STANDARD GRADE – CLOSE READING - Saint Roch‟s Secondary School CONTENTS Introduction to Close Reading (slides 3 – 6) 1. Write down an expression/word/quote questions (slides 7 – 13) 2. In your own words questions (slides 14 – 21) 3. The writer's attitude (slides 22 – 27) 4. Sentence structure questions (slides 28 – 34) 5. Punctuation and punctuation questions (slides 35 – 44) 6. Word choice questions (slides 45 – 52) 7. Questions about effectiveness (slides 53 – 56) 8. Context questions (slides 57 – 61) 9. Questions about how ideas are carried on/illustrated/developed (slides 62 – 68) 10. Linking questions (slides 69 – 73) 11. Figures of speech (slides 74 – 75) 12. Contrast questions (slides 77 – 80) 13. Tone Questions (slides 81 – 84) 14. Final questions (slides 85 – 88) Introduction This PowerPoint is designed to help you improve your Close Reading skills. Your Close Reading Exam grade, along with your Reading Folio pieces make up your final Standard Grade level for Reading, so it is very important that you try your hardest in the exam. The exam lasts for 50 minutes whether you are sitting the Foundation, General or Credit papers. You will be given a passage to read and a set of questions to answer on the passage. In the Close Reading papers you are trying to show the examiner that you have understood the text. To begin: You should read through the passage twice carefully. If you are not a fast reader then you could read through the passage once thoroughly and then when a question asks you to look at a certain paragraph make sure that you read that paragraph again. You should then have a quick skim through the questions before you begin. If you feel that you do not have time to do this then you should at least skim through the questions page by page as you come to them. Ensure that you know whether the passage is fiction or non- fiction and study any accompanying photographs. If there is one, remember to read the introduction to the passage, as it will give you a general idea of what theme / topic the passage deals with. When tackling the questions: Read the questions very carefully and ensure that you know what you are being asked to do before you begin. Check for bold type in the question. This is very important as information / instructions in bold type highlight important sections of the question. The passage will direct you to look at certain paragraphs – in bold type. Only take your answer from that paragraph. If you take from any other you will lose marks. Identify key words in the question – eg. quote, write down, one word etc. Check whether answers are worth (2,0) or (2,1,0) marks. Quote from the passage if asked to, otherwise, use your own words. This is very important! Easy marks are often lost because candidates do not follow instructions. ALWAYS QUOTE when directed to do so and ALWAYS USE YOUR OWN WORDS if instructed. Now, Lets look at the types of questions you may get! Write down an expression/word/quote questions Write down an expression/word/quote questions This type of question is asking you to find an expression/word/quote (or group of words) in the paragraph that you are directed to which tells us something important. Usually this piece of information is so important that it is worth two marks. So normally you will see 2 / 0 against the question. This means you write down one thing, but get two marks for it. For example… If a question said “Write down an expression which tells us Jo is angry” then you know to go looking in the paragraph for words which carry the idea of “angry”. It could be “I was fuming” or “I almost lost the head”, etc. You just have to find it and write it down. Do not write down the whole sentence. Remember, an expression is not a complete sentence. Example: 2004 Credit paper There was a stranger seated at the kitchen table, a most horrible and wild stranger who looked worse than the brigands of childhood tales. Question: Quote the expression that sums up Pelagia's impression of the stranger. Answer: most horrible and wild. Example: 2001 General Paper Behind them, all kinds of people are perched on the tailgates of a variety of vehicles. Is this some bizarre store for recycled rubbish? Well, in a way it is. In other words, you have found yourself in the middle of your first car boot sale. Question: Write down an expression which shows that the writer thinks this 'junk' makes a strange collection. Answer: bizarre store Example: 2002 General Paper He waited at their corner, hands deep in pockets, his shoulder to the dirty, grey sandstone wall. The bell was ringing and he could hear the children streaming out into the playground. When she spotted him she broke into a trot and he retreated round the' corner a little to swoop suddenly with a mock roar, bearing her laughing wildly up into his arms. As he set her down he asked quite formally what kind of morning she'd had. She began to speak, and her enthusiasm breathed upwards into his smiling face and beyond in the chill air. Question: The man is shown to be thoughtful and caring towards his daughter. What evidence is there of this in the passage? Answer: He makes her laugh, and he asks her about her morning at school. Example: 2003 General Paper We were in Dracula's castle sited on the remote Tihuta mountain pass where the Victorian Gothic novelist Bram Stoker based the home of his fictitious vampire - two days' carriage ride from Bistrita in northern Transylvania. Question: Give two pieces of evidence which suggest that Bram Stoker wrote the novel Dracula more than one hundred years ago. 2 1 0 Answer: (i) reference to carriage (1) (ii) reference to Victorian (novelist) (1) In your own words questions. IN YOUR OWN WORDS QUESTIONS. Unless you are sure you are being asked to quote, you should always answer in your own words. This is the only way to show that you really understand what the writer is saying. Some advice on tackling these questions: When you read this you know that the answer is right there in the paragraph you are told to look at. You can take confidence from this. You only have to look carefully at the lines or paragraphs you are told to look at, find the answer/line/idea and put it into your own words These questions are testing your vocabulary. You must say the same thing, but use other words to do so. Example: 2003 General Paper Downstairs was Count Dracula's coffin in a narrow vault, the walls painted with the dramatic scenes of human victims, wolves, skulls, skeletons and the black-cloaked monster himself, red blood dripping from his pointed fangs. So far on our Romanian holiday the only blood-sucking had been from the mosquitoes in Bucharest. Luckily we had decided to send their father down first as a guinea pig to test out how scary this experience was likely to be for our seven-, five- and two-year-olds. Question: In your own words explain fully why their father was sent down first. 2 1 0 Answer: to find out/see (1) if it was too scary/frightening/if it was suitable for the boys (1) Example: 2003 Credit Paper Round in shape with a plume of tall feathers, the bird stood about three feet high, the size of an overstuffed turkey or swan. Its wings were small and useless, its head surrounded by a hood of fine feathers giving it the appearance of a monk's cowl. Yet most distinctive of all was its unfeasible looking bill. It was huge and bulbous, possessing a business like hook at the end. Question: In your own words, what does the writer's use of the expression 'unfeasible-Iooking' tell you about the dodo's bill? Answer: It appeared / seemed /looked (1) as if it would not work/as if it would not be any use (1) Example: 2008 General paper „Professional competitive surfing has two tours: the WQS and the World Championship Tour (WCT). The WCT is the premier division, with the WQS being used as a platform for professionals to move up into the big time. Around 160 up-and-coming wave riders are expected to take part in the Thurso event. Prize money of $100,000 (£57,000) is up for grabs, along with vital tour points.‟ Question: In your own words, explain the difference between the two professional surfing tours, WCT & WQS ? 2 1 0 Answer: WCT gloss of “premier division” eg best competitors/higher status (1) WQS gloss of “platform ... to move up into the big time” eg step towards the better competition (1) accept reference to lower status (1) LINK TO MORE EXAMPLES!!! For practice… Task Look at these words and phrases you might find in questions. Which expressions tell you that you ought to quote in your answer and which ones suggest you write in your own words? Why do you think…? Which word…? Explain fully…? Find an expression…? How does the writer…? Write down the word…? Which expression…? By close reference to the text….? ANSWERS… The phrases that tell you that you must quote in your answers are: Which word…? Find an expression…? How does the writer…? Write down the word…? Which expression…? The phrases that suggest that you write in your own words are: By close reference to the text….? Why do you think…? Explain fully…? The writer's attitude The writer's attitude Note that this question - type asks about the writer's attitude. Not a character within the text, but the writer himself. “Attitude” simply means what the writer is thinking about a subject. Some advice on tackling these questions: The easiest way for any writer to convey his attitude is through word choice. For example, read these two sentences and think of the attitude of the person who wrote them towards the subject. My teacher is an angel. My teacher is a prince. My teacher is a saint. My teacher is a clown. My teacher is a genius. In four of the above the writer is complimentary and positive. In one however, she is negative and derogatory. IMPORTANT: So when asked for the writer's attitude think of how words may suggest this attitude. Example: 2003 General Paper As we walked up to the main lobby there was 'Vampire' red wine for sale, glass vials of red liquid, wooden stakes and probably some garlic stashed under the counter. As these tacky, souvenirs revealed, it wasn't the real Dracula's castle but Hotel Castel Dracula, a three-star hotel built in the mountains to service some of the nearby, ski slopes. Question: In your own words, what is the writer's attitude to the various goods for sale in the hotel lobby? Answer: She thinks they are touristy rubbish. Example: 2003 Credit Paper Surely this ridiculous bird, fat, flightless and vulnerable, had simply been caught and eaten to extinction? Too weak or stupid to defend itself, too trusting of humans, the dodo had met its inevitable end. According to ornithologist Julian Hume the fat, comical appearance of the bird is grossly exaggerated. Julian has travelled to Mauritius to investigate what the bird was really like and how it lived. It is here that the only two complete skeletons of the bird exist which have proved just how misrepresented the dodo has been. Question: Which one word sums up the writer's sympathetic attitude to the dodo. Answer: Misrepresented Example: 2003 General Paper The architecture (1980s mock castle) reflected the Dracula movies but the setting amid the dramatic scenery of the Tihuta pass is stunning. The "castle" is circled by bats every night and the surrounding forests have more wild bears and wolves than anywhere else in Europe. Question: In your own words what is the writer‟s opinion of the setting of the Hotel Castel Dracula? 2 0 Answer: magnificent/thinks it is very beautiful/very attractive (2) Intensity must be present Sentence structure questions Sentence structure questions: Questions on the structure of sentences are asking you about how the sentence is put together. The writer has done something important or unusual in putting this particular sentence together. Some advice on tackling these questions: There are two things for you to do here. FOLLOW THIS FORMULA!!! A) You must note what the structure of the sentence is. AND… B) You must explain what effect this has on a reader, what it makes the reader think. Types of structure. Some Structures Effect They Achieve “Failure!” Short, dramatic, attention - grabbing. “Who ? Me ? Why ? How ? “ Questions show either doubt or mystery He failed his exam. A simple statement of an idea. He failed English, maths, science, art A list suggests quantity, a lot of items. and history He failed everything; he never paid An explanation usually what comes after attention. the semi-colon qualifies what came before. He failed English, his maths just didn‟t add up science was a bad experiment A series of sentences join to make for him, art was surreal and he could one long sentence to suggest quantity. never remember dates. He is now worrying about the future; he is A list of sentences joined together as one now regretting his laziness; he is now contain verbs in the present tense. This looking for job sweeping the streets; he is suggests a lot of action / lots of things going now a sorry boy. on. Example: 2002 Credit Paper The transaction seemed to fluster her, as if she might not have enough money to pay for the few things she'd bought. A tin of lentil soup. An individual chicken pie. One solitary tomato. Maybe she did need the avocados - or something else. Question: How does the writer emphasise that the woman had bought 'few things' through the use of sentence structure? Answer: Each item (1) is given a sentence on its own (1) Example: 2003 General Paper Gingerly, he tried to reopen the envelope but it was stuck fast and the flap ripped jaggedly. Question: How does the structure of this sentence emphasise the man's care in opening the envelope? Answer: (The word) gingerly is placed (1) at the start of the sentence (1) Example: 2007 General paper Ken is lucky that Julie can drive one of the trucks, change the 2 feet high tyres, make sure Alex does his school lessons on his laptop, cook, make sandwiches and dish out the £2 tickets. Question: How does the structure of the whole sentence help to reinforce the idea of how busy Julie is between Easter and October ? 2/1/0 Answer: the sentence is a long list (1) to show the many things she has to do (1). Punctuation and punctuation questions. Punctuation and punctuation questions. There is rather an overlap here with questions about sentence structure since punctuation is used to shape sentences and to organise the words within them. However, you may also get more specific questions about the use of punctuation marks. It is therefore important that you know your punctuation!!! Punctuation you need to know!!! 1. to separate items in a list. When do we use 2. to introduce a quote. commas ? 3. to introduce direct speech. , 4. to make the reader pause at certain times in a sentence. 1. to give extra information in a When do we use sentence. dashes ? 2. to make the reader take a pause. 3. to mark out a word or phrase from the - rest of the sentence (Maths is great – not.) 1. to show the words actually spoken When do we use 2. to show that we are talking about the Inverted commas ? title of a book or film or poem, etc. 3. to show that we are quoting someone else and these are not the writer‟s own “” words. More punctuation…. When do we use 1. to join two (or more) related ideas. semi colons ? 2. to separate items in a list when there are commas in the sentence already. 3. to join several sentences into one very ; long one. When do we use 1. to introduce a list. colons ? 2. to introduce a quote. 3. to give more information about an idea 4. .to punctuate a play. : When do we use 1. Dots used to tail of a sentence. ellipsis ? 2. To show gaps in a piece of writing. …. 1. at the beginning of a sentence. 2. for names. When do we use capital letters ? 3. for initials. 4. for the beginning of a section of direct speech. 5. for titles of books, newspapers, films, etc.for acronyms (like BBC or STV or CSI) Example: 2001 General Paper After all there's a little collection of pressed glass over there that is so irresistible, and the old hand- knitted Shetland shawl that nobody seems to have spotted, and isn't that a genuine stone hot- water bottle lurking among the rubbish. . .? Question: Why does the writer use ellipsis at the end of the final sentence? Answer: To show that the list could continue / be endless OR that there could be more examples. 2 marks for either Example: 2002 General Paper It was now well into the rush hour: traffic gushed by or fretted at red lights and urgent pedestrians commanded the pavements and crossings. Question: Why does the writer use a colon? Is it to introduce a quotation, to elaborate on an idea, or to introduce an explanation? Answer: To elaborate on an idea (2) Example: 2002 General Paper At the last corner before the school's street they both halted in an accustomed way and he squatted down to give her a kiss. She didn't mind the ritual but not outside the gates: her pals might see and that would be too embarrassing. Question: Why does the writer use a colon? Is it to introduce a quotation, to elaborate on an idea, or to introduce an explanation? Answer: To introduce an explanation (2) Example: 2003 General Paper We were in Dracula's castle - sited on the remote Tihuta mountain pass where the Victorian Gothic novelist Bram Stoker based the home of his fictitious vampire - two days' carriage ride from Bistrita in northern Transylvania. Question: Why does the writer use dashes in this paragraph? Answer: To provide additional information /detail /parenthesis (2) Example: 2003 General Paper It wasn't the real Dracula's castle but Hotel Castel Dracula, a three-star hotel built in the mountains to service some of the nearby, ski slopes. The architecture (1980s mock castle) reflected the Dracula movies but the setting amid the dramatic scenery of the Tihuta pass is stunning. The 'castle' is circled by bats every night and the surrounding forests have more wild bears and wolves than anywhere else in Europe. Question: Why does the writer put the word 'castle' in inverted commas? Answer: Being ironic / to show it's not really a castle / to show it's really a hotel (2) Example: 2001 Credit Paper The driver opened the back door of the taxi and my 'aunt', as we referred to her - really my mother's aunt's daughter -divested herself of the travelling rugs. Question: What is the function of the dashes? Answer: Giving additional information / parenthesis (2) Word choice questions Word choice questions Words are chosen for effect – words can make you think of more than just their literal meaning. Words have Lisbon 67 Seville 03 connotations. These are the associations we give to words, the ideas we are made to Rangers CELTIC FC Henrik think of when we hear or read any given word. Ireland Scotland When a question asks you to comment on word choice think of the associations the identified word(s) will conjure up in a reader‟s mind. Another example… Think of the ideas we associate with the word “butterfly”. We think of delicate things, light, beauty, erratic flight, unpredictability, etc. If the word is then used to describe a person then these qualities are associated with that person. Some advice on tackling these questions: These questions are asking you to do two things: 1. First identify and write down the word/s which are being used for effect. 2. Then, explain what their effect is. The effect is what the word makes you think. •This phrase (“makes us think”) should appear in your answer. •When a question asks you to comment on word choice think of the associations the identified word(s) will conjure up in a reader‟s mind. When you answer you should use the formula below: The word "..........X............" suggests that ............................................ OR "......X......." makes us think about ............................................... Example: 2002 Credit Paper The transaction seemed to fluster her, as if she might not have enough money to pay for the few things she'd bought. A tin of lentil soup. An individual chicken pie. One solitary tomato. Maybe she did need the avocados - or something else. Question: How does the writer emphasise that the woman had bought 'few things' through the use of word choice? Answer: Use of a / an / one / individual / solitary Example: 2001 Credit Paper The driver opened the back door of the taxi and my 'aunt', as we referred to her - really my mother's aunt's daughter -divested herself of the travelling rugs. She hazarded a foot out on to the gravel - in a pointy crocodile shoe - as if she were testing the atmosphere. She emerged dressed in a waisted black cashmere overcoat with a fur collar and strange scalloped black kid- skin gloves like hawking gauntlets. Question: What impression of the aunt do you get from the writer's choice of the words 'divested', 'hazarded', and 'emerged' to describe her movements? Answer: She is controlled/ precise/ deliberate/calculating/ elegant/ contrived/graceful/ attention-seeking/ self conscious/a show off/ a poser Anyone for 2 marks Example: 2004 Credit paper He was breathing heavily and the smell was inconceivably foul; it was the reek of rotting flesh, of festering wounds, of ancient perspiration, and of fear. Question: Explain fully how the writer emphasises the smell through word choice. Answer: Inconceivably foul/reek of rotting flesh/festering wounds/ancient perspiration (1) + explanation (1) 2/1/0 Questions about effectiveness Questions about effectiveness You will sometimes find a question asking how effective you find an aspect of the writer‟s style. It‟s almost a trick question, as the examiners have pretty much decided already that the writing IS effective. What they really want to do is to explain why. (If you are feeling very sure, and very skilled, you can argue that the extract is not effective but you‟ll have to use a lot of good evidence to explain why you think this.) Example: 2002 General Paper It was easy standing here to recall the bustle of business life. It came to him how much he wanted it, that activity. It was more than just something you did to make money: It was the only life he knew and he was missing out on it, standing on the sidelines like a face in the crowd at a football game. Question: Explain how effective you find the simile in this extract. Answer: Answers should deal with the idea that 'sideline' = left out / excluded etc (1) AND that 'face in a crowd' = anonymity / one of many / lost / unimportant etc (1) Example: 2002 Credit Paper He told her to take a seat while he called security, but when he turned from her she let out a thin wail that made him recoil from the phone. She had both her temples between her hands, as if afraid her head might explode. She let out another shrill wail. It ripped out of her like something wild kept prisoner for years. It seemed to make the room shrink around them. Question: Quote a comparison from this section which shows how emotional or upset the woman was, and explain how effective you find it. Answer: ... 'as if her head might explode'. / 'It ripped out of her. . . prisoner for years. ' Either of these for 1 mark + appropriate comment on the intensity of the image for 1 more mark Context questions The context question. You may be asked to show how the context, that is the words or phrases around an unusual word, that give us an idea of what an unfamiliar word may mean. This question is asking you to do two things A) Say what the meaning is & B) Say how the words around the word concerned help you to find this meaning. For example…. Look at this example:- “He lay there XXX , blood seeping from a head wound and his jaw cracked like a walnut.” You can guess that XXX will mean “injured” or “damaged” or something like this. You have guessed by using the context to help you reach an understanding. Example 2003 Credit paper. When the dodo died the animal was stuffed and sold to a museum. Taxidermy not being what it is today the dodo slowly rotted. Question: Explain how the context helps you to understand the meaning of "taxidermy" in paragraph 9. Answer: If you follow the advice above you will probably think the word "stuffed" is the big clue. If the animal "rotted" then it would not have been stuffed properly. So, the meaning is stuffed. Example: 2002 Credit Paper It wasn't often you had this kind of intuition about somebody, but as soon as he saw her looking at the seeds, he was certain she was going to steal them. He moved closer to her, picked up a watering can and weighed it in his hand, as if this was somehow away of testing it, then he saw her dropping packet after packet into the bag. Question: 'It wasn't often you had this kind of intuition. . .' How does the rest of the paragraph help to explain the meaning of 'intuition'? Answer: Intuition means that you sense or guess something. He guesses that she will steal the seeds and then he watches her doing this. Questions about how ideas are carried on/illustrated/developed Questions about how ideas are carried on/illustrated/developed Questions which ask how the writer: Continues this idea Or Develops this idea Or Illustrates this idea These questions are suggesting that the idea which is stated in the question itself (usually a quote from certain lines) is then returned to by the writer in some way. Continued… The writer might say the same thing again but in different words, Or Might tell us more about the idea by giving more details about it Or Might give an example of what he is talking about They all involve the same skill: you have to find the words used to tell us more about the thing mentioned in the question. Example… Think of this made-up example; "I was scared" (paragraph X) Question: How does the writer develop this idea in the rest of the paragraph ? 2/1/0 Say we look at the rest of the paragraph and we see: "My knees began to shake, my throat began to dry up and my knuckles were white.“ Which words tell us about him being scared ? All three ideas highlighted above tell us the effect his fear has on him. So you would get two marks for noting all three, One mark for noting any two, but nothing for only one. Example: 2003 General Paper Downstairs was Count Dracula's coffin in a narrow vault, the walls painted with the dramatic scenes of human victims, wolves, skulls, skeletons and the black-cloaked monster himself, red blood dripping from his pointed fangs. So far on our Romanian holiday, the only blood-sucking had been from the mosquitoes in Bucharest. Luckily we had decided to send their father down first as a guinea pig to test out how scary this experience was likely to be for our seven-, five- and two-year-olds. Question: 'Downstairs was Count Dracula's coffin in a narrow vault, the walls painted with the dramatic scenes' In what ways does the writer convey the 'dramatic scenes in the vault? Answer: The writer uses a list of horrific images such as blood, fangs, wolves, skulls and skeletons. Example: 2001 General Paper All the junk in Scotland meets your befuddled gaze: thousands of unwanted gifts, the 'wee something' for Christmas and the 'I saw this and thought of you' for your birthday (how you wish they hadn't); then there are the holiday souvenirs. In short, all the stuff with which we tend to clutter our lives and our cupboards has somehow ended up in one place, awkwardly arranged on a vast number of folding tables. Behind them, all kinds of people are perched on the tailgates of a variety of vehicles. Is this some bizarre store for recycled rubbish? Well, in a way it is. In other words, you have found yourself in the middle of your first car boot sale. Question: 'All the junk in Scotland meets your befuddled gaze' How does the writer continue the idea of 'junk'? Answer: Reference to any TWO of - use of colon (to introduce) / (a list of) examples / unwanted gifts / wee something for Christmas / birthday gift not wanted / holiday souvenirs /stuff / (which) clutters our lives /recycled rubbish Example: 2002 Credit Paper It was depressing to unlock the door of his cubby-hole, switch the light on and see the table barely big enough to hold his kettle and his tea things, the one upright chair, the barred window looking out on a fire-escape and the wall-mounted telephone. He asked her to take the packets of seeds out of her bag and put them on the table. She did so, and the sight of the packets, with their gaudy coloured photographs of flowers, made her clench her hand into a fist. Question: The detective found the sight of his cubby-hole 'depressing'. Explain how the writer continues this idea in the rest of the paragraph. Answer: Reference to any TWO of very small table / only one chair / which is an upright one / the window is barred (like a cell - possibly dark) / the only outlook is the fire escape / the wall-mounted phone Linking questions Linking questions A linking sentence is one which links two paragraphs together. Usually this sentence will appear at the start of the second of the two paragraphs which are being linked. Look carefully at the sentence which is the link. There will be two parts to this sentence: One part will refer to the content of the paragraph before. The other part of the sentence will introduce the subject of the new paragraph. When you answer you should use the formula below: There is a simple, four-step formula to tackling these types of questions: 1. Quote briefly from the linking sentence or paragraph. 2. Show how that quotation makes a link back to earlier in the passage. 3. Quote briefly again from the linking sentence. 4. Show how this second quotation makes a link forward to what is to come in the passage. Example: 2002 Credit Paper The three witches in Macbeth, prancing cackling round their cauldron, provide the accepted clichés of witch behaviour and taste. Alas the Macbeth witches have merely served to reinforce prejudice, rather than cast illumination. So does the witch deserve her poor image? It is probable that the Wiccan creed goes back to the dawn of religious belief, when cave dwellers peered out and saw wonder in the rhythm of the changing seasons. Early witchcraft was probably no more than a primitive attempt to make sense of the unknown. Question: In what way can the single sentence be regarded as a link of the ideas within the article? Answer: 'Her poor image' refers back to the prejudiced ideas about witches mentioned already, such as those found in Macbeth. The question, 'Does the witch deserve . . . ?' introduces the next part of the passage, which is going to present a truer history of witchcraft. Example Paper His father looked at the sweating horse, and after a pause he said that he would be alright. Howard could see he knew the berries weren't ready yet, like the ones behind the steading that they always picked; and he understood that this was a lesson being set up for him when he came home without brambles: not to tell lies. And there'd be another lesson behind this one, the real lesson: that his father had been right about that sort of new-fangled nonsense coming to grief. In spite of this, he forgot it all and slipped through the racecourse fence. Question: Explain how the one-sentence paragraph is an effective link between the paragraphs before and after. Answer: 'In spite of this' refers to the lessons of the first paragraph.'. . . through the Racecourse fence 'takes Howard in to the setting of the third paragraph. 1 mark for each quote + reference. Figures of speech Figures of speech These are simply the various names given to the different ways in which a writer can make his or her work more interesting. Click on this link for a detailed guide to the different figures of speech you may be asked about. http//www.buzzin.net/english/figures.htm IMAGERY A SIMILE tells you that one thing is like another; it compares two different objects using the words „like‟ or „as‟. e.g. His hair was as black as coal. His heart beat like a drum. A METAPHOR tells you that one thing is something else. It is not meant literally, but is just a way of creating a vivid picture in your mind. e.g. The cold breeze was a slap in the face. She stared with eyes of stone. PERSONIFICATION describes a thing or object as if it is a person, or as having human qualities. e.g. The wind whistled through the sails. The sun treads a path through the woods. Contrast questions Contrast questions Contrast is the pairing of opposing ideas A contrast is a comparison which shows up the differences between subjects. The writer is deliberately pairing two ideas together to show up the difference which will be important in some way. For Example… In “Romeo and Juliet”, Shakespeare continually compares Juliet to the sun or to a star. The idea he is conveying is that she is above everyone around her. Everyone else is dark by comparison and she brings light into Romeo’s life. Example 1993 General paper “On the 24th of June 1914 William Maitland walked into a house and never came out again. One summer afternoon in Millhall, Lancashire, he vanished from the face of the earth. It was as simple, and as complicated, as that.” •Question: Explain the contrast the writer conveys in these lines. HINT: The answer lies in the contrast presented in the last sentence where we are told it was “SIMPLE” and also” COMPLICATED”. - So the contrast is in these two opposing ideas. - Answer: The contrast is in how easy it is to understand what happened but also how difficult it is to explain what happened. Tone Questions Tone Questions Some people find tone questions very difficult to answer. There is a way to make them just a bit easier. Think of HOW the writer would SAY this if he or she were talking directly to you in person. In speech, the tone of voice used helps to make the speaker‟s feelings clear. In writing, however, you must look at the word choice to find clues to the feelings or attitude of the author. Examples of tone… It‟s impossible to list every variance of tone that a writer may use, as there are so many. But they can be broadly grouped together. Firstly, however, consider whether the writer is being serious or light-hearted about his subject. Irony is the name given to the figure of A flippant tone is A lighthearted tone may be speech where an author says the opposite where the writer is more informal and of what he really means. This could be showing a mocking conversational, whereas a for humorous effect, but there is often a attitude to his topic serious, respectful tone will more serious point to be made. and isn’t taking it too use more formal words. seriously. An enthusiastic effusive tone might be used in advertising to persuade The word conversational can someone to buy a product. describe a tone, particularly a chatty, friendly tone, as if the writer is confiding in the reader or directly addressing them. The tone may be humorous in a straightforward way, where the writer finds the subject funny and hopes that you will too! A satirical tone is an extreme form of irony. Here a writer is funny in a more savage way: he holds a subject to ridicule in order to attack it. A tongue-in-cheek tone is a form of irony: the writer will sound serious but there will be A serious tone is obviously used for a serious a sense of ridicule behind this. Euphemism purpose, on solemn occasions: a funeral speech is a common feature of this tone. An for example. Words such as formal, example of this may be the expression, “tired ponderous or even pompous might be applied. and emotional” to mean “drunk”! Final questions Final questions Just above the last few questions on the Exam paper you will find an instruction in bold telling you to: ‟Think about the passage as a whole‟. After the heading suggests, these questions draw on your knowledge and understanding of the whole passage. To be able to tackle on of these questions you need to know the whole passage as well, and to have worked through it using the step by step questions. It is therefore, not possible to give you a chance to practise these here. Of course, whenever you do a pass paper in class, you will be able to have a go at this question type. Examples… These questions can cover many different topics. You may be asked to look at the writer's style throughout the passage. For example: From the passage write down an example of the writer's use of humour. Explain why it is effective. Or: Why do you think the writer makes frequent use of brackets throughout the passage? You may be asked about characters in the passage, whom you will now know well, or about their feelings and reactions. For example: Overall how do you think the writer feels about his experience with the humming birds? Support your answer by referring to the passage. Or: For whom do you feel more sympathy - Pelagia or Mandras? Justify your answer by close reference to the passage. Final questions – the end! There are many other possible types of question you may be asked in this final section of the paper. You should have noticed from the examples given earlier that one thing many of them have in common is: an instruction to justify or support your answer by referring to the text. By this stage in the Exam you should know the text intimately, and be quickly able to pick out short quotations or references to back up what you say in your answer.