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					  JLOTS R&D SYMPOSIUM V
ENHANCED COASTAL TRAFFICABILITY
  AND SEA STATE MITIGATION- ATD

   CROSS BEACH STABILIZATION
                    MS ROSA SANTONI
       SOFT SOIL TRAFFICABILITY
                DR. ALBERT J. BUSH III

          US Army Corps of Engineers
   Engineer Research and Development Center
             Vicksburg, Mississippi

  One Corps, One Regiment, One Team ……. Serving Soldiers, the Army, the Nation
                        OUTLINE
       PROBLEM
      CROSS BEACH
           EXISTING SOLUTIONS
           POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS
       SOFT SOIL
           OBJECTIVE
           STUDY AND RESULTS
       SUMMARY
One Corps, One Regiment, One Team ……. Serving Soldiers, the Army, the Nation
        SOFT SOIL TRAFFICABILITY
                          PROBLEM


                                       Loose Sand




 MUD

One Corps, One Regiment, One Team ……. Serving Soldiers, the Army, the Nation
SOFT SOIL TRAFFICABILITY - LOTS ATD


                                               CONCEPT




 One Corps, One Regiment, One Team ……. Serving Soldiers, the Army, the Nation
EXISTING TECHNOLOGIES
Sand-Grid      Uni-Mat




Mo-Mat                                                 Steel Mat




One Corps, One Regiment, One Team ……. Serving Soldiers, the Army, the Nation
 POTENTIAL TECHNOLOGIES
      Plastic Hex Mat




            PLACEMENT RATE
900 SQ FT / MAN HR vs 250 SQ FT FOR AM-2
One Corps, One Regiment, One Team ……. Serving Soldiers, the Army, the Nation
 POTENTIAL TECHNOLOGIES
      Fiberglass Mat


                                      6’




                                                             6’
                                                NEW SINGLE PANEL DESIGN
                                                6 POP-IN PINS
                                                FLUSH SURFACE


                                              THREE PANEL STANDARD MAT
                                                     12 BOLTS
                                                     NON FLUSH SURFACE


One Corps, One Regiment, One Team ……. Serving Soldiers, the Army, the Nation
POTENTIAL TECHNOLOGIES: Mats
                           Performance Under Traffic




                                                  ALUMINUM HEX MAT
                                             1.1 IN. RUT AFTER 5000 PASSES


                                               PLASTIC HEX MAT
                                             2.8 IN. RUT AFTER 5000 PASSES

                                               FIBERGLASS MAT
                                              1.8 IN. RUT AFTER 5000 PASSES


 One Corps, One Regiment, One Team ……. Serving Soldiers, the Army, the Nation
SAND - FIBER STABILIZATION




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POTENTIAL TECHNOLOGIES: Sand-Fiber
                                                                       Definition

     Sand-Fiber stabilization is a method of
      providing structural load-support improvement
      to sandy soils using synthetic fibers


   The    improvement mechanism is increased the
      shear strength due to sand particle and fiber
      interaction


       One Corps, One Regiment, One Team ……. Serving Soldiers, the Army, the Nation
    CURRENT INVESTIGATION
                                                      Laboratory Tests
   Effect of fines on the Sand-Fiber mix

   Triaxial Test

   Unconfined Compressive Test

   Resilient Modulus Test




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POTENTIAL TECHNOLOGIES: Sand-Fiber
                                                                     Laboratory
 Test   Conditions:
     2 Sand Types
     2 Fine Material Types
     3 Fiber Types
     Variable Fiber Contents (by Dry Weight of Material)
 Results      Obtained:
     Effects Fine Content
     Effects of Moisture Content
     Repeatability of Test Results




       One Corps, One Regiment, One Team ……. Serving Soldiers, the Army, the Nation
POTENTIAL TECHNOLOGIES: Sand-Fiber
                                    Laboratory Experiments
                  MIXING                                                    TEST
                                                                           SETUP




                                                        TYPICAL
                                                        SAMPLE

 COMPACTING


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POTENTIAL TECHNOLOGIES: Sand-Fiber
                               Laboratory Major Findings
    Inclusion of fiber improved load bearing capacity

    Optimum fiber length of 2”

    Optimum fiber content lies between 0.6 to 1.0 %
     by dry weight

    Optimum moisture content of sample is beneficial
     but not essential

    Fine inclusion is beneficial up to 10-20%

      One Corps, One Regiment, One Team ……. Serving Soldiers, the Army, the Nation
 SOFT SOIL TRAFFICABILITY - LOTS ATD
OBJECTIVES - DEMONSTRATE NEW SOFT SOIL
TRAFFICABILITY TECHNOLOGIES FOR LOTS
FOR WET SOILS WITH CBR < 0.5
  UNI-MAT OR PLASTIC-RUBBER MAT OVER
  WOOD CHIPS OR SAND OVER
  GEOGRID/GEOTEXTILE
   FIBERGLASS MAT OVER STYROFOAM OVER
   GEOGRID/GEOTEXTILE
FOR WET SOILS WITH CBR 0.5 - 4.0
  UNI-MAT OR PLASTIC-RUBBER MAT OVER
  GEOTEXTILE
  GRAVEL OVER GEOGRID/GEOTEXTILE
  FIBERGLASS MAT OVER SAND/GEOTEXTILE

   One Corps, One Regiment, One Team ……. Serving Soldiers, the Army, the Nation
  SOFT SOIL TRAFFICABILITY - LOTS ATD
APPROACH -              DEMONSTRATE NEW SOFT SOIL
SOLUTIONS
  EXISTING LOTS                       < 0.5 CBR                 0.5 - 4 CBR
  SOFT SOIL
  TRAFFICABILITY
                                        None                    None
  SYSTEMS
                                                          Uni-Mat/Geotextile
  NEW LOTS                      Encapsulated Foam/
                                                            Gravel/Geogrid/
  SOFT SOIL                       Fiberglass Mat
                                                              Geotextile
  SYSTEMS                             Uni-Mat/              Fiberglass Mat/
                                    Wood Chips/               Sand-Fiber/
                                     Geotextile                Geotextile




    One Corps, One Regiment, One Team ……. Serving Soldiers, the Army, the Nation
                                                                                           Traffic Lane 1

                                                                                           Traffic Lane 2

                               BM6                                                         Excavation Zone

                                                                                           Water Control Levee

                                            50’
                                                                                           Existing Water Line

                                                                                           Elevation Contours
                                                         50’
                                                                                           Survey Points
                                                                                           Experiment Water Line

                                                                                           Bench Marks




BM5



                                      92’
      50’


                                                         93’




                                                                                    94’



                 BM4
                                      50’                      BM1
                                                                                                  95’


                                                   BM2



                                     BM3
            One Corps, One Regiment, One Team ……. Serving Soldiers, the Army, the Nation
                                                                     Soft Soil Test Section - Lane 1

                                                      232’

                  Wood Chips              Concrete                                         Wood Chips
                                           Sand
                                                       Wood Chips

                 Crushed        Wood Soloco     Plastic Soloco                               Crushed
                Limestone          Mat               Mat                                    Limestone

                                          Concrete
      5’




                   Wood Chips              Sand        Wood Chips                          Wood Chips

                                                     Plan                         Fiberglass-Reinforced Mat
                                                            10’
                    40’             40’               42’               52’                    48’

                                               Transition Zone

                                Wood Soloco    Plastic Soloco       EPS Geofoam
                 Crushed                                                                     Crushed
                                   Mat              Mat
                Limestone                                                                   Limestone
36”




                                                            Wood
                        Wood              Sand (SP)                                          Wood
                                                            Chips
                        Chips                                                                Chips
                                                                      Sand (SP)


                                              Subgrade CBR < .5%


                                                                      Geogrid
           Geotextile                           Profile
           One Corps, One Regiment, One Team ……. Serving Soldiers, the Army, the Nation
                                                                                             Soft Soil Test Section - Lane 2

                                                                     280’
                           40’                 42’             40’          10’       30’          30’        15’   23’           50’
           7.5’




                                         Plastic Soloco
    28’
           13’




                    Crushed Limestone                      Wood Soloco            Fiberglass Reinforced Mat     Crushed Limestone
                     Transition Zone          Mat             Mat
                                                                                                                               Transition
                                                                                                                                 Zone
           7.5’




                                                 Transition Zone                                      Geogrid
                                                   Transition Zone   Plan
                                                                        280’
                                                                               Fiberglass Reinforced Mat                  Transition Zone

                   Transition Zone
                                                                                                              Crushed Limestone
                                                                                                Fiber
18”




                  Crushed Limestone                                               Concrete
                                                                                              Stabilized
   12”




                                                                                   Sand
                                        Plastic Soloco    Wood Soloco                           Sand                        Clay Gravel
      8”




                    Clay Gravel              Mat             Mat


                                                                                                  ECM Material
                                                             Subgrade CBR > 0.5%


                      Geotextile
                                                                     Profile                     Geogrid

                        One Corps, One Regiment, One Team ……. Serving Soldiers, the Army, the Nation
       SOFT SOIL TRAFFICABILITY


                                          SITE CONSTRUCTION




One Corps, One Regiment, One Team ……. Serving Soldiers, the Army, the Nation
        SOFT SOIL TRAFFICABILITY


                                           SITE CONSTRUCTION




One Corps, One Regiment, One Team ……. Serving Soldiers, the Army, the Nation
       SOFT SOIL TRAFFICABILITY


 LANE 1
 <0.5 CBR




One Corps, One Regiment, One Team ……. Serving Soldiers, the Army, the Nation
       SOFT SOIL TRAFFICABILITY


 LANE 1
 >0.5 CBR




One Corps, One Regiment, One Team ……. Serving Soldiers, the Army, the Nation
       SOFT SOIL TRAFFICABILITY




One Corps, One Regiment, One Team ……. Serving Soldiers, the Army, the Nation
       SOFT SOIL TRAFFICABILITY

                                                RESULTS
                                                LANE 1
                                                <0.5 CBR




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Wood Chipper: Capacity - 75 tons/hour




  One Corps, One Regiment, One Team ……. Serving Soldiers, the Army, the Nation
                                       Preliminary Traffic Findings


•Greater than CBR 0.5%
   • Plastic and Wooden Mat on Geotexile performed well
   • Crushed Stone over Geogrid/Geotextile performed well

•Less than CBR 0.5%
   • Wood chips over geotextile surfaced with gravel, plastic,
   or wooden mat performed well
   • Geofoam blocks performed poorly




     One Corps, One Regiment, One Team ……. Serving Soldiers, the Army, the Nation
SOFT SOIL TRAFFICABILITY - LOTS ATD

                       PRODUCTS
       SOFT SOIL TRAFFICAABILITY
                    DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
                    GUIDANCE FOR:
                   • Soft soil technologies for
                     CBR 0.5 - 4.0
                   • Soft soil technologies for
                     CBR < 0.5




 One Corps, One Regiment, One Team ……. Serving Soldiers, the Army, the Nation
SOFT SOIL TRAFFICABILITY - LOTS ATD




   Three Potential Solutions for Cross
    Beach Stabilization
      Sand Fiber
      Fiber Glass Mat
      Plastic Hex Mat
   Soft Soil Composite Sections with Potential
     Plastic Mat
     Wood Chips
     Uni-Mat
     Geogrid/Geotextile

    One Corps, One Regiment, One Team ……. Serving Soldiers, the Army, the Nation

				
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