Origins of the Curriculum

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					Origins of the Curriculum
The History of Computer Science & Software Engineering
As it relates to the Everyday life of the CS & SE Undergraduate
Connecting the Pieces
   A brief overview of how CS & software engineering curricula came to be as
   they are today. In conjunction with a discussion of the individual university
   mission statement (as well as department and college) and the role of ABET,
   these materials allow students to understand the connections between
   classes within their own program. Engineering programs, in the student's eye,
   become a more comprehensive endeavor, moving well beyond a collection of
   courses that simply convey content and tool. This material works well at the
   beginning of any engineering or pre-engineering course, but is best suited to
   gateway, seminar, or overview courses.
A Brief History of Engineering
   19th Century: “shop” culture
     Apprenticeship precedes entering field

   Late 19th Century: “school” culture
     Degree work (2 or 4 year) precedes field work

     Is largely “shop” based

   Introduction of basic science and theory:
     Limited by “crushing” teaching loads
     Hindered by tradition
   Story of engineering education is one of balance between
    theory, promoted by European engineers and a few
    American renegades, & practical experience.
A Brief History of Computer Science
   19th Century: Mechanical computing machines built in labs
     Charles Babbage & Ada Lovelace balance hardware &
   Early 20th Century: Emphasis on hardware; emphasis on
     Software designers took a back seat role to hardware

     Theoretical foundations built (Turing, Shannon)

   Mid-20th Century: Development of the transistor changed
    the focus of hardware development.
   Late-20th Century: Development of computer languages to
    fit business and research needs. Emphasis shifted to
     Computer science first taught through math departments
        (theory focus) and business departments (application focus)
     Shifts to separate departments in the 1980s.

     Software engineering degree first awarded in 1996.
A Driving Force: World War II
   The United States became “panicked” by the technology race
   U.S. Military allocated millions of dollars to cutting edge
    technology and basic research
   Engineers were perturbed that Scientists received most of the
    WWII credit.

   The Winning Combination:
     Federal funding dollars

     Groundwork laid by Timoshenko and his collegaues

     Status concerns of prominent engineers

     What happens to ethics when all the money comes from
Key War Efforts

   1943 Eckert & Mauchly's ENIAC
       First successful high-speed electronic digital computer
   1943 Turing's Colossus
       Secret electronic computer created for military to break
   1944 Aiken's Harvard Mark I
       First large scale computer, slow but fully automatic
       Digital computer based on electromechanical parts
   1945 Eckert & Mauchly's EDVAC
       Stored program computer using mercury delay lines
       Von Neumann joined in the development
The Balance of the Extremes…

   On one hand, the development of the physical machines:
   On the other, the control of the machines: software
   History of the WW II era focused on hardware (mostly men)
    and ignored (or cut out) software (often women).
   But there has long been a tension between hardware &
    software, theory & application, vision & backwards
   Much of the field is defined in terms of the hardware
    development. However! The balance between creating
    better, faster machines and controlling them means that
    software development was equally important.

   "There is no reason anyone would want a computer
                      in their home."
 Ken Olson, president/founder of Digital Equipment Corp.,
      ‘77 20 years later, most US homes had them.

"I think there is a world market for maybe five computers."
           Thomas Watson, chairman of IBM, 1943.
A Brief History of Computer Science
   Pre-history
       Theoretical foundations paired with mechanical systems
       Boolean algebra and physical computing systems developed
       Training for human computers was in math programs
   Machine-Centered Phase
       Debates of the priority and internal functioning of key electronic
        digital machines at both hardware and software levels
   Information Age
       Computers: machines that process information, secondarily
        calculate, control, or communicate
   Institutional Age
       Institutions and their needs drive development
   Hybrid Future
       Computing and Society merge as computers are a part of all
        intellectual and institutional developments
Who or what is driving education? Government? Industry?
Software Engineering History
   The Pioneering Era (1955 - 1965)
       Machine rooms, high order languages developing, few software
        companies & no packaged software
   The Stabilizing Era (1965 - 1980)
       Big O/S, supply of programmers not meeting large demand,
        structured programming, standards organizations emerging,
        software vendors emerging
   The Micro Era (1980 - 1995)
       Price of computing plummets, GUI prevalent, more development
       Software engineering has been an apprentice field, with on-the-job
        training with or without technical undergraduate degrees.
   The Client-Server Era (1995 - Present)
       Interconnectivity of computers key, software internet aware, changes
        happening even more rapidly
       Finally! Software engineering degrees are available.
Software Engineering History:
Pioneering Era (1955-1965)

   New computers were coming out every year or two;
    software had to be continuously rewritten.
   Computer hardware was application specific; so a
    different machine was needed for each type of task.
   High-order languages were being developed
   Software was free since hardware couldn't be sold
    without it.
Software Engineering History:
Stabilizing Era (1965-1980)
   The term “software engineering” was coined.
   Introduction of the IBM 360 allowed software
    engineers to start writing new programs instead of
    just rewriting old ones.
   Demand for programmers became high while
    supply was low as software engineering was not yet
    an academic discipline.
   Scientific and business programmers had to work
   Programmers still went to the “machine room,” not
    their own desktop computer.
Software Engineering History:
The Micro Era (1980-1995)
   Every programmer can have a desktop
   Price of computing dropped dramatically.
   Job Control Language (JCL) replaced by
    user-friendly GUI
Software Engineering History:
The Client-Server Era (1995-present)
   Dominant driver: networked hardware
   Web-driven tools and programming
   User-friendly web interfaces
   Web-based software engineering becoming a
    software development methodology
   Increased demand for balance of speed &
Software Engineering History:
The Web Cloud Era (present era)
   Convergence of personal computers & the internet
   Hardware developments drive parallel programming
   Distributed computing & ubiquitous storage on
    communal servers
   The internet as a commodity
   Creative design & analysis a key component of both
    computer science & software engineering
In the   21 st   Century, what is needed?
  The U.S. Workforce will continue to increase in size,
  but at a considerably slower rate... work in the
  United States will be chased by demographic
  trends, technological advances, and economic
      -Karoly et al, The 21st Workplace at Work
In the     21 st   Century, what is needed?
The leading edge of American society in the 21st century
will be carried by those that are creative and dynamic...
Who are able to combine work habit, learning, and
values into a single holistic view that enables the
creation rather than the mere following of their career.
  -Ray et al, The Cultural Creatives
Rapid technological change and increased international
competition place the spotlight on the skills and preparation
of the workforce, particularly the ability to adapt to changing
technologies and shifting product demand... education
becomes a continuous process.
  -Karoly et al, The 21st Workplace at Work