach is called the swash. The
wave returning to the sea, due to gravity, is called the
Fetch=the distance over which the wind has blown.
The size of the wave depends on the fetch and the
strength of the wind.
                       COASTAL FEATURES

  Headland +Bays

  These are formed where there are layers of hard rock and
  soft rock. The soft rock wears away more quickly and a
  bay will form. The hard rock is left sticking out into the sea.

                  Wave cut notch and platform

  The waves are strongest at the foot of the cliff. The cliff is
  eroded to form a wave cut notch. The cliff above the
  notch is left unsupported and will eventually collapse. The
  land at the foot of the cliff is called a wave cut platform.

  1. The sea attacks the foot of the cliff and erodes the
     areas of weakness.
  2. The crack gets larger and develops into a small cave.
  3. The cave is widened and deepened until it cuts
     through the headland to form an arch.
  4. Further under cutting causes the arch to collapse. This
     leaves part of the cliff detached as a stack. Further
     under cutting causes the stack to collapse.

                     Now look at page 9

                        Long shore Drift
 It is the movement of material along the beach. Waves go
up the beach at an angle taking sand pebbles and stones
with it. The wave returns to the seat right angles due to
gravity. Therefore the sand and stones are carried back
down the beach. In this way material is transported along
the beach in a zig zag movement.
To prevent long shore drift barriers called GROYNES are built
at right angles to the coast. On an OS map it may be
possible to work out the direction of long shore drift by
looking at the shapes the sand makes between the
                 Now look at pages 10 and 11

A spit is on an area of sand or shingle which builds out into
the sea. It is formed by long shore drift where there is a
change in direction of the coastline and where the sea is
shallow. It often has a hooked end due to sea currents. If a
spit grows right across a bay it forms a bar. If a spit joins to an
island it is called a tombolo. Between the spit and the land
the water is shallow an evaporates. Plants grow and a salt
water marsh or lagoon is formed.
                  Now look at pages 12,13and 14

                          Dorset Coast

           Lulworth Coast- Bay
           Old Harry Rocks- Headland
           Stair Hole- Caves and Arches
           Old Harry- Stack
           Durdle Door- Arch

                     Features of Deposition

           Split- Chesil Beach
           Tombolo- Chesil Beach
           Salt water marsh or lagoon- Fleet Lagoon
           Beach- Weymouth Bournemouth.

              Social and Economic Opportunities

Social and economic opportunities provided by the
landscape include.
   1. Tourism and recreation.
   2. Farming.
   3. Part functions e.g. fishing marinas.
   4. Military land use.
   5. Protected land.

                    Tourism and Recreation
Why are tourists attracted to the area?
Warm sunny weather beautiful scenery outdoor activities

Activities you can do?
Canoeing paddling rock climbing golf naturist beach
walking sailing horse riding wind surfing sub aqua diving sea
angling cycling hang gliding.

Fossil Hunting at Charmouth Lyme Regis and Stone barrow.

Beach – chillin resting playing

         Advantages and Disadvantages of tourism

Provides jobs
Tourists spend money in the area
Roads, railways, leisure facilities and shops are improved
because of tourism.
Stops people from leaving the area.

Traffic congestion
Pollution – noise litter and traffic.
Second home leads to higher house prices.
Lack of homes for local people because of second homes.
Jobs may only be available in summertime.


Ports e.g. Poole harbour ferry to France and an oil industry.


Sheep grazing on the cliff tops and dairy farming. Also
vegetable growing.

                       Military Land Use
The MOD has tank training areas e.g. Lulworth Cove has tank
and firing ranges.

                        Protected Land

Lots of bird sanctuaries and nature reserves e.g. Fleet

             People Who Protect the Dorset Coast

National trust
Jurassic Coast
English Nature

                Quarrying for Portland Stone
Limestone from Portland built ST Paul’s Cathedral.

                          Wind farms
Provide electricity

                        Tourist vs. MOD

The conflict is tourists are not allowed to walk in large areas
around Hulworth because of military activity.
1. The army does not use the area at busy holiday times.
2. Keep the road open during holiday times.

                       Tourists vs. Locals

   1. Traffic congestion.
   2. Inconsiderate parking creates problems for local
   3. Noise and litter during tourist months.
                         Second Homes
Making houses to expensive. The houses are empty for most
of the year.
This is a disease found in ELDC (less developed countries).
It is carried and spread by the female anopheles mosquito.
The mosquito bites an infected person and picks up the
parasites. These multiply in the stomach of the mosquito.
When the mosquito bites an uninfected person some of the
parasites go into that person through the saliva of the
mosquito. The parasites travel to the liver and multiply. They
then get into blood cells and travel round the body. The
person is unwell with headaches fever and vomiting.

Describe the distribution of malaria

.It is found in central Africa.
. Mostly found in ELDC.
. It is found in tropical countries.
. It is found in the Equator Indonesia Brazil and India.

Physical causes

  1.   A warm climate 15 to 40 degrees Celsius.
  2.   A wet climate.
  3.   Still or stagnant water for the mosquito to breed.
  4.    Shade e.g. bushes and trees to hide and digest the

  Human causes

  1. Building villages close to Stillwater.
  2. Leaving containers where water can collect e.g.
     rubbish litter.
  3. Building reservoirs as this provides a breeding area.
  4. Hydroelectric power.
  5. Quarries.
  6. Animal footprints.
  7. People and mosquitoes travelling abroad especially by
  8. Growing rice in flooded paddy fields creates still water.
                   How to control malaria

The mosquito

1. Kill the mosquito with chemical sprays e.g. DDT
2. Prevent the person from being bitten by using bed nets.
   Use insecticides treated bed nets which also kill the
3. Screens on doors and windows to keep the mosquito out
4. Burn mosquito coils
5. Use mosquito repellent on skin
6. Keep skin covered

The environment

  1. Flush water out every 5-7 days to drown the larvae
  2. Drain marshy areas to get rid of still water
  3. Spray still water with egg white that will suffocate
  4. Plant eucalyptus trees to absorb water
  5. Put BTI in coconuts into the ponds and lakes this will kill
     the larvae
  6. Put larvae eating fish into paddy fields and they will eat
     the larvae


There are always drugs that can cure malaria
Drugs can be used Quinine Chloroquine Artemesinin

           How effective are the Malaria controls

Malaria has been wiped out in some countries. Some
countries in the world e.g. United states and Mediterranean
countries. Southern Europe BUT it has not been wiped out of
many African Asian and South American countries. One
child dies every thirty seconds so it is a huge problem. Ten
people catch the disease in the time you say Malaria.
The chemicals like DDT do not work because the mosquito
has become resistant.
The drugs like Chloroquine no longer kill the parasites
because they have become resistant.
It is very expensive to drain the marshy areas. It is impossible
to get rid of every area of still water as some is needed for
drinking e.g. reservoirs wells
Bed nets are cheap and easy to distribute but not everyone
can afford them. If feet come out from under the bed net or
if it gets a hole in it then the mosquito will bite them.
The fish eat larvae are very effective and provide protein for
people to eat.

  Why Does Malaria affect the development of a country?
(Consequences of Malaria)

. If people are ill with Malaria they cannot work therefore,
producing goods or crops which the country can sell.
Therefore the country cannot earn enough to build more
schools and hospital.
.If children are to ill to go to school they will not learn the skills
to get a good job in the future.
.The country has to spend a large part of there GNP (money)
on anti malaria drugs. This means they do not have the
money to spend on building new industries.
WHO (World health organisation) roll back malaria.
Bill Gates foundation donates money to buy drugs bed nets
and to fund research.
.Comic relief is a charity which donates money to buy bed
                       Look at page 16 and 17

. Hurricanes form over warm tropical seas.
.Water evaporates
.The warm air rises creating a low pressure. After low pressure
winds start to spiral in wards and upwards.
.The warm air rises cools condenses clouds form and it rains.
.Hurricanes move from east to west across the Atlantic
. The cold air sinks down the middle of the storm creating an
area of calm called the eye of the storm.

                      Hurricane Katrina
. 29th August
.Winds of over 250 kilometres per hour recorded
.Storm surge 8.5 metres high
.Flood levels were over 6metres high
.80% of the city was flooded over a million houses were left
without electricity
.There were 700 deaths
.Over a million people had to leave there homes
.Damaged oil refineries spilt 24 million litres of crude oil.

                  How are Hurricanes Tracked
Data is collected by
  1. Weather stations and radiosonde balloons. Land based
     weather stations on the Caribbean islands collect data
     every three or four hours and send it to the main base-
     radiosonde balloons are released into the atmosphere
     to find out wind speed air temperature and pressure.
  2. Planes flying over the sea report the weather
  3. Ships- ships sailing through the Caribbean sea send
     reports to the main base.
  4. Satellite picture weather satellites over the area send
     photographic images. These show the direction the
     storm is travelling and how it is moving.
  5. National Hurricane Centre using the information
     gathered from these sources it is possible to track
     tropical storms. Planes are also sent to the eye of the

  Farming in LED’s is often subsistence farming subsistence
  farming means growing food just to feed yourself and your
  family. Nothing left over for selling. Most farmers in good
  years manage to produce enough food to sell or trade
  some of it. Farmer’s in LEDC’s are often caught in a sort of
  vicious circle.
  Yields are low - the family has little surplus to produce and
  sell –the family has barely any income-cannot afford to
  invest in the farm-no fertilizer or machinery- so yields are
  There are cycles to the family has no money-cannot
  afford to buy machinery needs lots of labour to farm-have
  many children to provide labour there is little surplus
  There is little food-nutrition is poor- farm workers are
  physically weaker yields are low.

                         The green revolulation
   It is the introduction of modern farming techniques into
   ELCD’s. It involves the introduction of new types of rice
   which produce more grains a bigger yield. It also involves
   using more fertilizers and pesticides and needs more
   irrigation. It also involves land reform where farms are
   increased in size and families are only allowed to own a
   certain size of farm. New machinery has been introduced
   suitable to the size of the land e.g. small tractors.
HYV’s (high yield varieties) have increases food production
e.g. India which used to experience food shortages until the
1960’s became self sufficient in cereals. The increase in yields
led to a fall in food prices. Faster growing varieties allow an
extra crop to be grown each year.
Mechanisation has increased rural unemployment and
migration to the towns. Many of the poorer farmers who do
not own the land they farm and cannot afford to buy seed
fertiliser and tractors have become much poorer. HYV’s are
more likely to attacks by pests and disease.
Look at diagram showing land use number 19.

  1.   Central business district (CBD)
  2.   Two main functions of the CBD are offices and shops.
  3.   Zone
  4.   Zone 2
  5.   Zone 4.

  Central business district (CBD)

  The CBD has chain stores like Waterstone’s department
  stores shopping mall offices banks building society and
  buildings are densely packed together. The streets are
  crowed street lamps bollards and vegetation to improve
  appearance. Often the streets are pedestrianised.

  The CBD
  The CBD is the commercial and business centre of a town
  or city. This is for two reasons:
  Accessibility the CBD is where the main roads from the
  suburbs and surrounding towns meet. IT has been until the
  congestion of the present day the easiest place to reach.
  Land values- These are highest in the CBD where space to
  build is limited and competition for land is greatest. Land
  values decrease rapidly towards the edge of the city.

  Changes to the CBD
  1. Some shops have closed down e.g. Butchers because
     of supermarkets are cheaper and people prefer to do
     there shopping all in the one shop.
  2. CBD’s usually have pedestrianised areas this is because
     there is more traffic nowadays and people want to
     shop safely.
  3. There are more phone shops in the CBD as most people
     have mobile phones.
4. Furniture shops have moved out of the CBD to retail
   parks as people prefer to park at the door to collect
   there furniture.
5. Nearly all town centres have covered in shopping
   centres. These protect shoppers from cold wet windy
   weather. It is also safer as there is no traffic. People feel
   safer due to security people.
6. There are now more chain stores and fewer family run

                    TRAFFIC PROBLEMS

        The volume of traffic has increased
        Less public transport
        There are more delivery lorries
        More people commute to work (a commuter is a
         person who lives in one place but travels to
         another place to work)


     1. Congestion very slow especially at rush hour.
     2. Time is wasted while sitting in traffic jams.
     3. Cost of fuel is very high.
     4. It is expensive to build roads and sort.

     1. Air pollution from vehicle exhaust.
     2. Visual pollution car parks and motorways don’t
        look good.

     Social problems
     1. Danger of accident.
     2. Health problems can cause asthma. Can cause
        stress road rage.
     3. Property damaged by vibration caused by traffic.
                        TRAFFIC SOLUTIONS
        Congestion charge
        Underground train system (tubes)
        Traffic calming
        By passes
        High parking charges
        Park and ride
        Cycle lanes
        Use more buses bus lanes
        Car sharing

        Solutions to traffic in Edinburgh
        1. Edinburgh putting in a tram system should be
           more efficient.
        2. Edinburgh city council wanted to introduce
           congestion charges of £5 per vehicle. This charge
           would put people of taking their car in. The
           people of Edinburgh voted against the
           congestion charges.
        3. Cycle paths have been built people more likely to
           use bikes as paths are safer.
        4. The greenway scheme has created bus lanes. This
           means the buses can travel faster than the
           queues of cars.
        5. Park and ride. People park their cars at Ferry toll
           and take the bus into town less congestion and
        6. Pedestrianised some streets in Edinburgh e.g. part
           of the Royal Mile and Rose Street. This keeps traffic
           and people apart.
        7. There are lots of buses and they are cheap.

                          INNER CITY

During the 19th century the port of London was the busiest in
the world. There were factories warehouses ships building
yards. However by the 1950’s ships were to big to reach the
London docks. The area became derelict with very few jobs
and very poor housing.

       Docklands before renewal

       Shopping-few small corner shops
       Open space – virtually none
       Housing- small cramped lacked amenities like indoor
       !9th century terraced housing
       Industry- empty factories and warehouses unused
       docks empty land
       Transport-to narrow heavy lorries congestion

       In 1981 the London Docklands Development
       Corporation (LDDC) was set up to try to improve the
       social economic and environmental condition of the
       Social-housing recreation and shopping
       Economics-jobs and money and transport
       Environmental-cleaning up the area –planting trees

       . 22, 000 new homes created. Many are luxury flats in
       former warehouses

       . 10, 000 refurbished local authority former terraced

       . Population rose from 40, 000 in 1981 to 85,000in 2000

       . Several huge new shopping malls

       . Post 16 college and campus for the new university
       of east London

       . Leisure facilities including water sports marina and a
       national indoor sports centre
Environmental Improvements

. 750 hectares of derelict land reclaimed

. 2000,000 trees planted and 130 hectares of open


. Number of jobs rose from 27, 000 in 1981 to 90, 000in

. Many new firms and financial institutions e.g. stock
exchange ITV studios newspaper offices

. Many high rise office blocks especially at Canary


Docklands light railway links the area within central

. Jubilee line underground extension

. City Airport

. Many new roads including M11 link

. Cleaned up derelict land

. Made area look nicer

. Better sport facilities

. Olympic village

. New jobs created in office and printing works
.New housing

. A new railway link was built

. The jobs were not suitable for local people who did
not have skills

. Housing was to expensive for locals
The old East end community spirit no longer existed
too many new comers


 This is when old buildings are renovated by putting in
new kitchens bathroom and central heating. These
areas then become desirable and fashionable
places to live. People with money move in and
restaurants pubs and new shops open. Poorer
people are forced to move to cheaper places in the


A ghetto is an area of a city where people of the
same ethnic origin live. There often areas of poorer
housing as immigrants can not afford high rents.
People prefer to live with other people who speak
the same language enjoy the same food culture and
religion. These areas then become unpopular with
people of a different ethnic origin. It can lead to
racial tension.

                RURAL –URBAN FRINGE

Recently there has been increasing competition for
the use of land at the rural-urban fringe. The main
reasons are that at the fringe there is:
. Cheaper land
.Less traffic congestion and pollution
.easier access and a better road infrastructure
.a pleasant environment with more open space

         Why is Meadow hall a good Centre

.next to a motorway junction J34 this makes it easy
for Lorries to bring in goods and for customers to
come from other cities
.there is a bus and a railway station for customers
from Sheffield and Rotherham
.it is a large flat site which is easy to build on and
plenty of room for expansion and car parks
.goes to A roads
.accessibility by tram
.Sheffield is within an hour’s drive of millions of
people. This means there will be lots and lots of
.out of town location where land values are cheaper
allows for larger shops cheaper rates and rents

     SUBURBANISED VILLAGES (commuter villages)
This is a village on the outskirts of a city. New houses
have been built to accommodate people who work
in the city. People travel to work in the nearby city. It
is quieter with less traffic and a nice outlook.

This is land round a city which has strict planning
controls. Development is restricted in order to stop
the city from expanding to much and taking over
the countryside. Housing roads industry and retail
developments are not permitted in the green belt.
Wildlife golf courses are permitted.
                    HEART DISEASE

What is heart disease?
>Heart disease is a general term for several illnesses
that affect the flow of blood to the heart

Heart disease is much more common in EMDC’s

1 Smoking- smokers greater risk from heart disease
increases movements of fats in bloodstream makes
blood more sticky and clogs arteries

2 Fats saturated fats are bad for you unsaturated fats
are good for you Omega 3

3 Alcohol affects

4Lack of exercise- the heart the heart is a muscle it
needs exercise to keep it fit and healthy

5 Stress can raise your blood pressure

6Obesity –raises blood pressure increasing chances
of heart disease

7Cholesterol high cholesterol increases chances of
heart disease. You get good cholesterol and bad

                    RURAL UNIT
The main farming types in Britain are –Arable
Pastoral Mixed and market gardening.

Farming has physical inputs human and economic
inputs processes and outputs.
Changes that have happened in British farming over
the last fifty years are: machinery /mechanisation
farm buildings land use and farm diversification

Benefits and problems caused by these changes
are: Increased field sizes and hedgerow removal use
of pesticides organic farming genetic modification
impacts of tourism urban sprawl.

Changes in rural areas in ELDC’s migration patterns in
rural areas (push pull factors)
The consequences of these changes on the
landscape and people are new technology and
political policies e.g. the Green revolution in India
impact on tourism.

Rural means the countryside.
Agriculture is the growing of crops and the raising of
Farming is a primary industry.

Farming is a system with inputs processes and outputs

Physical inputs – temperature aspect (does it face
north or south) wind soils precipitation slope altitude

Human Inputs) - labour transport farm size capital
Tenure of farm (rent or own) seeds and livestock
government policies machinery and technology
inheritance markets (sell products)

Processes Silage weeding or pest control ploughing
planting harvesting shearing milking lambing or

Outputs animal’s lambs calves piglets chicken and
turkey. Animal products wool milk skins beef lamb
and pork. Crops wheat barley potatoes vegetables
and flowers.
Arable- growing of crops
Pastoral-rearing of animals
Mixed – both crops and raising of animals
Market gardening –growing of fruit and vegetables
with poly tunnels or green houses
Hill farming – sheep rearing lamb and wool

Extensive is a large piece of land but a low yield-less
people working on it.

Intensive – a small piece of land with a high yield.
Lots of people working on it.

Commercial – farming is mainly for profit selling your

Subsistence – growing food to feed your family with
nothing left over to sell.

    Changes to farming since the 1950’s

. Bigger and more machinery
. Fewer workers
. Bigger fields
. Fewer trees and hedges
. Farms are bigger
. Fewer farms
. More chemicals
. More fertiliser
. Workers cottages are now holiday cottages
. Sometimes farmers are diversifying-caravan parks-
car parks-campsites-
. Farm buildings are bigger to store farm machinery
. Wider roads to accommodate bigger machinery
. New crops –rape seed for oil
. Gates have been made bigger for new machinery
. Machinery steered by satellite using GPS
. Camera that can watch sheep at lambing
                Good things about hedges

  Hedges provide a home for wildlife – bird animals
  insects and plants
  Hedges reduce wind speed
  Well looked after hedges are attractive
  Hedge roots hold the soil together and reduce

  Bad things about hedges-
   Cutting hedges costs the farmer time and money. A
  hedge cutter costs over £7,000
  Hedges get in the way of big machinery in fields
  Hedges take up space which could be used for
  Hedges harbour insects and animal pests as well as

1. Machines save time and money. Cuts down on the
   number of workers needed.
2. Bigger farms- Some farms are so large they are
   called agribusiness. Big farms can afford the large
   expensive machinery.
3. Bigger fields –Large machinery needs large fields to
   allow the machinery to be turned easily. However
   this has led to hedges being removed.
4. Organic farming- they do not use artificial fertilisers
   or pesticides.

Use of fertiliser
.fertiliser and slurry added to the field
.fertiliser and slurry contain nitrate
.nitrate and slurry reach rivers
.nitrate makes algae and plants use up oxygen
.fish die due to lack of oxygen

Pesticides which are used to kill insects pests can also
kill harmless insects like bees.

European Union
There are twenty seven countries in the European
Union (EU) Britain one of them.
1. We can sell our products in all these countries
without having to pay import duties this is called free
2. It protects our products from competition from other
3. It helps farmers and business men.

Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) Effects-
.Gives farmers a guaranteed price for their products
.It helps farmers in all parts of Europe to earn a good
.To develop agriculture in Europe into a more efficient
and productive industry
.To ensure the people in Europe have plenty of food to
eat at a reasonable price
.The EU is now self sufficient in many food products
especially in food and dairy
.Storing these surpluses is very costly
.Quotas a little on production e.g. milk. This was to
keep the price of milk steady so farmers got a good
price for milk
.Diversification they used their farmland for other
purposes. The farmer makes money by other means
than farming e.g. paint balling go karting campsites
cafes and farm shops
. Set aside land taking fields out of production. Farmers
are paid not to grow crops
                 Sustainable Farming

1. This is farming the land without destroying it. Plant
   hedges and only cut every three years.
2. Strips of grass around the fields and streams.
3. Leave your set aside fields to grow back to their
   state creating a safe environment for animals in
   both summer and winter.

Genetically modified crops
These are crops which have been genetically
modified. Genes from one species are inserted into
another species to make it stronger and more
resistant to disease and giving higher yields.

                     SHANTY TOWNS
A shanty town is an area of slum housing which
grows up in the area of a large city. They are found
in developing countries where people move from
the countryside to the towns in search of jobs and a
better lifestyle.
A) The houses are built so close together so they
have more room for everybody else. So the vacant
land is used.
B) The houses are made from metal wood sticks and
C) There are no kitchens televisions toilets sinks or soft
chairs. No running water or electricity.
D) Main health problems are malaria cholera dietary
E) No schools for children to learn to read and write.
F) The shops are like sheds.
G) Jobs construction if lucky or recycling rubbish.
H) Transport is a problem to expensive.

Rio de Janeiro
Self built shacks muddy roads houses built on slopes
corrugated iron roofs poor sanitation overcrowding.
Rocinha (a shanty town)

Luxury apartments beach congestion tall office
block clean condition /good sanitation skyscrapers

 Self help schemes in San Paulo
As people start to earn money they begin to improve
their houses they might put in a new roof. They may
buy breeze blocks and build more permanent
housing. The council will provide electricity and
Groups of people help each other to build homes.
They dig the ditches and provide the labour and the
local authority will provide the materials. This saves
the authority money which they can use to provide
electricity. Clean water tarred roads and a
community centre.

There are four types of industry:
Primary Secondary Tertiary Quaternary
Primary: These industries extract raw materials directly
from the earth or the sea.
Secondary: These industries process and
manufacture products from raw materials.
Tertiary: These industries provide a service.
Quaternary: Is a type of high tech service industry
that carries out research and provides information
and advice.

Primary: forestry worker farmer and quarry worker
Secondary: brick layer and steel worker
Tertiary: teacher bus driver pop singer plumber
doctor nurse ambulance driver shop assistant police
officer shop keeper and bank manager
Industry is a system with inputs processes and outputs
Inputs: dye cotton needles threads buttons
Processes: packing stitching dyeing cutting and
Outputs: profits off cuts seconds trousers shirts

Factors influencing location of industry
1. Raw materials – physical factor
The heavier they are to transport the closer the
location of the factory should be. This was very
important in the nineteenth century.
2. Labour –human and economic
It may be that a large number of workers are
needed. It may also need workers with specialist skills
or knowledge.
3. Transport –human and economic
This can be very expensive if goods are heavy fragile
or perishable.
4. Power-physical factor
In the past factories needed to be close to coal or
fast flowing rivers. Today electricity is ready available.
5. Markets-human and economic
Industries that produce bulky products may choose
to locate close to their markets.
6. Leisure facilities- human and economic
There are more modern demands and used by some
industries for attracting their workforce.
7. Site- physical
Flat land is essential for most industry. The size of sites
has increased as industries have become bigger.
8. Natural routes – physical
River valleys and flat areas were once very
9. Government policy- human and economic
The government may give grants to encourage
industries to locate in areas of high unemployment.
Why did industry come to south Wales?
1. Raw materials- coal limestone and iron-ore
They were all close together easy to get at. Used to
make iron and steel. The coal was easy to get at in
the valleys of south Wales.
2. Markets- huge demand for coal everything ran
   on coal. Ships trains machinery. Britain had a
   large empire countries were forced to buy British
   iron and steel.
3. Ports- South Wales had two parts Swansea and
   Cardiff therefore it was easy to export to other
4. Natural routes- the valleys provided a natural
   route to the port of Cardiff and Swansea.
5. Labour-Many people in the countryside in South
   Wales moved to the valleys to find work. Terraced
   housing was built all along the valley side and up
   the hill.

Why did industry in South Wales decline
1. New machinery was to big to fit into the narrow
   coal seams in South Wales.
2. It was cheaper and easier to get coal in other
   countries e.g. USA and Australia.
3. The iron-ore has run out.
4. The British Empire has collapsed and with it the
   ready market for iron and steel.
There is only one steel works left in South Wales. It is
on the coast at Port Talbot where iron-ore and coal
can be brought in from abroad.

Spiral of decline Factory Closes
Economic- people lose jobs- do not have money to
spend in local shops-shops and pubs close and
fewer services like buses
Social- people leave the area – people become
depressed as they have nothing to do all day and
little money to spend- fewer services means fewer
things to do all day and little money to spend- fewer
services means fewer things to do- young people
become bored which may lead to crime e.g. joy
riding burglary
Environmental- derelict buildings waste ground
disused railway sidings canals and slag heaps- no
money to repair houses which become run down –
no one wants to move into an area

What did the government do to help South Wales?
They made the valleys into a development are or
enterprise zone. This means that industries are
offered incentives such as grants towards machinery
money for every job created lower rates of tax or
even buildings themselves. The money comes from
the UK government European Union and the Welsh
development agency.
What new industry has come to South Wales?
1. Retail-in Ebbw Vale a factory shopping village on
   the site of an old steel works.
2. An old mine has been turned into a heritage park
   and museum.
3. Manufacturing- LG has located in South Wales.

                   High Tech Industry
High tech industry is computers and
High tech industries are in San Francisco.
A lot of high tech industries in this country are
located in the M4 corridor.
1. This is because of the motorways.
2. Large towns and cities close by for labour force.
3. Airports motorways and rail links.
4. Attractive environments will attract the best
people e.g. Cotswolds.
5. Close to universities to provide graduates. Also
provides research and development. Many high
tech industries are now locating in ELD’C like India
Malaysia Singapore. High tech industries locate to
these countries because: government incentives to
create jobs for the highly trained people – physical
environment flat land plenty of room for
development- research centres attract companies
high tech companies like to cluster together to share
Science Park a science park is high tech industries
e.g. medical research is linked to a university.