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Social Reform in Progressive Era


									   Social Reform in the
     Progressive Era
Antoinette Comer
Amanda Cruz
Gop Gai
                           Social Reform
   Started with Populism in 1890’s a movement
    where rural farmers in the Midwest and south
    protested the increase in agricultural goods,
    excessive charges by railroads and
    profiteering by food processors. (Jansson 124)
   This movement led Progressivism, the first
    urban movement. Advocated for civil service,
    government and social reform.
   The movement sought to limit immigration,
    establish child labor laws, improve working
    conditions and obtain unemployment
    insurance for workers. The ideals of these
    movements were meant to benefit the citizens
    not the immigrants.
   Most reformers were middle class Americans
    and trade unions supported the reform on
    various social issues.
 The 1st wave of immigrants
  before 1885 were largely
  Northern and Western
 In 1885-1924, Southern and
  Eastern European from (Italy
  and Russian Jews) immigrated
  to America.
 These immigrants were
  escaping religious persecution
  and were in search of economic
  prosperity resulting from
   Images from
                        Social Problems Faced by
   Immigrants lived in crowded tenements
    in Eastern and Midwestern cities of
    America. (pg. 125 in book).
   Immigrants formed ethnic enclaves ex:
    Polish, Jewish and Italian areas
    emerged in these cities.
   To survive immigrants used such ethnic
    enclaves to exchange resources to
    provide for their needs and often relied
    on benevolent organizations (ex:
    Catholic churches, Synagogues and
    fundraising from their own communities.
   They were denied access to most public
    services rendered to citizens such as
    schools, affordable housing, decent
    working conditions and were often
    subject to discrimination.
                      Cont. Social Problems
   Absence of housing codes resulted in the fire
    at Triangle Shirtwaist Company in NY city
    (killed 146 girls and women)

   Dangerous working conditions increased rates
    of industrial accidents. Like African Americans
    today, immigrants were greatly affected by
    economic shifts.
   They lacked social welfare programs such as
    unemployment benefits; workers
    compensation for those injured at work or to
    families who may have lost someone due to
    the industrial accidents.
   Immigrants were also exploited by politicians
    who promised them reforms and improvement
    of their living conditions.
   Lack of money, meant families had to send
    their children to work; thus increasing the
    number of child laborers.
            Events Prior to the Reform.
 The depression of 1893-1896,
  led to discontent and a shift in
  government from Democrats to
  Republicans. Widespread
  distrust of corporate tycoons
  that once promised to create
  economic boom and provide
  economic stability for workers
  and those seeking jobs.
 Prompted a need for
  government to regulate the
  power of corporate tycoons on
  the labor market.
                    Progressive Reformers
   These reformers were anti social Darwinism which encouraged competition. They
    encouraged the formation of social policies to address the conditions such as housing,
    women rights and child labor.
   To draw attention to these social issues, progressives used environmental conditions
    and their affects on society.
   Reformers argued that if the economy is unregulated it could create levels of social
    distress and social insecurity.
   Reformers like Jane Addams, highlighted problems faced by the workers ex: poor
    working conditions for city workers.
   Jane Addams sought to support social reforms that assist workers.
   Paul Kellogg exposed the occupational hazards in housing and health in his study of the
    city of Pittsburg.
   Homer Folks campaigned to establish standards of sanitation; enforce existing laws that
    required children and insane people to be removed from almshouses.
   It is important to note that many reformers sought changes for certain populations. These
    reforms discriminated against Immigrants and African Amerians.
   Jansson pg. 124-137
        Policy Reforms for Women and
   The mothers’ pension movement
    swept the nation between 1911 and
    1919. most single mothers were
   Mothers’ pensions were seen as the
    first breach in the American
    orthodoxy that the government
    should not provide outdoor relief to
    people in need.
   In several jurisdictions, children
    younger than 14 were safe from
    capital punishment.
   The idea of the national Children
    Bureau came about in 1904.
   Anti-child-labor law, was put into
    effect in 1919 based on the national
    power of taxation.
   Google images
                    Private Philanthropy
 Hull House, the settlement
  house, was established in 1889
  by Jane Addams.
 Addams goal was to organize
  immigrants against the political
 The settlement houses involved
  programs including arts,
  vocational training, cultural
  events, helping unionize
  workers, and health services.
 There were many seminars on
  social problems held in the Hull
 images
     Other Policy Reforms
 Employers found several ways to blame work
  related injuries on employees. They felt
  employees were careless in their work and knew
  about dangers before they started.
 Workers compensation had been adopted by 1920
  and the amount paid to them was based on the
  type of injuries.
 The Progressive Era formed after care services
  and programs made to prevent mental illnesses.
The Limited Nature of Progressives’
          Social Reforms
 In 1913, the Progressives secured the 16th
  amendment to the constitution.
 This made it possible for congress to place
  and collect taxes on incomes.
 The tax rates were established at extremely
  low levels.
 Most of the citizens paid no income taxes at
  all because of low tax levels.
  Cultural And Policy Realities That
           Limited Reform
 Progressives were naïve and took two
  forms. The first was legalistic bias and the
  second was the Procedural bias.
 They fought for laws such as the initiative,
  the reference, and the recall.
The Six Overlapping Form Agendas
 1st & 2nd sought policies to reduce corruption
  regulation of the economic system.
 3rd-4th-sought to develop licensing laws and
  legislation to restore morality to American life.
 5th-6thsought regulations to limit abilities of
  corporations and pursued programs to redistribute
  resources to impoverished workers and other
                 People of color
 Most lived in rural areas as tenant farmers, with low wages
  and in debt to plantation owners, putting them in poverty.
 Many moved to Southern cities where the African
  Americans lived within a segregated society working
  unskilled jobs
 Poverty and lack of jobs caused a migration of African
  Americans to the Northern cities.
 Problems African Americans faced
 Discrimination in job markets; excluded
  from skilled trades & unions
 Subject to race riots and mob violence
  when they competed with whites for
 In the African American community
  Booker T. Washington & W.E.B. Du Bois
  reflected the dilemma of oppressed
 Washington wanted African Americans
  to conquer racism by honesty & hard
  work while Du Bois wanted them to
  develop political power so they could
  obtain civil rights laws.
 Asian immigrants and Latinos also were subject to
 California enacted Alien Land Laws in 1913 & 1920 to
  prohibit land purchases and ownership by Japanese
 Latinos were a labor force for irrigated cotton, vegetable
  and fruit enterprises of the Southwest, they also worked in
  food-processing plants where they were subject to punitive
  labor policies & paid low wages.
 The Mexicans had developed a “sojourner mentality”
  during this time. This helped form mutual aid funds, to
  provide insurance, funeral, and limited welfare benefits.
              Women and Politics
 The National American
  Women’s Suffrage Association
  began in 1890.
 Between 1890 & 1905 women
  had many petitions in order to
  grant women the right to vote.
 When women were denied the
  right to vote, they decided to
  support progressive reforms on
  education and family issues,
  which appealed to men.
 The 19th Amendment to the
  Constitution was finally enacted
  in 1920.
  The Emergence of Social Work
 A new profession came about in 1920 called social work. It
  developed schools to train people who helped immigrants,
  poor people & children who couldn't remain with their
  natural families
 Those who came from settlement houses & those who
  wanted to develop a methodology for helping people in
  one-on-one transactions had very different approaches in
  the direction of social work.
 Local non-governmental agencies- charity organization
  societies developed to provide assistance to destitute
  people. They also made sure that people were not getting
  assistance from more than one agency.
 Both charity staff and
  settlement staff realized that
  even with their differences
  they both needed further
  education to develop a
  profession, so sociology
  courses were taught in
  universities in the 1890’s.
 In 1907 settlement leaders
  founded the Chicago School
  of Civics and Philanthropy
  which later became the
  School of Social Service
  Administration of the
  University of Chicago.
1.Who established the Hull House in 1889?
A. Booker T. Washington B. Jane Addams
    C. W.E.B DU BOIS         D. none of the above

2.Who Provided Services For the People in Need in the Progressive Era?
A. Private Philanthropy B. Government
C. Employers            D. Corporations

3.Populism was a rural movement established to address what issues?
A). High taxes          B). Poor housing
C). Unemployment        D). High interests and low agricultural prices.

4.Immigrants survived by creating ethnic enclaves and sought help from?
A) Companies           B). Federal government
C). Churches and benevolent organization D). A & C

5.  When did Women get the Right to Vote?
    A. 1896         B. 1905
    C. 1919         D. 1920
6. Who was not an out-group of the Progressive Era?
    A. Women       B. Europeans Immigrants
    C. African Americans D. Asians

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