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Standard Grade Close Reading PowerPoint - Saint Roch's Secondary

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Standard Grade Close Reading PowerPoint - Saint Roch's Secondary Powered By Docstoc
					STANDARD GRADE
– CLOSE READING -




 Saint Roch‟s Secondary School
                         CONTENTS
Introduction to Close Reading (slides 3 – 6)

1.    Write down an expression/word/quote questions (slides 7 – 13)
2.    In your own words questions (slides 14 – 21)
3.    The writer's attitude (slides 22 – 27)
4.    Sentence structure questions (slides 28 – 34)
5.    Punctuation and punctuation questions (slides 35 – 44)
6.    Word choice questions (slides 45 – 52)
7.    Questions about effectiveness (slides 53 – 56)
8.    Context questions (slides 57 – 61)
9.    Questions about how ideas are carried on/illustrated/developed
      (slides 62 – 68)
10.   Linking questions (slides 69 – 73)
11.   Figures of speech (slides 74 – 75)
12.   Contrast questions (slides 77 – 80)
13.   Tone Questions (slides 81 – 84)
14.   Final questions (slides 85 – 88)
                  Introduction
 This PowerPoint is designed to help you improve your
  Close Reading skills.

 Your Close Reading Exam grade, along with your Reading
  Folio pieces make up your final Standard Grade level for
  Reading, so it is very important that you try your hardest in
  the exam.

 The exam lasts for 50 minutes whether you are sitting the
  Foundation, General or Credit papers. You will be given a
  passage to read and a set of questions to answer on the
  passage.

 In the Close Reading papers you are trying to show the
  examiner that you have understood the text.
  To begin:
 You should read through the passage twice carefully. If you
  are not a fast reader then you could read through the
  passage once thoroughly and then when a question asks
  you to look at a certain paragraph make sure that you read
  that paragraph again.

 You should then have a quick skim through the questions
  before you begin. If you feel that you do not have time to do
  this then you should at least skim through the questions
  page by page as you come to them.

 Ensure that you know whether the passage is fiction or non-
  fiction and study any accompanying photographs. If there is
  one, remember to read the introduction to the passage, as
  it will give you a general idea of what theme / topic the
  passage deals with.
    When tackling the questions:
 Read the questions very carefully and ensure that you know what you are
  being asked to do before you begin.

 Check for bold type in the question. This is very important as information /
  instructions in bold type highlight important sections of the question.

 The passage will direct you to look at certain paragraphs – in bold type.
  Only take your answer from that paragraph. If you take from any other you
  will lose marks.

 Identify key words in the question – eg. quote, write down, one word etc.

 Check whether answers are worth (2,0) or (2,1,0) marks.

 Quote from the passage if asked to, otherwise, use your own words. This is
  very important! Easy marks are often lost because candidates do not follow
  instructions. ALWAYS QUOTE when directed to do so and ALWAYS USE
  YOUR OWN WORDS if instructed.
Now, Lets look at the types
 of questions you may get!
    Write down an
expression/word/quote
      questions
     Write down an
 expression/word/quote
       questions
This type of question is asking you to find an
expression/word/quote (or group of words) in the paragraph
that you are directed to which tells us something important.

Usually this piece of information is so important that it is
worth two marks. So normally you will see 2 / 0 against the
question.

 This means you write down one thing, but get two marks
                          for it.
For example…
  If a question said “Write down an
   expression which tells us Jo is angry”

  then you know to go looking in the
   paragraph for words which carry the idea
   of “angry”.

  It could be “I was fuming” or “I almost lost
   the head”, etc.

  You just have to find it and write it down.

  Do not write down the whole sentence.

  Remember, an expression is not a
   complete sentence.
Example: 2004 Credit paper

  There was a stranger
   seated at the kitchen
   table, a most horrible and
   wild stranger who looked
   worse than the brigands of
   childhood tales.

  Question: Quote the
   expression that sums up
   Pelagia's impression of the
   stranger.

  Answer: most horrible
   and wild.
     Example: 2001 General
            Paper
 Behind them, all kinds of people
  are perched on the tailgates of a
  variety of vehicles. Is this some
  bizarre store for recycled rubbish?
  Well, in a way it is. In other words,
  you have found yourself in the
  middle of your first car boot sale.

   Question: Write down an
   expression which shows
   that the writer thinks this
   'junk' makes a strange
   collection.

   Answer: bizarre store
           Example: 2002 General
                  Paper
    He waited at their corner, hands deep in pockets, his
    shoulder to the dirty, grey sandstone wall. The bell
    was ringing and he could hear the children streaming
    out into the playground. When she spotted him she
    broke into a trot and he retreated round the' corner a
    little to swoop suddenly with a mock roar, bearing her
    laughing wildly up into his arms. As he set her down
    he asked quite formally what kind of morning she'd
    had. She began to speak, and her enthusiasm
    breathed upwards into his smiling face and beyond in
    the chill air.
    Question: The man is shown to be thoughtful and caring
     towards his daughter. What evidence is there of this in the
     passage?
    Answer: He makes her laugh, and he asks her about her
     morning at school.
       Example: 2003 General
              Paper
 We were in Dracula's castle sited on
  the remote Tihuta mountain pass
  where the Victorian Gothic novelist
  Bram Stoker based the home of his
  fictitious vampire - two days' carriage
  ride from Bistrita in northern
  Transylvania.



Question: Give two pieces of evidence
which suggest that Bram Stoker wrote the
novel Dracula more than one hundred
years ago. 2 1 0

Answer: (i) reference to carriage (1)
(ii) reference to Victorian (novelist) (1)
In your own words
    questions.
 IN YOUR OWN WORDS
     QUESTIONS.
 Unless you are sure you
  are being asked to quote,
  you should always
  answer in your own
  words.

 This is the only way to
  show that you really
  understand what the
  writer is saying.
Some advice on tackling
   these questions:
 When you read this you know that the answer is right
  there in the paragraph you are told to look at.

 You can take confidence from this.

 You only have to look carefully at the lines or
  paragraphs you are told to look at, find the
  answer/line/idea and put it into your own words

 These questions are testing your vocabulary.

 You must say the same thing, but use other words to
  do so.
          Example: 2003 General
                 Paper
 Downstairs was Count Dracula's coffin in a
narrow vault, the walls painted with the dramatic
scenes of human victims, wolves, skulls,
skeletons and the black-cloaked monster
himself, red blood dripping from his pointed
fangs. So far on our Romanian holiday the only
blood-sucking had been from the mosquitoes in
Bucharest. Luckily we had decided to send their
father down first as a guinea pig to test out how
scary this experience was likely to be for our
seven-, five- and two-year-olds.

Question: In your own words explain fully
why their father was sent down first. 2 1 0
Answer: to find out/see (1)
if it was too scary/frightening/if it was
suitable for the boys (1)
           Example: 2003 Credit
                 Paper
 Round in shape with a plume of tall
  feathers, the bird stood about three feet
  high, the size of an overstuffed turkey or
  swan. Its wings were small and useless,
  its head surrounded by a hood of fine
  feathers giving it the appearance of a
  monk's cowl. Yet most distinctive of all
  was its unfeasible looking bill. It was
  huge and bulbous, possessing a
  business like hook at the end.

 Question: In your own words, what
 does the writer's use of the expression
 'unfeasible-Iooking' tell you about the
 dodo's bill?
  Answer: It appeared / seemed
  /looked (1) as if it would not work/as
  if it would not be any use (1)
    Example: 2008 General paper
„Professional competitive surfing has two
tours: the WQS and the World Championship
Tour (WCT). The WCT is the premier division,
with the WQS being used as a platform for
professionals to move up into the big time.
Around 160 up-and-coming wave riders are
expected to take part in the Thurso event. Prize
money of $100,000 (£57,000) is up for grabs,
along with vital tour points.‟

Question: In your own words, explain the
difference between the two professional surfing
tours, WCT & WQS ? 2 1 0


Answer: WCT gloss of “premier division” eg best competitors/higher status (1)

        WQS gloss of “platform ... to move up into the big time” eg step towards
        the better competition (1) accept reference to lower status (1)
                                                     LINK TO MORE EXAMPLES!!!
For practice…
 Task
 Look at these words and phrases you might find in
 questions.

 Which expressions tell you that you ought to quote in
 your answer and which ones suggest you write in
 your own words?

    Why do you think…?
    Which word…?
    Explain fully…?
    Find an expression…?
    How does the writer…?
    Write down the word…?
    Which expression…?
    By close reference to the text….?
ANSWERS…
 The phrases that tell you that you must
  quote in your answers are:

   Which word…?
   Find an expression…?
   How does the writer…?
   Write down the word…?
   Which expression…?

 The phrases that suggest that you write in
  your own words are:

 By close reference to the text….?
 Why do you think…?
 Explain fully…?
The writer's attitude
         The writer's attitude
 Note that this
  question - type asks
  about the writer's
  attitude.
 Not a character within
  the text, but the writer
  himself.
 “Attitude” simply
  means what the writer
  is thinking about a
  subject.
        Some advice on tackling
           these questions:
The easiest way for any writer to convey his
  attitude is through word choice.

    For example, read these two sentences and think of
    the attitude of the person who wrote them towards
    the subject.

   My teacher is an angel.
   My teacher is a prince.
   My teacher is a saint.
   My teacher is a clown.
   My teacher is a genius.

   In four of the above the writer is complimentary
    and positive.

   In one however, she is negative and derogatory.


    IMPORTANT: So when asked for the writer's attitude think of how words may
    suggest this attitude.
         Example: 2003 General
                Paper
 As we walked up to the main lobby
  there was 'Vampire' red wine for sale,
  glass vials of red liquid, wooden stakes
  and probably some garlic stashed
  under the counter. As these tacky,
  souvenirs revealed, it wasn't the real
  Dracula's castle but Hotel Castel
  Dracula, a three-star hotel built in the
  mountains to service some of the
  nearby, ski slopes.

  Question: In your own words, what
  is the writer's attitude to the various
  goods for sale in the hotel lobby?
  Answer: She thinks they are touristy rubbish.
           Example: 2003 Credit
                 Paper
 Surely this ridiculous bird, fat, flightless and
  vulnerable, had simply been caught and eaten
  to extinction? Too weak or stupid to defend
  itself, too trusting of humans, the dodo had met
  its inevitable end. According to ornithologist
  Julian Hume the fat, comical appearance of the
  bird is grossly exaggerated. Julian has
  travelled to Mauritius to investigate what the
  bird was really like and how it lived. It is here
  that the only two complete skeletons of the bird
  exist which have proved just how
  misrepresented the dodo has been.

        Question: Which one word
  sums up the writer's sympathetic
  attitude to the dodo.
        Answer: Misrepresented
       Example: 2003 General
              Paper
 The architecture (1980s mock
  castle) reflected the Dracula movies
  but the setting amid the dramatic
  scenery of the Tihuta pass is
  stunning. The "castle" is circled by
  bats every night and the surrounding
  forests have more wild bears and
  wolves than anywhere else in
  Europe.

Question: In your own words
what is the writer‟s opinion of the
setting of the Hotel Castel
Dracula? 2 0

Answer: magnificent/thinks it is
very beautiful/very attractive (2)
Intensity must be present
Sentence structure
    questions
         Sentence structure
             questions:
   Questions on the structure of
    sentences are asking you
    about how the sentence is
    put together.

   The writer has done
    something important or
    unusual in putting this
    particular sentence together.
Some advice on tackling
these questions:
    There are two things for you to do here.

               FOLLOW THIS FORMULA!!!

 A) You must note what the structure of the sentence
    is.

                          AND…

 B) You must explain what effect this has on a reader,
    what it makes the reader think.
          Types of structure.
         Some Structures                              Effect They Achieve

               “Failure!”                       Short, dramatic, attention - grabbing.

      “Who ? Me ? Why ? How ? “                 Questions show either doubt or mystery


         He failed his exam.                        A simple statement of an idea.

He failed English, maths, science, art          A list suggests quantity, a lot of items.
and history

He failed everything; he never paid                An explanation usually what comes after
attention.                                         the semi-colon qualifies what came
                                                   before.
He failed English, his maths just didn‟t
add up science was a bad experiment              A series of sentences join to make
for him, art was surreal and he could          one long sentence to suggest quantity.
never remember dates.
He is now worrying about the future; he is    A list of sentences joined together as one
now regretting his laziness; he is now        contain verbs in the present tense. This
looking for job sweeping the streets; he is   suggests a lot of action / lots of things going
now a sorry boy.                              on.
           Example: 2002 Credit
                 Paper
 The transaction seemed to fluster her,
  as if she might not have enough
  money to pay for the few things she'd
  bought. A tin of lentil soup. An
  individual chicken pie. One solitary
  tomato. Maybe she did need the
  avocados - or something else.
  Question: How does the
  writer emphasise that the
  woman had bought 'few
  things' through the use of
  sentence structure?
  Answer: Each item (1) is
  given a sentence on its own
  (1)
        Example: 2003 General
               Paper
 Gingerly, he tried to reopen
  the envelope but it was
  stuck fast and the flap
  ripped jaggedly.


  Question: How does the
  structure of this sentence
  emphasise the man's care
  in opening the envelope?

  Answer: (The word) gingerly
  is placed (1) at the start of the
  sentence (1)
                     Example: 2007
                     General paper
  Ken is lucky that Julie can drive one of
  the trucks, change the 2 feet high tyres,
  make sure Alex does his school lessons
  on his laptop, cook, make sandwiches
  and dish out the £2 tickets.

 Question: How does the structure of the whole
  sentence help to reinforce the idea of how busy Julie
  is between Easter and October ?          2/1/0

 Answer: the sentence is a long list (1) to show the
  many things she has to do (1).
   Punctuation and
punctuation questions.
         Punctuation and
      punctuation questions.
 There is rather an overlap
  here with questions about
  sentence structure since
  punctuation is used to
  shape sentences and to
  organise the words within
  them.

 However, you may also get
  more specific questions
  about the use of punctuation
  marks.

 It is therefore important
  that you know your
  punctuation!!!
    Punctuation you need to
           know!!!
                    1.   to separate items in a list.
When do we use      2.   to introduce a quote.
commas ?            3.   to introduce direct speech.
,                   4.   to make the reader pause at certain
                         times in a sentence.

                    1. to give extra information in a
When do we use         sentence.
dashes ?            2. to make the reader take a pause.
                    3. to mark out a word or phrase from the
-                      rest of the sentence (Maths is great –
                       not.)
                    1. to show the words actually spoken
When do we use      2. to show that we are talking about the
Inverted commas ?      title of a book or film or poem, etc.
                    3. to show that we are quoting someone
                       else and these are not the writer‟s own
“”                     words.
    More punctuation….
When do we use                     1. to join two (or more) related ideas.
semi colons ?                      2. to separate items in a list when there are
                                      commas in the sentence already.
                                   3. to join several sentences into one very
;                                     long one.

When do we use                     1.   to introduce a list.
colons ?                           2.   to introduce a quote.
                                   3.   to give more information about an idea
                                   4.   .to punctuate a play.
:
When do we use                     1. Dots used to tail of a sentence.
ellipsis ?                         2. To show gaps in a piece of writing.
….
                                   1.   at the beginning of a sentence.
                                   2.   for names.
When do we use capital letters ?   3.   for initials.
                                   4.   for the beginning of a section of direct speech.
                                   5.   for titles of books, newspapers, films, etc.for
                                        acronyms (like BBC or STV or CSI)
          Example: 2001 General
                 Paper
 After all there's a little collection of
  pressed glass over there that is so
  irresistible, and the old hand-
  knitted Shetland shawl that
  nobody seems to have spotted,
  and isn't that a genuine stone hot-
  water bottle lurking among the
  rubbish. . .?
   Question: Why does the
   writer use ellipsis at the end of
   the final sentence?
   Answer: To show that the list
   could continue / be endless
   OR that there could be more
   examples.
    2 marks for either
       Example: 2002 General
              Paper
 It was now well into the rush
  hour: traffic gushed by or
  fretted at red lights and urgent
  pedestrians commanded the
  pavements and crossings.

Question: Why does the writer
use a colon? Is it to introduce a
quotation, to elaborate on an
idea, or to introduce an
explanation?

Answer: To elaborate on an idea (2)
         Example: 2002 General
                Paper
 At the last corner before the
  school's street they both halted
  in an accustomed way and he
  squatted down to give her a
  kiss. She didn't mind the ritual
  but not outside the gates: her
  pals might see and that would
  be too embarrassing.

 Question: Why does the writer use a
 colon? Is it to introduce a quotation, to
 elaborate on an idea, or to introduce an
 explanation?

 Answer: To introduce an explanation (2)
        Example: 2003 General
               Paper
 We were in Dracula's castle -
  sited on the remote Tihuta
  mountain pass where the
  Victorian Gothic novelist Bram
  Stoker based the home of his
  fictitious vampire - two days'
  carriage ride from Bistrita in
  northern Transylvania.


  Question: Why does the writer use dashes in this paragraph?

  Answer: To provide additional information /detail /parenthesis (2)
       Example: 2003 General
              Paper
It wasn't the real Dracula's castle but Hotel Castel
Dracula, a three-star hotel built in the mountains to
service some of the nearby, ski slopes. The
architecture (1980s mock castle) reflected the Dracula
movies but the setting amid the dramatic scenery of
the Tihuta pass is stunning. The 'castle' is circled by
bats every night and the surrounding forests have
more wild bears and wolves than anywhere else in
Europe.

Question: Why does the writer put the word 'castle'
in inverted commas?

Answer: Being ironic / to show
it's not really a castle / to show
it's really a hotel (2)
           Example: 2001 Credit
                 Paper
 The driver opened the back
  door of the taxi and my 'aunt',
  as we referred to her - really
  my mother's aunt's daughter
  -divested herself of the
  travelling rugs.

 Question: What is the function of the dashes?

 Answer: Giving additional information
 / parenthesis (2)
Word choice questions
     Word choice questions
 Words are chosen for effect – words can make you think
        of more than just their literal meaning.

 Words have                   Lisbon 67               Seville 03
  connotations. These
  are the associations
  we give to words, the
  ideas we are made to    Rangers          CELTIC FC            Henrik
  think of when we
  hear or read any
  given word.
                             Ireland                     Scotland

   When a question asks you to comment on word choice
     think of the associations the identified word(s) will
                conjure up in a reader‟s mind.
         Another example…
 Think of the ideas we associate with
  the word “butterfly”.

 We think of delicate things, light,
  beauty, erratic flight, unpredictability,
  etc.

 If the word is then used to describe a
  person then these qualities are
  associated with that person.
    Some advice on tackling
    these questions:
          These questions are asking you to do
           two things:

                    1. First identify and write down the
                       word/s which are being used for effect.


                    2. Then, explain what their effect is. The
                       effect is what the word makes you
                       think.


•This phrase (“makes us think”) should appear in your answer.

•When a question asks you to comment on word choice think of the associations the
identified word(s) will conjure up in a reader‟s mind.
When you answer you should
use the formula below:
  The word "..........X............" suggests that
   ............................................

  OR

  "......X......." makes us think about
   ...............................................
           Example: 2002 Credit
                 Paper
 The transaction seemed to
  fluster her, as if she might not
  have enough money to pay
  for the few things she'd
  bought. A tin of lentil soup. An
  individual chicken pie. One
  solitary tomato. Maybe she
  did need the avocados - or
  something else.

  Question: How does the writer
  emphasise that the woman had
  bought 'few things' through the use of
  word choice?
  Answer: Use of a / an / one / individual / solitary
         Example: 2001 Credit
               Paper
The driver opened the back door of the taxi and my 'aunt', as we referred to
her - really my mother's aunt's daughter -divested herself of the travelling
rugs. She hazarded a foot out on to the gravel - in a pointy crocodile shoe -
as if she were testing the atmosphere. She emerged dressed in a waisted
black cashmere overcoat with a fur collar and strange scalloped black kid-
skin gloves like hawking gauntlets.

Question: What impression of the aunt do you get
from the writer's choice of the words 'divested',
'hazarded', and 'emerged' to describe her
movements?

Answer: She is controlled/ precise/
deliberate/calculating/ elegant/ contrived/graceful/
attention-seeking/ self conscious/a show off/ a poser
Anyone for 2 marks
         Example: 2004 Credit
               paper
 He was breathing heavily and the
  smell was inconceivably foul; it was
  the reek of rotting flesh, of festering
  wounds, of ancient perspiration, and
  of fear.

 Question: Explain fully how the
  writer emphasises the smell through
  word choice.

 Answer: Inconceivably foul/reek of
  rotting flesh/festering
  wounds/ancient perspiration (1)
  + explanation (1) 2/1/0
Questions about
 effectiveness
                  Questions about
                   effectiveness
 You will sometimes find a question asking
  how effective you find an aspect of the
  writer‟s style.

   It‟s almost a trick question, as the
    examiners have pretty much decided
    already that the writing IS effective.

 What they really want to do is to explain
  why.

 (If you are feeling very sure, and very
  skilled, you can argue that the extract is
  not effective but you‟ll have to use a lot of
  good evidence to explain why you think
  this.)
         Example: 2002 General
                Paper
 It was easy standing here to recall the
  bustle of business life. It came to him
  how much he wanted it, that activity. It
  was more than just something you did
  to make money: It was the only life he
  knew and he was missing out on it,
  standing on the sidelines like a face in
  the crowd at a football game.

  Question: Explain how effective you find the simile in this extract.

  Answer: Answers should deal with the
  idea that 'sideline' = left out / excluded etc
  (1) AND that 'face in a crowd' = anonymity /
  one of many / lost / unimportant etc (1)
           Example: 2002 Credit
                 Paper
He told her to take a seat while he called security, but when he turned
from her she let out a thin wail that made him recoil from the phone.
She had both her temples between her hands, as if afraid her head
might explode. She let out another shrill wail. It ripped out of her like
something wild kept prisoner for years. It seemed to make the room
shrink around them.

Question: Quote a comparison from this section
which shows how emotional or upset the woman
was, and explain how effective you find it.


Answer: ... 'as if her head might explode'. / 'It ripped out of her. . .
prisoner for years. '
Either of these for 1 mark + appropriate comment on the intensity
of the image for 1 more mark
Context questions
The context question.
  You may be asked to show how the context, that
   is the words or phrases around an unusual
   word, that give us an idea of what an unfamiliar
   word may mean.

 This question is asking you to do two things

  A) Say what the meaning is
                    &
  B) Say how the words around the word
   concerned help you to find this meaning.
For example….
  Look at this example:-

  “He lay there XXX , blood
   seeping from a head wound and
   his jaw cracked like a walnut.”

  You can guess that XXX will
   mean “injured” or “damaged”
   or something like this.

  You have guessed by using
   the context to help you reach
   an understanding.
 Example 2003 Credit paper.
 When the dodo died the animal
  was stuffed and sold to a
  museum. Taxidermy not being
  what it is today the dodo slowly
  rotted.

 Question: Explain how the
  context helps you to understand
  the meaning of "taxidermy" in
  paragraph 9.

 Answer: If you follow the advice
  above you will probably think the
  word "stuffed" is the big clue. If
  the animal "rotted" then it would
  not have been stuffed properly.
  So, the meaning is stuffed.
            Example: 2002 Credit
                  Paper
 It wasn't often you had this kind of
  intuition about somebody, but as soon as
  he saw her looking at the seeds, he was
  certain she was going to steal them. He
  moved closer to her, picked up a
  watering can and weighed it in his hand,
  as if this was somehow away of testing
  it, then he saw her dropping packet after
  packet into the bag.

Question: 'It wasn't often you had this kind of intuition. . .' How
does the rest of the paragraph help to explain the meaning of
'intuition'?

Answer: Intuition means that you sense or guess something. He guesses
  that she will steal the seeds and then he watches her doing this.
Questions about how ideas
        are carried
 on/illustrated/developed
   Questions about how ideas
           are carried
    on/illustrated/developed
          Questions which ask how the writer:


 Continues this idea Or   Develops this idea Or   Illustrates this idea




These questions are suggesting that the idea which is stated
 in the question itself (usually a quote from certain lines) is
         then returned to by the writer in some way.
  Continued…
 The writer might say the same thing again
  but in different words,

 Or

 Might tell us more about the idea by giving
  more details about it

 Or

 Might give an example of what he is talking
  about


They all involve the same skill: you have to find
    the words used to tell us more about the
          thing mentioned in the question.
     Example…
   Think of this made-up example;
   "I was scared" (paragraph X)
   Question: How does the writer develop this
    idea in the rest of the paragraph ?
    2/1/0

   Say we look at the rest of the paragraph and we
    see:
   "My knees began to shake, my throat began to
    dry up and my knuckles were white.“

   Which words tell us about him being scared ?

   All three ideas highlighted above tell us the effect
    his fear has on him.

   So you would get two marks for noting all three,
   One mark for noting any two, but nothing for only
    one.
         Example: 2003 General
                Paper
 Downstairs was Count Dracula's coffin in a narrow
  vault, the walls painted with the dramatic scenes of
  human victims, wolves, skulls, skeletons and the
  black-cloaked monster himself, red blood dripping
  from his pointed fangs. So far on our Romanian
  holiday, the only blood-sucking had been from the
  mosquitoes in Bucharest. Luckily we had decided to
  send their father down first as a guinea pig to test
  out how scary this experience was likely to be for
  our seven-, five- and two-year-olds.


Question: 'Downstairs was Count Dracula's coffin in a narrow
vault, the walls painted with the dramatic scenes' In what ways
does the writer convey the 'dramatic scenes in the
vault?
Answer: The writer uses a list of horrific
images such as blood, fangs, wolves, skulls and skeletons.
         Example: 2001 General
                Paper
 All the junk in Scotland meets your befuddled gaze:
  thousands of unwanted gifts, the 'wee something' for
  Christmas and the 'I saw this and thought of you' for your
  birthday (how you wish they hadn't); then there are the
  holiday souvenirs. In short, all the stuff with which we
  tend to clutter our lives and our cupboards has somehow
  ended up in one place, awkwardly arranged on a vast
  number of folding tables. Behind them, all kinds of
  people are perched on the tailgates of a variety of
  vehicles. Is this some bizarre store for recycled rubbish?
  Well, in a way it is. In other words, you have found
  yourself in the middle of your first car boot sale.
Question: 'All the junk in Scotland meets your befuddled
gaze' How does the writer continue the idea of 'junk'?

Answer: Reference to any TWO of - use of colon (to introduce) / (a list of)
examples / unwanted gifts / wee something for Christmas / birthday gift not
wanted / holiday souvenirs /stuff / (which) clutters our lives /recycled rubbish
           Example: 2002 Credit
                 Paper
It was depressing to unlock the door of his cubby-hole, switch the
light on and see the table barely big enough to hold his kettle and his
tea things, the one upright chair, the barred window looking out on a
fire-escape and the wall-mounted telephone. He asked her to take
the packets of seeds out of her bag and put them on the table. She
did so, and the sight of the packets, with their gaudy coloured
photographs of flowers, made her clench her hand into a fist.


Question: The detective found the sight of his cubby-hole
'depressing'. Explain how the writer continues this idea in
the rest of the paragraph.
Answer: Reference to any TWO of very small table / only
one chair / which is an upright one / the window is barred
(like a cell - possibly dark) / the only outlook is the fire
escape / the wall-mounted phone
Linking questions
    Linking questions
 A linking sentence is one which links
  two paragraphs together.

 Usually this sentence will appear at the
  start of the second of the two
  paragraphs which are being linked.

 Look carefully at the sentence which is
  the link.

 There will be two parts to this sentence:

   One part will refer to the content of the
    paragraph before.

 The other part of the sentence will
  introduce the subject of the new
  paragraph.
     When you answer you should
     use the formula below:
    There is a simple, four-step formula
     to tackling these types of questions:

1.   Quote briefly from the linking
     sentence or paragraph.

2.   Show how that quotation makes
     a link back to earlier in the
     passage.

3.   Quote briefly again from the
     linking sentence.

4.   Show how this second quotation
     makes a link forward to what is to
     come in the passage.
           Example: 2002 Credit
                 Paper
 The three witches in Macbeth, prancing cackling round their
  cauldron, provide the accepted clichés of witch behaviour and taste.
  Alas the Macbeth witches have merely served to reinforce
  prejudice, rather than cast illumination.
  So does the witch deserve her poor image?
  It is probable that the Wiccan creed goes back to the dawn of
  religious belief, when cave dwellers peered out and saw wonder in
  the rhythm of the changing seasons. Early witchcraft was probably
  no more than a primitive attempt to make sense of the unknown.

Question: In what way can the single
sentence be regarded as a link of the ideas within the
article?
Answer: 'Her poor image' refers back to the prejudiced ideas about witches
mentioned already, such as those found in Macbeth. The question, 'Does the
witch deserve . . . ?' introduces the next part of the passage, which is going to
present a truer history of witchcraft.
                     Example Paper
 His father looked at the sweating horse, and after a pause he said
  that he would be alright. Howard could see he knew the berries
  weren't ready yet, like the ones behind the steading that they
  always picked; and he understood that this was a lesson being set
  up for him when he came home without brambles: not to tell lies.
  And there'd be another lesson behind this one, the real lesson:
  that his father had been right about that sort of new-fangled
  nonsense coming to grief.
  In spite of this, he forgot it all and slipped through the racecourse
  fence.

Question: Explain how the one-sentence paragraph is an effective link
between the paragraphs before and after.


Answer: 'In spite of this' refers to the lessons of the first paragraph.'. . . through
the Racecourse fence 'takes Howard in to the setting of the third paragraph.
1 mark for each quote + reference.
Figures of speech
          Figures of speech
                 These are simply the various
                 names given to the different
                  ways in which a writer can
                  make his or her work more
                         interesting.




Click on this link for a detailed guide to the different figures of
                speech you may be asked about.

           http//www.buzzin.net/english/figures.htm
                        IMAGERY
     A SIMILE tells you that one thing is like another; it compares
           two different objects using the words „like‟ or „as‟.

                    e.g. His hair was as black as coal.
                         His heart beat like a drum.

A METAPHOR tells you that one thing is something else. It is not
meant literally, but is just a way of creating a vivid picture in your mind.

               e.g. The cold breeze was a slap in the face.
                    She stared with eyes of stone.


      PERSONIFICATION describes a thing or object as if it is a
      person, or as having human qualities.

              e.g. The wind whistled through the sails.
                   The sun treads a path through the woods.
Contrast questions
    Contrast questions

 Contrast is the pairing of opposing ideas

 A contrast is a comparison which shows
  up the differences between subjects.

   The writer is deliberately pairing two ideas
   together to show up the difference which will
            be important in some way.
  For Example…
 In “Romeo and Juliet”, Shakespeare continually
  compares Juliet to the sun or to a star.

  The idea he is conveying is that
  she is above everyone around
  her.




                            Everyone else is dark by
                            comparison and she brings light
                            into Romeo’s life.
Example 1993 General
paper
“On the 24th of June 1914 William
Maitland walked into a house and
never came out again. One summer
afternoon in Millhall, Lancashire, he
vanished from the face of the earth.
It was as simple, and as
complicated, as that.”
•Question: Explain the contrast the writer conveys in these lines.
HINT: The answer lies in the contrast presented in the last sentence
where we are told it was “SIMPLE” and also” COMPLICATED”.
           - So the contrast is in these two opposing ideas. -
 Answer: The contrast is in how easy it is to understand what
 happened but also how difficult it is to explain what happened.
Tone Questions
    Tone Questions
 Some people find tone questions very
  difficult to answer.

 There is a way to make them just a bit
  easier.

 Think of HOW the writer would SAY this
  if he or she were talking directly to you
  in person.

 In speech, the tone of voice used helps
  to make the speaker‟s feelings clear.

 In writing, however, you must look at the
  word choice to find clues to the
  feelings or attitude of the author.
   Examples of tone…
 It‟s impossible to list every variance of
  tone that a writer may use, as there are
  so many.

 But they can be broadly grouped
  together.

 Firstly, however, consider whether the
  writer is being serious or light-hearted
  about his subject.
                                                   Irony is the name given to the figure of                    A flippant tone is
A lighthearted tone may be                         speech where an author says the opposite                    where the writer is
more informal and                                  of what he really means. This could be                      showing a mocking
conversational, whereas a                          for humorous effect, but there is often a                   attitude to his topic
serious, respectful tone will                      more serious point to be made.                              and isn’t taking it too
use more formal words.                                                                                         seriously.



                                                                                                        An enthusiastic effusive
                                                                                                        tone might be used in
                                                                                                        advertising to persuade
The word conversational can
                                                                                                        someone to buy a product.
describe a tone, particularly a
chatty, friendly tone, as if the
writer is confiding in the reader
or directly addressing them.
                                                                                                  The tone may be humorous in
                                                                                                  a straightforward way, where
                                                                                                  the writer finds the subject
                                                                                                  funny and hopes that you will
                                                                                                  too!
 A satirical tone is an extreme form of
 irony. Here a writer is funny in a more
 savage way: he holds a subject to
 ridicule in order to attack it.


                                                                                  A tongue-in-cheek tone is a form of irony:
                                                                                  the writer will sound serious but there will be
                 A serious tone is obviously used for a serious                   a sense of ridicule behind this. Euphemism
                 purpose, on solemn occasions: a funeral speech                   is a common feature of this tone. An
                 for example. Words such as formal,                               example of this may be the expression, “tired
                 ponderous or even pompous might be applied.                      and emotional” to mean “drunk”!
Final questions
                    Final questions
 Just above the last few questions on the Exam
  paper you will find an instruction in bold telling
  you to: ‟Think about the passage as a whole‟.

    After the heading suggests, these questions
    draw on your knowledge and understanding of
    the whole passage.

 To be able to tackle on of these questions you
  need to know the whole passage as well, and to
  have worked through it using the step by step
  questions.

 It is therefore, not possible to give you a chance
  to practise these here.

 Of course, whenever you do a pass paper in
  class, you will be able to have a go at this
  question type.
                     Examples…
 These questions can cover many different topics. You may be
  asked to look at the writer's style throughout the passage. For
  example:
 From the passage write down an example of the writer's use
  of humour. Explain why it is effective.
 Or:
 Why do you think the writer makes frequent use of brackets
  throughout the passage?
 You may be asked about characters in the passage, whom you
  will now know well, or about their feelings and reactions. For
  example:
 Overall how do you think the writer feels about his experience
  with the humming birds? Support your answer by referring to
  the passage.
 Or:
 For whom do you feel more sympathy
 - Pelagia or Mandras? Justify your
 answer by close reference to the
 passage.
    Final questions – the end!
 There are many other possible types of
  question you may be asked in this final
  section of the paper.

 You should have noticed from the
  examples given earlier that one thing
  many of them have in common is:

  an instruction to justify or support
   your answer by referring to the text.

 By this stage in the Exam you should
  know the text intimately, and be quickly
  able to pick out short quotations or
  references to back up what you say in
  your answer.

				
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