Planning Together by nyut545e2


									    Authors: Icarus
    September 2006

lanning Toget
nning Together
   Planning Togeth
nning Together ?
mpact of parish plans and village appraisals in
of parish plans and village village appraisals in Der
 impact of parish plans and appraisals in Derbyshi
      The impact of parish plans and village appraisals in Derbyshire

t of parish plans and village appraisals in Derbyshire

                                  Executive summary
                             1.   Introduction
                             2.   Research methodology
                             3.   Process and resourcing of community plans
                             4.   Context
                             5.   The impact of community plans
                             6.   Summary points
                             7.   Challenges for the future
                             8.   Recommendations

                    Appendix 1:   Research questions
                    Appendix 2:   Background on the 6 case study communities
                    Appendix 3:   List of stakeholder interviews

executive summary
1	   T
     	 his	 report	 summarises	 the	 findings	 of	       7    The assessment of needs via the planning            15   The support of development workers is                     T
                                                                                                                                                                             22	 	 he	 findings	 from	 this	 research	 provide	
     a piece of work to gather evidence about                 process can provide an insight into issues               critical for the implementation phase of plans,           the basis for considering how community
     the impacts of community planning on the                 at a level of detail otherwise unavailable               although is commonly less available than for              planning programmes should be conducted
     social and economic lives of people in rural             to agencies – this can be described as                   the plan preparation phase. Their availability,           in the future. Communities will need to be
     Derbyshire. The research was commissioned                ‘community intelligence’.                                together with readily accessible grant aid                re-assured about any future initiatives,
     by Derbyshire Rural Community Council and                                                                         are also contributory factors in the scale of             and there needs to be clear co-ordination
     undertaken by Icarus.                               8    An independent group usually undertakes                  projects tackled by communities.                          between agencies.
                                                              community plans, with some involvement
2    The research took place between October                  from the Parish Council. Parish Council             16   Community plans have mixed success in their           23   There is a clear link between the inputs
     2005 and August 2006. Collecting data about              involvement adds considerable value to                   attempts	 to	 exert	 influence	 on	 the	 strategic	        (grant aid, resourcing, local knowledge and
     socio economic change for individual rural               the process, and their non involvement can               agencies that deliver support and services to              experience, the availability of development
     communities has not been straightforward,                be divisive. However the ownership of the                their area. Plan groups have little knowledge              worker support) and outputs. The relationship
     and the methodology has included desk                    process	 must	 sit	 firmly	 within	 the	 wider	          about the best route for disseminating                     between the plan group and the Parish
     based reviews, a postal questionnaire to                 community.                                               their completed plans, and how to best                     Council will need attention; there should be
     community plan groups, 6 case studies and                                                                         exert	 influence	 on	 relevant	 agencies	 and	             up front involvement from relevant agencies;
     stakeholder interviews. The researchers             9    Parish Councils involved in the planning                 partnerships.                                              and adequate resources should be made
     are	 confident	 that	 the	 data	 is	 robust	 and	        process are more likely to be involved in                                                                           available to communities.
     largely	 reflects	 the	 perceptions	 of	 change	         its implementation, and can contribute                  A very	
                                                                                                                  17	 	 	    significant	    needs	 be	
                                                                                                                                         link	      to	 made	 between	
     as recorded by communities themselves                    significantly	to	the	sustainability	of	the	work	        local community planning initiatives and the           24   There are weaknesses in the way that plans
     and other stakeholders.                                  undertaken in the implementation phase.                 emerging Sustainable Community Strategies                   are currently undertaken, and there is a
                                                                                                                      – the role of the Local Strategic Partnership               need to devote more time or more rigour to
3    There is no standard format for community           10   The community planning process does have                is potentially critical in co-ordinating the ‘top           planning how the plan will be put together. A
     plans and they therefore appear in a number              the potential to attract a broad range of               down’ and ‘bottom up’ planning agendas.                     stakeholder analysis should guide the choice
     of styles and guises. Throughout this report             people, including those new to community                                                                            of methodology; community plans need to
     the term community plan is used to include               activity. Many individuals have a positive          18   Community plans provide a valuable framework               interface with relevant plans and strategies;
     parish plans, village appraisals and any                 experience of participating in the process,              for Parish Council activity. The extent to                 and sustainability must be a consideration
     other form of community based needs                      gain	 increased	 knowledge	 and	 confidence	             which	this	happens	in	practice	reflects	several	           form the outset.
     analysis.                                                as a result, and make new contacts within                factors, including the level of involvement of
                                                              the community. For others, the demands                   the Council in producing the plan, clear lines        25   There is a limit to what can be achieved
4    Community planning has a long history in                 of undertaking a community plan can                      of communication between the Council and the               within and by communities themselves;
     Derbyshire. Its current context however                  result in burn out and disillusionment.                  plan group, and the energy and commitment                  their	 capacity	 to	 exert	 influence	 on	 service	
     is particularly interesting and relevant.                                                                         of the Council to taking a proactive role.                 providers    is    therefore      critical.  Much
     Changes to the spatial planning framework           11   Access to intermediary, support organisations                                                                       more attention must be devoted to plan
     and to Community Strategies give scope for               and development workers in an enabling                  I
                                                                                                                  19	 	 nfluencing	 activities	 are	 most	 likely	 to	            dissemination	and	influencing	activities,	and	
     community	plans	to	exert	real	influence	and	             role, play a key role in ‘calming the                   succeed where they engage with the priorities,              communities will need guidance and support
     indeed	to	have	their	findings	integrated	into	           waters’ of a community planning process.                strategies and goals of the relevant agencies,              in order to do this effectively.
     important strategic documents.                                                                                   where there is an existing relationship with
                                                         12   Most parties believe that community plans               officers,	officers	have	a	strong	commitment	to	        26   There is real potential to build on the interest
5    Community plans aim for two types of                     have	 the	 most	 significant	 impact	 within	           and see the value of community engagement,                  in community planning among stakeholders,
     outcome:                                                 their own communities, both through the                 and when they have had some up front                        and to develop strategic relationships with
                                                              plan process and via locally implemented                involvement.                                                the agencies whose role it is to deliver the
     • action which the community itself proposes             projects. However, the presence of local                                                                            services under scrutiny in the plans. Agencies
       to take e.g. new play areas, revitalised               champions is a key factor in their success.         20   Most stakeholders are aware of, interested                 need to be fully briefed about the nature,
       community       events,    environmental                                                                        in and supportive of community planning.                   purpose	 and	 benefits	 of	 community	 plans	
       improvements                                      13   Community plans do lead to improvements in               The response of relevant agencies to plans                 and encouraged to have an internal strategy
                                                              the community infrastructure in many cases               is however un-coordinated and ad hoc. This                 for responding to the plans produced in
     •		nfluencing	 the	 policies,	 decisions	 and	           – new groups are formed and events held,                 means that take up of issues raised in plans               their area; the value of the ‘community
       actions of other bodies and service                    more people get involved in groups, and there            is somewhat unknown, and plan groups                       intelligence’ generated must be promoted;
       providers e.g. planning policy, health and             are more community facilities and activities.            are left feeling frustrated that their work                and the idea of a community plans protocol
       housing strategies, transport plans                                                                             has led to little or no activity from service              explored.
                                                         14   Where projects are planned to address social             providers.
6    Most community plans cover the same                      needs they generally focus on the most                                                                         27   Finally, the process of undertaking this research
     range	 of	 issues,	 including	 road	 traffic,	           obvious, visible needs within the community         21   The nature of plan groups, the lack of                     has	raised	the	profile	of	community	planning.	
     housing, inadequacy of facilities for young              – children, young people and older                       support for implementation, and little or no               Communities have contributed willingly to
     people, community space matters and                      people. It has not been possible to assess               relationship with service deliverers all impact            this research and this contribution should
     environmental protection, but the hidden                 whether there has been any discernable                   on the sustainability of the plan’s impact. As a           be valued. At the very least, communities
     needs of the most disadvantaged people in                impact on the most disadvantaged within                  result many plans are something of a ‘one off’             have re-visited their plans and there will is
     the	community	are	not	specifically	addressed	            communities; improvements for all do                     – they generate some initial project work but              an urgent need for DRCC and others to offer
     through a community planning process.                    not	 necessarily	 equate	 to	 benefits	 for	 all.        the momentum gradually diminishes.                         support for this process of review.
1.1	   Background	                                         1.3	     The	research

This	 report	 presents	 the	 findings	 of	 a	 study	 to	   Nationally, there has been substantial work on
assess the impact of community planning processes          examining the relationships between community
in Derbyshire for Derbyshire Rural Community               plans and the emerging strategic environment
Council (DRCC), and undertaken by Icarus.                  of Community Strategies, Local Development
                                                           Frameworks and the like. Yet, despite this history
DRCC is a registered charity that works to support         of supporting community planning, there has been
people in rural communities, villages and market           no previous research on the impact of community
towns throughout Derbyshire. Their aim is to               plans within Derbyshire.
achieve an improved quality of life and to enhance
the well being of people who live and work in              This work has sought to do just this: to gather
rural Derbyshire, to ensure they are not unduly            evidence about the impacts of community planning
disadvantaged. DRCC works in close partnership             on the social and economic lives of people in rural
with other agencies to help Derbyshire’s                   Derbyshire. It is clearly timely, within a context
rural communities tackle the challenges and                of ever increasing demands for participation and
opportunities they face – both now and in the              the local democratisation of decision making,
future.                                                    ‘joined up’ service delivery, and radical changes
                                                           to the planning system.

1.2	   Community	planning                                  The research has taken place over the period
                                                           from October 2005 to August 2006.
Community planning has been at the forefront
DRCC’s work for many years. It has led on the
support for and promotion of such initiatives, and
at times this has taken the form of a co-ordinated
intervention	to	specific	communities.	Over	time	the	
concept behind the plans has evolved from simple
audits of community needs and wishes to more
comprehensive ‘live’ action planning documents.

Today most plans are a statement of how the local
community sees itself developing in the coming
years, aiming for two types of outcome:

•   Action which the community itself proposes
    to take e.g. new play areas, joint marketing
    initiatives and revitalised community events

•		 	 nfluencing	the	policies,	decisions	and	actions	
    of other bodies and service providers e.g.
    planning policies, health and housing strategies,
    and transport plans1

There is no prescribed format, and community
based plans therefore exist in a range of formats
and guises; Derbyshire has in the region of
30 completed parish plans, with another 20
communities or so having undertaken village

The generic term community plan is used in this
report to include all forms of plans, however they
are described by the community undertaking

                                                           1 Planning for Vital Communities, Countryside Agency, June 2004.
research methodology                                                                                                                                             process & resourcing of
                                                                                                                                                                       community plans
2.1	   Background	to	the	research	                    2.2	    Features	of	the	research	methodology                  3.1	   Community	planning	guidance

At the start of this project a stakeholder workshop   The	 researchers	 are	 confident	 that	 the	 data	            Community based planning has a long history,                              However, co-ordinated interventions have also
contributed to devising the research framework.       referenced in this report is robust and that it               but	one	of	the	first	pieces	of	significant	intention	                     been made in particular localities as resources
A set of research questions was agreed (see           reflects	 the	 perceptions	 of	 change	 recorded	 by	         for community planning processes was the                                  have allowed.
Appendix	 1),	 stakeholders	 were	 identified	 and	   communities and other stakeholders. However,                  Government’s Rural White Paper ‘Our Countryside,
the research methodology discussed.                   the extent to which this can be regarded as                   the Future’ in 2000. This proposed that “rural                            •     In 2001 funding from the Buxton and Peak
                                                      measurable	evidence	is	influenced	by	the	following	           communities should play a much bigger part in                                   District SRB6 programme allowed for the
The research questions were applied consistently      factors.                                                      running their own affairs, influencing and shaping                              employment of 5 Village Agents (locally based
throughout the research work and several strands                                                                    their future development …” It committed                                        community workers) to provide intensive
of inquiry were pursued, as follows:                  Firstly, the research took place over a relatively            government to helping all rural communities to                                  support to 20 villages to create Village
                                                      short period of time and simply provides a snapshot           develop town, village and parish plans to indicate                              Action Plans and to empower communities to
•   6 communities were selected randomly as           of progress on impacts, often retrospectively                 how they would like to see their place develop.                                 identify their own needs, develop solutions
    case studies, with whom some detailed             analysed. None of the sample communities                      The Countryside Agency was charged with                                         and increase the capacity of individuals and
    analysis of community planning impacts was        undertook a baselining exercise at the outset                 establishing a support mechanism and setting up                                 groups to take positive action4. The mid term
    possible (see Appendix 2)                         of their plans against which progress could be                a funding scheme to enable rural communities to                                 evaluation for the Village Agents project has
•   Desk based work was undertaken to identify        measured and there has been no longitudinal                   do just that. The Vital Villages programme was                                  proved a useful resource in undertaking this
    related research and to gather socio-economic     assessment of change over time.                               established in 2001 and parish plans were one of                                research.
    data on the sample communities                                                                                  the 4 initiatives that the programme supported.
•   A postal questionnaire was sent to all those      Secondly, data from external sources for such                                                                                           •     In 2002 funding from the Neighbourhood
    communities known to have undertaken              small sample areas is not readily available,                  The Countryside Agency guidance stated that                                     Renewal Unit, via Bolsover Local Strategic
    community plans, and around half were             particularly economic, tourism and business data.             a “parish plan should address the needs of the                                  Partnership, was used to recruit the Involve
    returned (25 in total)                            Similarly information is rarely disaggregated to              whole community and everyone should have an                                     team in Bolsover. The team provides peripatetic
•   Face to face and telephone interviews were        areas smaller than parish or ward.                            opportunity to take part in its preparation. It                                 support to the villages and community
    held with 23 stakeholders (see Appendix 3)                                                                      should be holistic in scope and cover everything                                associations across the district, assisting
                                                      Thirdly, it should be noted that some plans do                of relevance to the people who live in the                                      residents to carry out village appraisals,
                                                      not	 have	 specific	 actions	 relating	 economic	             village.”2 It was envisaged that Parish Councils                                formulate action plans to address local
                                                      issues. It is therefore very early in many cases              should lead the preparation of parish plans, but                                needs, and participate fully in the Community
                                                      to assess if their community, leisure, transport              that they would need to demonstrate the support                                 Empowerment Network and Local Strategic
                                                      and environmental actions have had a secondary                and involvement of the community at large.                                      Partnership
                                                      ‘trickle down’ impact on the economy.
                                                                                                                                                                                              The focus of all this support work has been on the
                                                      Finally,	 it	 is	 difficult	 to	 attribute	 socio-economic	   3.2	   Supporting	community	planning                                      preparation of the community plan, and assistance
                                                      improvements to the success of community plans                                                                                          is not always as readily available or co-ordinated
                                                      when	 other	 factors	 may	 have	 been	 influential.	      	   The main support agency for community plans                               for the plans’ implementation phase.
                                                      These factors could include growth as a result                in the county has been DRCC. It is recognised
                                                      of the economic success of a neighbouring                     however that other organisations have promoted                            The mere fact that DRCC has chosen to dedicate
                                                      settlement, or of local authority regeneration                and supported community planning initiatives                              resources to community planning in this fashion
                                                      initiatives, for example.                                     across Derbyshire at times.                                               is	an	indication	of	its	belief	in	the	benefits	of	this	
                                                      The results herein are therefore the perceptions              DRCC is not alone in its advocacy for community
                                                      of those closely involved in community plans, and             plans. In addition to the Countryside Agency’s
                                                      of some external stakeholders. This does not de-              interest, community planning is also promoted                             3.3	       The	local	implementation	structure
                                                      merit them, but it does highlight the need for                nationally by ACRE3 and the National Association
                                                      more rigour in data management, collection and                of Local Councils. Within Derbyshire the nature                           Different approaches have been taken to the local
                                                      collation within communities if hard, measurable              of the support has varied in response to the                              implementation structure for community plans. In
                                                      evidence of impact is to be required – although               availability of resources over time. The consistent                       some instances the Parish Council is the natural lead
                                                      in practice this may well be beyond the scope of              approach	 has	 been	 for	 the	 Rural	 Officer(s)	                         body, in others it is a partnership between the Council
                                                      most community planning processes.                            / community workers to provide support to                                 and residents, and elsewhere that the plan group is
                                                                                                                    communities wishing to undertake plans and the                            completely independent of the Parish Council. The
                                                                                                                    amount	of	time	available	to	do	this	has	reflected	                        effectiveness of the different approaches is covered
                                                                                                                    other work commitments and demands.                                       in	this	report	where	it	has	had	some	influence	over	
                                                                                                                                                                                              the	final	impact	of	community	plans.

                                                                                                                    2      Parish Plans and the Planning System: Guidance and advice for local planning authorities, Countryside Agency, 2003.
                                                                                                                    3      ACRE (Action with Communities in Rural England): active in promoting the interests of rural communities and acts as the national umbrella
                                                                                                                           organisation for the 38 Rural Community Councils throughout England.
                                                                                                                    4      Regeneration in Buxton and the Peak District: summary of projects supported by the SRB scheme 2000-2005,April 2005, page 7
The factors driving the creation of a community                             DRCC promotes community plans as holistic, wide                                 4.1	    Community	plans	and	land	use	planning                      Key developments include:
plan will differ between communities. Common                                ranging	 documents	 that	 reflect	 the	 needs	 and	
reasons include the following:                                              issues of concern to the individual communities                                 Although the Countryside Agency did envisage
                                                                            they assess. Each plan is unique in the sense that                              that parish plans would have a broad range of                      •   The changing planning context from a relatively
•   As a response to the threat of development                              it describes                                                                    purposes “parish plans are a tool for seeking                          narrow land use focus to broader spatial approaches
    pressure                                                                                                                                                project funding, for providing the impetus for local               •   Increased potential for and encouragement of
•   A desire to identify issues of concern among                            the	specific	characteristics	of	those	issues	as	they	                           community action, setting out parish proposals and                     community engagement in local planning issues
    residents, and to involve them in that                                  apply locally.                                                                  for influencing the strategies, plans and policies of                  through the requirement of planning authorities to
    process                                                                                                                                                 others” strong emphasis was placed on their ability                    produce Statements of Community Involvement
•   Because they fall into an area where plans are                                                                                                          to complement and interact with the formal planning                    (SCI) that set out how involvement is to occur in
    being promoted and support and / or grant aid                           However, this and other research has noted a                                    system “… it is important to address the relationship                  developing planning policy and making planning
    provided                                                                clear pattern to the issues that emerge through a                               of parish plans to the statutory planning system                       decisions
•   To gather evidence to counteract a sense                                community planning process. Interestingly, these                                – for communities to engage more positively with                   •   A shift from Supplementary Planning Guidance
    of ‘missing out’ on grant aid, support,
                                                                            issues arise time and time again regardless of                                  planning at the local level, to welcome and guide                      to Supplementary Planning Documents, with the
    regeneration initiatives etc
                                                                            community size, location or rurality6:                                          appropriate development and enable the planning                        intention in legislation that community plans can be
                                                                                                                                                            system to deliver relevant actions or proposals in                     adopted, in whole or in part, as SPDs
                                                                            •      Road	traffic                                                             the parish plan.”                                                  •   The requirement for all main local development
                                                                            •      Housing                                                                                                                                         documents to incorporate Sustainability Appraisals
                                                                            •      Inadequacy of facilities for young people                                The guidance envisaged that a key function of                          means a similar requirement for community plans if
There is no standard approach to undertaking
community plans in Derbyshire. Methods                                      •      Law and order / policing                                                 parish plans was to “integrate with or supplement                      they are to be adopted as SPDs
encountered in the research include questionnaires                          •      Inadequacy of public transport                                           Local Development Frameworks (LDF).” Although                      •   The potential for Regional Spatial Strategies to impose
                                                                            •      Minor environmental concerns                                             it looked forward to the new planning system, it                       a top down agenda on local community planning
to each household, open consultation events,
                                                                            •      Inadequacy	of	specific	village	services                                  did not have full information about how that would                     initiatives
focus groups, face to face meetings and guided
walks around the village, or a combination of                               •      Car parking issues                                                       progress. Guidance on the adoption of the spatial
                                                                            •      Environmental protection                                                 elements of parish plans has subsequently changed
several to reach different audiences.
                                                                            •      Village hall / community space matters                                   with the emergence of Supplementary Planning                       4.2.2	 The	broader	context
This	 variety	 reflects	 DRCC’s	 desire	 to	 retain	                                                                                                        Documents (SPD) with their somewhat onerous
                                                                            These can all be characterised as ‘hard’, visible                               requirements of robust community engagement                 Community	Strategies	provide	an	influencing	route	for	
community plans as a ‘bottom up’ and community
                                                                            issues that are relatively easy to assess within                                practices and Sustainability Appraisals.                    community plans and also set the context in which they
led process – the foundation of which should be
                                                                            a community setting. Missing are some of the                                                                                                are operating. Government now wants to enhance the
a local decision about the appropriate approach
                                                                            ‘softer’, more hidden issues that may nonetheless                               There is however still a three-way relationship to role of Community Strategies and is introducing the
for each community. However, it is likely that
                                                                            blight rural communities, including poverty,                                    play out between the LDF, the Community Strategy concept of Sustainable Community Strategies (SCS). This
the	 methodology	 selected	 will	 inevitably	 reflect	
                                                                            isolation and mental health issues, for example.                                and community plans. The Community Strategy reflects	concern	over	the	short	term,	narrow	focus	of	the	
a range of other factors including the guidance
                                                                            The sensitivity and indeed stigma surrounding                                   provides the policy context for the LDF and the current strategies, with the SCSs looking further ahead
provided by support workers, community
                                                                            such problems mean that their omission from                                     community plans; equally community plans have and being developed in collaboration with neighbouring
members’	 confidence	 in	 trying	 new	 approaches,	
                                                                            a community planning process is perhaps both                                    the	scope	to	influence	the	Community	Strategy	and	 authorities to ensure broader spatial issues such as
and the resources available (including person
                                                                            legitimate and appropriate.                                                     can (as outlined above) feed into the LDF as either transport and the environment can be addressed. They
                                                                                                                                                            an SPD or as part of an Area Action Plan. One thing will also have a more comprehensive remit drawing on
                                                                            Similarly, little attention is paid to the local                                the guidance does make clear is the importance of the national agenda for sustainable development to
Similarly, there is no standard template for the
                                                                            economy, employment and business related                                        the relationship between the Parish Council and the ensure key elements are not overlooked.
design of the plans. Communities devise what
                                                                            issues. They may be a by- product of other                                      relevant	 local	 authority	 to	 facilitate	 the	 influence	
works for them. In some instances this includes a
                                                                            concerns – such as transport and access to                                      being brought to bear by community plans on the Linked to this shift to CSCs, the government is also
fully worked up, usable action plan5 although most
                                                                            facilities	–	but	have	minimal	specific	focus.	There	                            planning system. “The above will be achieved most examining the role, remit and functioning of Local Strategic
go just some of the way towards this being the
                                                                            is little evidence of community planning groups                                 effectively through clear working relationships Partnerships (LSP). Recent research by BDOR comments
case. For example, some refer to short, medium
                                                                            accessing	 the	 business	 sector	 to	 any	 significant	                         between the local planning authority and parish “the same criticisms have inevitably been made of LSPs as
and	long	term	goals	without	defining	what	these	
                                                                            degree.                                                                         council, characterised by shared aims and good of the early Community Strategies. Research has linked
timescales are; the majority do not allocate
responsibility for ensuring actions are pursued;                                                                                                            communication.”                                             the narrow constructs of ‘membership’ of LSPs, poor
                                                                            These points therefore raise questions about                                                                                                management and a consequent failure to engage fully,
and few incorporate any formal structure for
                                                                            how such plans are perceived, both with be,                                                                                                 widely and openly, and a failure to successfully integrate
monitoring progress.
                                                                            a	 complete	 reflection	 of	 community	 needs,	 and	                            4.2	 The	changing	context                                   or break the stranglehold of separate organisational
                                                                            therefore should not be described as such.                                                                                                  budgets and funding regimes”7.
                                                                                                                                                            4.2.1	 The	planning	system
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The role of the LSP will potentially be very important in
                                                                                                                                                            Although the Countryside Agency guidance looked linking and co-ordinating the ‘top down’ and ‘bottom up’
                                                                                                                                                            forward to the substantial forthcoming changes planning agendas. It can be a conduit through which
                                                                                                                                                            in the planning system, it is only now that those LDFs link and integrate with the new SCSs. Hence a
                                                                                                                                                            changes are having some considerable impact on very	 significant	 link	 needs	 to	 be	 made	 between	 local	
                                                                                                                                                            the context within which community planning is community planning initiatives such as community plans
                                                                                                                                                            operating.                                                  and the emerging SCSs.
5      As a guide action plans should include detailed actions, lead individuals / bodies, partnership bodies, timescales, priorities, resource needs and
       monitoring procedures, for example.
                                                                                                                                                            7       An Exciting Future for Community Plans, BDOR, July 2006.
6      Evaluation Report: Messages from Parish Plans and Market Towns Healthchecks, Countryside Agency, 2005.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                “I went from knowing
the impact of community plans                                                                                                                                                                                   nothing to developing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  projects and having
5.1	   Introduction                                                     More widely, there is a sense that the process
                                                                        of undertaking a community plan commonly
                                                                                                                                                          within communities. Improvements for all do
                                                                                                                                                          not necessarily equate to benefits for all. Only        important meetings
As stated elsewhere, there are two main
intended outcomes of community plans: action
                                                                        introduces the individuals involved to new ways
                                                                        of working within their community and increases
                                                                                                                                                          one community has specifically noted that the
                                                                                                                                                          planning process did give a voice to those who        with the Civic Trust to
which the community itself proposes to take and
influencing the policies, decisions and actions of
                                                                        their understanding of which statutory agencies
                                                                        are responsible for which services.
                                                                                                                                                          are isolated in their community, with others
                                                                                                                                                          believing that an open consultation process gives             secure funds.”
other bodies and service providers. This section                        This almost inevitably means that individuals                                     everyone an opportunity to participate – which
of the report breaks these two elements into                            have increased	confidence in their knowledge                                      is not necessarily the case at all.
their constituent parts and attempts to assess                          and around half the questionnaires state that
the impacts at each level. Brief descriptions                           there are more volunteers within the community                                    Of course it is quite possible that some of the
of impacts encountered through the research                             willing to start or lead activities, with more skills                             projects undertaken as a result of the plans
process are included to illustrate the summary                          and confidence in community activity.                                             have contributed to improving the quality of
points.                                                                                                                                                   life of disadvantaged residents – for example,
                                                                                                                                                          access improvements, new groups for the young
                                                                              “I went from knowing nothing to developing                                  and the elderly, and attempts to improve public
5.2	   Impacts	within	communities                                            projects and having important meetings with                                  transport. However, the very hidden-ness of the
                                                                                          the Civic Trust to secure funds.”                               issues, and of the individuals in those situations,
In general terms most parties believe that                                                                                                                means that a full assessment is beyond the scope
community plans have the most significant                                                                                                                 of this research.
impact within their own communities, in respect                         On a less positive note is the potential for ‘burn	
of the actions that the communities themselves                          out’. In the ideal world, people who take an active                               What is clear is that more comprehensive
propose to take. This is analysed at a number                           part in their community will gain confidence and                                  stakeholder analyses at the start of the planning
of different levels.                                                    pride from what they do – but there is evidence                                   process would lead to more inclusive engagement
                                                                        that participation can be a stressful, frustrating                                strategies within communities.
                                                                        and energy sapping experience9. During the
5.2.1	 Impact	on	individuals                                            course of this research personal frustrations                                     Learning	points:	impact	on	individuals
                                                                        highlighted include:
The impact of community planning processes on                                                                                                             •   Local champions and strong leadership are
those who have been involved is an important                            •    Poor and / or inconsistent levels of support                                     key to successful community plans.
issue; the development of individuals within                                 and advice                                                                   •   Many individuals have a positive experience
groups is a key component of community                                  •    Lack of resources                                                                of participating in the community planning
capacity building 8.                                                    •    Apparent complexity of a planning process                                        process, and increased skills and confidence
                                                                             that only re-states what the community                                           in community activity are very positive
It is too easy to patronise community members                                already knows and could have recorded /                                          outcomes.
and assume they start a process such as this                                 evidenced more quickly                                                       •   Participants do enjoy many parts of the
with little knowledge about what to do or how                           •    Over long process that de-motivates and                                          process and many cite meeting new people
to do it. This may be true in some technical                                 works against sustaining local volunteer                                         as one of the benefits of their involvement.
areas, but volunteers do have an existing set of                             input                                                                        •   The demands of undertaking a community
skills and knowledge that they can apply to this                        •    Lack of co-operation between local groups,                                       plan can create burn out in individuals and
activity. Enthusiasm, commitment and energy                                  including the Parish Council in some                                             prove to be a stressful experience.
to be involved in the process are as valuable                                instances                                                                    •   The hidden needs of the most disadvantaged
as, say, a detailed knowledge of consultation                           •    Poor responses to plans from the statutory                                       people in communities are not specifically
processes. Additionally, Parish Council members                              sector / service providers                                                       addressed through a community planning
also have a wealth of organising, decision                              •    ‘Top down’, imposed process                                                      process; some stakeholders are not accessed
making and consultation experience that can be                                                                                                                by the process and therefore their needs are
drawn on in community planning initiatives.                                                                                                                   not well articulated.
                                                                                   “I have run out of steam to pursue this.”
As part of this picture, it is evident that
successful community planning processes                                 In practical terms this has emerged as a particular
require a local	 champion – someone who is                              problem towards the end of the planning phase
committed to the benefits of the undertaking,                           itself – the production of the plan provides people
drives the process forward and has a key co-                            with the opportunity to ‘escape’ from the process,
ordinating role. Such a person is evident in                            with an inevitable impact on implementation.
many of the examples encountered during                                 Given the obvious difficulties in addressing the
the research. Where plans have been less                                hidden	issues of rural life, it is not possible to
successful, this lack of leadership has been                            assess whether there has been any discernable
noted.                                                                  impact on the most disadvantaged people

8      Capacity building: Development work that strengthens the ability of community organisations and groups to build their planning, manage community
       projects and take part in partnerships and community enterprises. Building Community Strengths, Community Development Foundation, 1998.
9      Renew North West Intelligence Report: Participation and Well Being, Professor Carolyn Kagan, January 2006.
                                                                                                                                              “The plan really energised
                                                                                                                                             groups in the community.”
5.2.2	 Impact	on	community	infrastructure                                     “Regrettably [the Parish Council] has had very little if any                                 5.2.3	 Impact	on	community	led	projects
                                                                         input. We met with the Village Agent and their manager and
There is a clear link between the positive impacts and                       it was made clear that no further input was required from                                     Overwhelmingly, the greatest	 success of
learning experienced by individuals involved in producing the               the Parish Council. This obviously upset several Councillors                                   the community planning processes is the
community plan and the impact on community infrastructure.                and left them feeling that their views were not required and                                     development of community led projects. This
Around half the questionnaire respondents recorded the                   this immediately placed a barrier between the Agent and the                                       outcome of the plans may well need outside
following improvements as a direct result of their plan:                                                                        Council.”                                  advice and support, and the engagement of
                                                                                                                                                                           external bodies and agencies, but it does
•   More community groups                                                Most of the case study communities were fortunate to recruit                                      not require any changes to the policies or
•   Stronger / more active community groups                              sufficient	volunteers who were active and committed to                                            practices of such bodies. Developing projects
•   More people involved in groups                                       undertaking the plan process. Generally this also included                                        can therefore be relatively straightforward
•   More community facilities                                            the involvement of people who had not previously been                                             and within the grasp of residents. The issues
•   More community activities                                            active in the community. In places, this has had a knock                                          addressed by local projects roughly mirror
•   More community events                                                on effect to community participation as a whole and                                               those issues of concern to communities
                                                                         communities do record more community groups, stronger                                             outlined in 3.6.
These are all key outcomes of a capacity building process:               / more active community groups, and more people
they enable and demonstrate communities taking action for                involved in groups as direct outcomes of their plan activity.                                     Small	 scale	 environmental	 projects	 are
themselves.                                                              For two of the case studies this has included the creation of                                     frequently undertaken as a result of community
                                                                         a motivated, proactive community association.                                                     plans, and examples include hanging baskets,
        “The plan really energised groups in the community.”                                                                                                               tree, bulb and hedge planting, planters, spring
                                                                          “We went from where there was a very small number of                                             clean / litter pick events, walling projects and
The Parish	 Council is at the heart of a rural community’s                active individuals working within the community on their                                         landscaping works. Such projects are often
infrastructure; they may or may not be at the heart of a community        own initiative to a situation where there is now an active                                       viewed as ‘quick wins’ – initiatives that are
planning initiative. This can be a pragmatic decision, one based         community association that has delivered on a number of                                           easy to implement, attract grant aid and can
on principle, a reflection of the perceptions of the Parish Council in                                                    projects.”                                       involve community members. Importantly,
individual communities, or indeed a funding requirement. A minority                                                                                                        they have a visible impact and therefore
of plans are led by the Parish Council and about half have some               “The plan has encouraged people who are not always                                           demonstrate to residents and others that
Council involvement. However a significant number have no Parish                                   involved with village activities.”                                      something is happening as a direct result
Council involvement – where the reasons for this are known it is a                                                                                                         of the plan. Indeed it is often the case that
lack of interest or commitment from the Council that is the main         Access to intermediary support organisations has, in some                                         people value the little changes over large
factor.                                                                  cases, been key to building the capacity of local groups and                                      scale transformations which may be somehow
                                                                         strengthening the community infrastructure. The availability                                      threatening. 10
While the research has not directly asked Parish Councils about the      of intensive support appears to minimise problems of
impact of the community planning process on their work, evidence         communication within communities, short circuit lengthy                                                  “Additional recycling facilities are planned;
has emerged of some positive outcomes particularly where the             dialogue about process, and provide an invaluable source                                                volunteer activity encouraged (Spring Clean
relationship between the Council and the community was previously        of local knowledge and information about other agencies                                                     Day); footpaths group formed; series of
strained. For example, new members have joined the Council, it           and possible funding opportunities.                                                                          minor projects to tidy and beautify the
has become more involved with other community organisations,             Learning points: impact on community infrastructure                                                                              village appearance.”
and there is greater understanding of the Council’s role.
                                                                         •   Community plans do lead to improvements                                                       Elsewhere the environmental projects may
“Some of the people involved in the parish plan process have                 in the community infrastructure in many                                                       be more substantial – informing the planning
           been energised to come onto the Parish Council.”                  cases.                                                                                        process for a new supermarket, exploring
                                                                         •   The plans can impact upon the Parish        Council                                           community composting schemes, eco-project
In other instances however the planning process has served                   – positively or negatively, depending on their                                                on a riverside walk, creating new public open
to reinforce tensions between the Council and the community.                 involvement and level of interest in and commitment                                           spaces and taking control of others.
Some feel let down by their Council’s lack of interest in the                to the plan.
plan, or by their reluctance to adopt the plan as a document             •   The non involvement of the Parish Council can be                                              Where projects address social	 needs	 they
to guide their work and functions. Similarly, one Parish Council             divisive.                                                                                     are focused on children, young people and
contacted through the research felt it had been deliberately             •   The ownership of the community planning process                                               older people’s facilities – the obvious, visible
side lined from any involvement in the community planning                    needs to be held within the wider community.                                                  categories of need within communities. Youth
process, which has left a legacy of dissatisfaction with the             •   Community	plans	are	of	sufficient	interest	to	attract	                                        shelters have been provided, youth clubs
process and the outcomes.                                                    people to become involved in their preparation.                                               started, play facilities improved, drop ins and
                                                                         •   The community planning process can attract a broad                                            groups created for older people, and wheelchair
      “Despite having representatives of both Parish Councils                range of people, including people new to community                                            / buggy access provided. On the few occasions
  involved throughout we had to delay final publication of the               activity.                                                                                     where communities are seeking to address
 plan until other councillors’ misgivings had been overcome.”            •   Access to intermediary support organisations plays                                            broader social problems their work is receiving
                                                                             a key role in guiding and ‘calming the waters’ of a                                           intensive development worker support and in
       “The Parish Council has been ‘fertilised’ by the planning             community planning process                                                                    a locality where there is regeneration money
                             process – it was a wake up call.”                                                                                                             available to finance activities.
                                                                                                                                                                           10.     The value added by community involvement in governance, Joseph
                                                                                                                                                                                   Rowntree Foundation, Findings ref 0406.
                                                                                                                                                                                     “The road
                                                                                                                                                                                      “The road was, an
                                                                                                                                                                                       “The road was, and
     “Improvements for the elderly, provision of            There are some project areas where communities can            process of bringing people together simply hastens

                                                                                                                                                                                       continues to be,
       crèche and youth clubs, intergenerational            take a lead, but need substantial co-operation and            the development of projects. However, at the
     project, health courses, exercise equipment, IT
       classes – all have combated social exclusion,
                                                            indeed partnership with other agencies – this includes
                                                            transport	and housing. In both cases residents can
                                                                                                                          very least the plan allows the whole community
                                                                                                                          to participate in identifying the potential projects,
                                                                                                                                                                                        continues to be, a
                                                                                                                                                                                       major focus of ou
                                                                                                                                                                                        major focus of our
     released women to study, provide activities for        provide an insight into issues that would not normally        regardless of whether these end up being the
                           bored young people etc.”         be available to the relevant agencies; this kind of           same as those in circulation anyway. Importantly,

                                                                                                                                                                                       major work. foc
Community	buildings	are an essential ingredient to
                                                            ‘community intelligence’ can be invaluable, but there
                                                            is little evidence that it is accessed or indeed made
                                                                                                                          they also provide evidence of need that may be
                                                                                                                          required for accessing funding.                                          work.”
rural community life and are an important feature of        available effectively outside of the community.
many plans. Refurbishment and access improvement                                                                          Arguably more success would be possible
projects are commonly undertaken as a direct result         Transport,	traffic	and	highways	issues	generally	are	         – particularly with larger scale projects – if
of community planning processes – although in one           of major concern in many rural communities. Local             dedicated support was available beyond the
instance the plan prompted the purchase of marquee          research and knowledge can be a valuable resource             period of plan preparation. Several communities
in lieu of a village hall! Again, the only example cited    for the local authority and many plan groups establish        have	 noted	 how	 the	 officer	 time	 was	 critical	 in	
of a major renovation project is within a regeneration      specific	 transport	 working	 groups	 to	 examine	 the	       contributing to the planning process, but that
area where needs are prioritised and resources more         issues in some detail and to liaise with the relevant         ongoing help was similarly needed to progress
readily available than elsewhere.                           agencies. While they can seem to be overwhelmingly            their plan and support the community through
                                                            large and complex issues to address, many successes           the implementation phase. These communities
                                                            have	been	recorded:	improved	road	salting,	overflow	          have felt let down and have struggled during a
 “Over 1 million pounds was raised to renovate and          car	park	being	established,	traffic	calming	measures	         period when it is vital to retain the energy and
extend a community building to provide facilities for       installed,	‘brighter	bus’	scheme	initiated,	traffic	lights	   motivation of the community beyond the physical
 education, health, leisure and community groups.”          installed at accident black spots, and shopper bus            production of the plan.
                                                            scheme started.                                               One community has offered a list of skills and
Little attention is paid to economic	 issues	 in                                                                          requirements of such enabling, support workers:
many	 plans,	 and	 few	 communities	 have	 identified	      For	 others,	 transport,	 traffic	 and	 highways	 need	
economic projects that have taken place as a direct         attention into the long term – particularly where             •    A good level of experience
result of their plan. There may be several reasons          influence	needs	to	be	exerted	over	major	initiatives	         •    Quality facilitation skills
for this – under developed business sector locally,         such	 as	 by-passes	 and	 traffic	 flow.	 There	 is	 some	    •    An understanding of the characteristics and
dormitory	 communities,	 and	 a	 lack	 of	 confidence	      sense of frustration about the timescales of such                  dynamics of the local community
among residents and support workers about how to            activity and the apparent futility of ongoing lobbying        •    Focused on delivery with a clear process in
deal with the subject effectively, for example. Again,      of faceless, impenetrable organisations.                           mind
where	 the	 economy	 does	 feature	 to	 any	 significant	                                                                 •    Continuity of support
degree it is within areas of higher unemployment and          “The road was, and continues to be, a major focus           •    Someone who can keep up the momentum
lower economic activity, and therefore designated                                                 of our work.”                – a motivator
regeneration zones.
                                                            Housing issues are commonly raised where affordable           Learning	points:	impact	on	community
           “Buzz Fizz provides new starts or existing       housing for local people is a pressing issue. Community       infrastructure
           businesses with a ‘coach’ who helps them         plans can never do the work of a full housing needs
 strengthen or expand their business. After 2 years,        survey but they do have the potential to provide an           •    Community plans do lead to improvements in
   23 businesses have shown measurable growth or            overview of the picture of needs and to establish a                the community infrastructure in many cases.
    expansion, 17 jobs have been protected, a local         community’s desire to support the development of              •    The plans can impact upon the Parish Council
     forum for businesses has been established and          an appropriate housing scheme. There are instances                 – positively or negatively, depending on
     £300,000 has been raised to convert a derelict         where work through the community plan has                          their involvement and level of interest in and
      building into a business incubation centre. The       ultimately led to the creation of housing schemes, and
                                                                                                                               commitment to the plan.
     project model has now been rolled out to other         in one case to a village winning the Best Community
                                                                                                                          •    The non involvement of the Parish Council
                                 parts of the district.”    Led Initiative Award at the National Housing Awards.
                                                                                                                               can be divisive.
Some communities do recognise however that their            There is then, substantial evidence about the amount          •    The ownership of the community planning
community, transport, environment and leisure               of projects initiated as a direct result of community              process needs to be held within the wider
actions have the potential to impact on the local           planning processes. All stakeholders agree that this is            community.
economy. Similarly the use of local businesses and          where community	plans	achieve	most	success.                   •	   Community	 plans	 are	 of	 sufficient	 interest	
tradesmen to undertake small project work does                                                                                 to attract people to become involved in their
have	some	benefit	to	the	local	economy,	although	this	            “The plans have brought about capital projects               preparation.
impact is not always recognised by communities.               within communities – it’s at this level they achieve        •    The community planning process can attract
                                                                                                            most.”             a broad range of people, including people new
“Improvements to the environment and landscaping                                                                               to community activity.
     benefit local accommodation providers and the          However, there is also an argument that most of the
                                                                                                                          •    Access to intermediary support organisations
                                             café.”         projects would happen anyway – that little
                                                                                                                               plays a key role in guiding and ‘calming the
                                                            new is generated by the planning process, that the
                                                                                                                               waters’ of a community planning process
5.2.4	 Quality	of	life                                         considerable	value	to	the	process – regardless                      contribute to the sustainability of the work in the
                                                               of the extent of the Council’s involvement in                       implementation phase.
An intangible concept in many senses, quality of               developing the plan. Where relationships are                  •     Parish Councils involved in the planning process are
life	 is	 highly	 personal	 and	 specific	 to	 individuals.	   good then it is also likely that the Council will                   more likely to be active in its implementation.
Measuring	 such	 a	 concept	 is	 particularly	 difficult,	     contribute to the plan’s implementation – both                •     The roles and remit of the community plan group
but it is possible to identify indicators to quality of        through individual projects and via their strategic,                need to be agreed at the outset and should seek
life, for example, community cohesion, community               influencing	function.                                               an interactive and complementary role in its
events and facilities, and a general sense of what is                                                                              relationship with the Parish Council.
a nebulous concept in its own right … ‘community’.                 “It has made the Parish Council more proactive –
                                                                   before the parish planning it was largely reactive,
What is clear from this research is that many                                  looking at planning applications etc.”        5.3.2	 Influencing	 at	 the	 district	 and	 county	
community plan processes do lead to local projects                                                                                  levels
that could impact on quality of life – from improving          Community plans provide Councils with an unrivalled
the local environment to providing community                   set of data to help them prioritise their work, focus         It is with the district and county wide authorities that
facilities. New people work together and those                 their attentions and operate in a strategic fashion.          responsibilities lie for many of the issues that arise
involved in the plan group make new friends and                                                                              out of community planning processes – highways,
contacts within the community, which may be a very                           “The Parish Council are considering and         transport, housing, leisure, planning, environmental
positive outcome for them. The degree to which                                    implementing where appropriate.”           improvement	etc.		Exerting	influence	at	this	level	is	
this extends beyond those directly involved in the                                                                           therefore of critical importance.
plan, and particularly to the most disadvantaged               Poor – and in some cases non existent – working
people in the community, is unknown.                           relationships are a real lost opportunity. The Parish         Communities	have	had	mixed	success	in	influencing	
                                                               Council is an important tier in the local government          effectively within district and county organisations.
       “ The Parish Plan process has brought a better          structure, and should therefore have a set of                 But this is a very complex picture to unpick – a
                          atmosphere to the villages.”         knowledge and information about where and how                 number of factors have a bearing on the success or
                                                               to	 influence	 that	 other	 residents	 may	 not	 be	 party	   otherwise	of	influencing	at	this	level,	both	in	terms	of	
Arguably, most plan groups will have had an                    to. It is conceivable that some feel threatened by            how the community has approached agencies and in
underlying intention to improve quality of life within         the community planning process but their non                  their responses.
their community through undertaking this process.              involvement is ideally not an option.
Some success may have been achieved given that                                                                               The best	 successes appear to be where there is a
two thirds of groups believe that they succeeded in            Equally, some plan groups may be unaware of the               specific	 issue	 that	 fits	 in	 with	 the	 local	 authority	 or	
achieving what they set out to do to some extent or            role and remit of the Council and run the risk of             agency’s priorities, interests or strategies; where there
better	(to	a	significant	degree	or	completely).                duplicating effort, ignoring previous activity on key         is	 an	 existing	 relationship	 with	 individual	 officers;	
                                                               issues, and dismissing the collective knowledge and           where	the	officers	are	strongly	committed	to	or	have	a	
Learning	points:	impact	on	quality	of	life                     experience of Councillors.                                    remit for community engagement; and when the plan
                                                                                                                             group	 has	 dedicated	 officer	 support	 to	 contribute	 to	
•   Community plans can impact on improving                    “The Parish Council felt undermined by the activities         dissemination	 and	 implementation.	 However,	 specific	
    quality of life both through the process itself              of the steering group…objected to the plan on the           examples	of	where	influencing	has	worked	are	relatively	
    and when projects are implemented.                                       grounds of raising false expectations.”         thin on the ground – they include provision of a youth
                                                                                                                             shelter, examining the re-opening of public toilets, and
                                                                 “It need not have been like this. If only in the early      grant aid provided for environmental improvements.
5.3	     Impact	on	influencing	activities                      stages the [Parish] Council had been more involved,           However, the lack of any feedback mechanism to
                                                                   I feel sure there would have been better all round        inform communities where actions have taken place in
This section examines the impact community plans               representation with the documentation leading up to           response to the plans may result in an under	recording
have	had	in	influencing	the	policies,	decisions	and	                                 the production of the final plan.”      of progress.
actions of other bodies and service providers. It is
split	into	2	levels	of	influence:	parish,	and	district	        Where relationships are strained it is particularly                “Councillors and officials have welcomed the plan
/ county.                                                      important for plan groups to formally present their                            and taken note of recommendations.”
                                                               findings	 to	 the	 Council	 and	 seek	 their	 commitment	
                                                               to	 supporting	 the	 ongoing	 actions	 and	 influencing	          “We campaigned and influenced the district council
5.3.1	 Influencing	at	the	parish	level                         activities. Arguably, the plans’ credibility can be                   in relation to improvements in street lighting.”
                                                               damaged by the lack of Parish Council support.
The role of the Parish Council has already been                                                                              There is some	 frustration among groups about
discussed in this report. Here attention turns to              Learning	points:	influencing	the	Parish	Council               the degree to which issues are picked up from
the	extent	to	which	community	plans	influence	the	                                                                           the community plans. Some groups have received
priorities and functions of Parish Councils.                   •     Community plans provide a valuable framework            no acknowledgement of the plans they have sent
                                                                     to	influence	Parish	Council	activity.                   to local authorities and cannot therefore gauge
What is clear is that where there has been a good              •     Good working relationships between the                  whether they will be taken note of. Others have
working relationship between the community                           community plan group and the Parish Council             been acknowledged, but promises of follow up
plan group and the Parish Council it has added	                      adds considerable value to the process and can          commitment have not been honoured.
                                                         “We have received unhelpful comments about health           However, given the obvious potential relationship with
                                                         and safety concerns. .. we expected a more positive,        land use planning, there is no evidence of an appetite for
                                                                                   constructive relationships.”      or knowledge of seeking the adoption of community plans
                                                                                                                     as SPDs among plan groups.
                                                      This	is	not	as	straightforward	as	it	may	first	appear.	The	 All of this is happening within an environment where
                                                      research has found that plan groups commonly have stakeholder	 interviews	 indicate	 that	 most	 officers	 are	
                                                      little	knowledge about the best route for disseminating aware	of	community	planning	processes	and	the	
                                                      their completed plans and indeed how best to exert majority	 are	 supportive	 of	 the	 concept. There has
                                                      influence.	 Most	 do	 send	 their	 plans	 to	 the	 planning	 been much discussion during the research about their
                                                      department at the very least, but some simply pop one value, and their potential for contributing intelligence
                                                      in the post to ‘the Council’ or ‘the police’ in the naïve hope to agencies since most recognise that they could never
                                                      that it will arrive on an appropriate person’s desk. There consult in so much detail within a small local area.
                                                      is some sense that plan groups absolve themselves of
                                                      responsibility for certain actions once the plan has been        “The Council has a commitment to community planning
                                                      sent to the authority that should be dealing with it.                                                  at a senior level.”

                                                        “The Council was sent a copy – it’s now up to them         This level of knowledge is a positive starting point – if
                                                                                      to follow it through.”       this sample is representative then communities do not
                                                                                                                   have to cross the hurdle of explaining what their plan
                                                           “They cost a lot to produce – we had to limit their is all about to relevant organisations. However, what
                                                                                 production and distribution.” this knowledge means in practice is untested – some
                                                                                                                   may simply have heard the term while others will
                                                      In the ideal world perhaps this should happen, but have detailed knowledge of what community planning
                                                      it is somewhat unlikely in an environment where involves and includes. There is scope for intermediary
                                                      officers	are	frequently	very	busy	and	where	there	is	no	 support organisations to do more of a ‘selling’ job on
                                                      guarantee that the right person has even received the plans to ensure agencies have a full understanding of
                                                      plan.		Equally,	officers	display	some	frustration	when	 what	they	are	and	their	potential	raft	of	benefits.	This	will	
                                                      they are presented with plans that allocate tasks to also require them to understand this picture themselves,
                                                      them, with no prior consultation.                            to	know	where	influence	could	and	should	be	brought	to	
                                                                                                                   bear and which policies / strategies the community plan
                                                      Some communities hold launch events, to which needs to integrate with and how best this is achieved.
                                                      relevant organisations are invited, and these have
                                                      had mixed success. Some have been disappointed by But there is a clear	dislocation between this goodwill
                                                      the turn out from agencies; one senior district council towards community plans and any strategic response to
                                                      officer	 was	 dismayed	 to	 find	 that	 the	 authority	 was	 those received by agencies. Some stakeholders would
                                                      discussed in very negative terms, despite his presence value seeing plans but are not sent them. Most view
                                                      and willingness to listen to and take note of the report the plans they do see with interest, but rarely actually
                                                      findings.	This	is	not	the	way	to	engage	constructively	 do anything constructive with them. In discussion they
                                                      with the potential partners groups are seeking to recognise this is a weakness and identify the scope
                                                      influence.                                                   to agree what the agency wide policy on community
                                                      In one instance the community’s support worker met planning should be; to provide an agency wide, co-
                                                      with key stakeholders upon production of the plan and ordinated	response;	and	to	ensure	all	relevant	officers	
                                                      worked towards developing a detailed action plan that see the reports.

omments about
                                                      identified	 lead	 agencies	 (with	 their	 agreement)	 for	
                                                      different elements. This proved successful in engaging	 There are further problems with this picture however              .
                                                      constructively with partners and in ensuring a Stakeholders are not always convinced of the robustness of

d unhelpful comments about
                                                      full understanding of the plan and the community’s data collection and analysis, are frustrated when proposals
                                                      needs.                                                       contradict policy, and fail to see the linkages to their work.
                                                                                                                   Too often there seems to be a straight leap from survey
  “We have received unhelpful comments about

we expected a more
                                                      Arguably, plans will have most impact on agencies results to the plan’s production – there is little evidence

concerns. .. we expected a more
                                                      when there is a clear	 link to their own work. One that feasibility is investigated before plans are produced
  health and safety concerns. .. we expected a more   community has taken the step of relating each and they therefore suffer the term ‘wish list’ in some
                                                      element in its action plan to the Local Strategic quarters.	Many		officers	have	suggested	that	a	minimal	
  positive, constructive relationships.”              Partnership’s priority themes, to the Derbyshire amount of ‘front	end’	involvement	from	officers	would	

 ive relationships.”
                                                      Community Strategy, and to elements of the National assist plan groups in relating their work more effectively
                                                      Park’s Management Plan. This is a highly sensible way to policy, would avoid raising unrealistic expectations,

                                                      of sorting their actions and takes one job away from and would focus energies on the most viable ideas and
                                                      the relevant agencies in analysing the relationship proposals. This is particularly required if plans are to be
                                                      between the plan and their work.                             adopted as Supplementary Planning Documents.
     “There is no point in suggesting a housing scheme                       knowledge about community planning among                community planning, with no resources for them
      can go on the playing fields when that contradicts                     stakeholders.                                           to pick up aspects of the implementation.
                                                policy.”                •    No agencies have an agreed strategy for responding
                                                                             to the community plans they receive.                       “They took us so far down the road and then
This may well be seen as a threat to a truly bottom                     •    There is scope for and interest in better co-              ditched us. Things fell apart when the officer
up and community led approach, but it could dissipate                        ordination between plan groups and local                left and attention within the local authority has
the frustration experienced by many plan groups in                           organisations / service providers.                                               now moved elsewhere.”
getting agencies to take note of their work.
                                                                                                                                     The lack of processes for monitoring, reviewing
Also lacking are formal structures to integrate                         5.4	      The	sustainability	of	impacts                      and updating also means that the plan becomes
community	plan	findings	into	agency	policies,	strategies	
and plans. One LSP did trawl through the local plans                    There is a danger that community planning is a one	
                                                                                                                                     out of date and lacking in relevance relatively
                                                                                                                                     quickly. The relatively straightforward quick
                                                                                                                                                                                           “The plans
to inform the process of setting priorities for its 2006
– 2009 Community Strategy, but there is no ongoing
                                                                        off	process; that the plan is produced, a few projects
                                                                        pursued and slowly the plan and its priorities are
                                                                                                                                     win projects are completed, attention paid
                                                                                                                                     to the priorities and then a fizzling out of
                                                                                                                                                                                           become a
mechanism for integrating their data. However, this
can never be rolled out since most stakeholders do not
                                                                        forgotten.                                                   progress. Immediate issues inevitably become
                                                                                                                                     the focus once more. There is a need to build         one off hit
                                                                                                                                                                                           at getting
know the complete picture of where plans have been                             “The plans become a one off hit at getting things     in sustainability to maximise the value of all
completed in their area.                                                                                                 done.”      the hard work that went into the creation of the
      “The Council does not know where there are
community plans, or where they are proposed, which
                                                                        Several	significant	problems	have	been	identified	
                                                                        through the research.                                        “Enthusiasm started to wane as major priorities
                                                                                                                                                                                           things done.”
                                 is a real problem.”                                                                                                              were addressed.”
                                                                        Groups expend huge amounts of energy in producing
There is real potential for closer working relationships                the plan – this is an obvious end point and retaining        Arguably, the lack of ability to exert influence on
between community plan groups and the agencies                          motivation	into	an	implementation	phase	is	difficult.	In	    other agencies and their strategies also limits the
responsible for service delivery in their area, throughout              some cases this is coupled with the lack of an obvious       value of what can be achieved through community
the planning process. Groups already say that they                      organisation within the community to continue the            plans. With no strategic relationships forged the
have a better	 knowledge	 of which organisation                         work of the plan and to undertake a co-ordinating role.      role of the plan diminishes over time.
is responsible for which services as a result of their                  Elsewhere such a group may exist but is unwilling to
involvement in the plan – an important contribution                     take on this task.                                                   “They need to be live documents that the
to ongoing capacity building within that community.                                                                                      community continually revisits – there should
Equally there is scope for agencies to develop their                    There is also something about the nature of the people             be continuous consultations over important
‘policy networks’11 – these are the formal and informal                 in the original plan groups – those who become involved            issues. It becomes part of the community’s
connections created between service providers                           in a group to undertake research are not necessarily             culture, people expect it and know how to do
and the communities they serve as a result of joint                     the same kinds of people who want to implement the                                                         it.”
working,	and	can	provide	both	increased	influence	to	                   proposals. There is a general expectation that this is
communities and improved information to providers.                      how it will happen and there is rarely any mechanism         Only time will tell whether the capacity building
                                                                        to bring new people into the picture at this point.          gains of the community planning process
Learning	points:	influencing	at	the	district	level                                                                                   contribute to the long term health and vitality of
                                                                        Implementation is in itself hard work. Project               community life.
•    Influencing	 activities	 are	 most	 likely	 to	 succeed	           development may not be easy, and the lack of
     when they engage with the priorities, strategies                   ready access to grant aid can be frustrating. Where
     and goals of agencies.                                             intensive support does exist through a programme of          Learning	points:	the	sustainability	of	
•    In general terms, there has been mixed success in                  intervention, it usually focuses on plan preparation with    impacts
     influencing	at	this	level	–	there	are	few	examples	                no dedicated resources for supporting implementation.
     emerging form the research.                                        There have been several instances of communities             •   Many plans are something of a ‘one off’ –
•    The lack of a feedback mechanism between                           feeling ‘let down’ by this model – they may well have            they generate some initial project work but
     agencies and the plan groups may result in an                      signed up for it at the outset, but it’s only when they          the momentum gradually diminishes.
     under recording of actions resulting from the plan,                reach this point that they realise the impact that the       •   The nature and structure of the planning
     and frustration or disappointment for the groups                   support has, and still could have. Additionally, poor            group is a contributory factor, many were
     involved.                                                          performance by individual support workers can have a             only ever intended as the short term vehicle
•    Community plan groups lack clear advice and                        negative	influence	on	the	group	and	its	commitment	              to co-ordinate preparation of the plan.
     guidance about how their plans should be                           to keep up the momentum of its work.                         •   The contribution of intermediary support
     disseminated, and who to.                                                                                                           agencies is critical; communities feel let down
•    There is a gap in knowledge (among plan groups                     There is also a knock on effect for other support agencies       when this support is not sustained beyond
     and potentially also among support workers) about                  that have to pick up some of the project development             the plan preparation phase.
     how	to	exert	influence	and	how	to	be	effective	in	                 work. While this may be part of their role and remit,        •   Resourcing of the implementation phase is
     these activities.                                                  it is frustrating when they see other organisations              missing – both in terms of grant aid and
•    There is a good level of (possibly basic level)                    receiving grant aid to generate project work through             funding for support work.
11       The value added by community involvement in governance, Joseph Rowntree Foundation, Findings ref 0406.
summary points                                                                                                                              challenges for the future
This section focuses on bringing together the        Barriers to success include:                        7.1					Introduction                                        7.2					The	relationship	between	inputs	and		
key findings from the previous part of this                                                                                                                          	      	outputs
report, and collates them into 3 key areas.          •   Low levels of knowledge within the              The previous 2 sections of this report have
                                                         community about the best route for              summarised	 the	 main	 findings	 of	 this	 research.	       Each plan is the product of the process undertaken.
i)	      Currently,	   community	      plans	            dissemination                                   Attention has been paid to the degree to which              There is then a clear link between the inputs – grant
         achieve	most	success	at	the	level	of	 •         No prior consultation with officers or          community planning processes impact on the                  aid, resourcing, local knowledge and experience, and
         community	infrastructure.                       interface with key strategies before the        socio-economic status of rural community life –             the availability of development worker support - and the
                                                         completion of the plan                          both in terms of action undertaken by communities           outputs.
•     For individuals, they bring the opportunity    •   No ‘testing’ of ideas generated by the          themselves and the extent to which they have been
      to draw on existing skills, introduce new          research phase before inclusion in the final    successful	 in	 influencing	 the	 policies,	 strategies,	   •   Community plan groups should consider formally
      ways of working, increase understanding            report                                          plans and actions of other service providers.                   agreeing their terms of reference. Undergoing this
      of the wider strategic context, and become     •   Limited understanding about how best to         These	are	useful	and	interesting	findings.	                     process at the outset will ensure there are clear
      more part of community life.                       engage with and influence strategies and                                                                        lines between the group’s role and that of the
•     For the community infrastructure they              the delivery of relevant agencies               Of	 equal	 interest	 is	 what	 these	 findings	 suggest	        Parish Council, for example. It will also open the
      result in more new groups, more effective      •   Concern     among    agencies   about    the    about how community planning programmes                         discussion about the duration of the group’s work
      community groups, improved facilities,             robustness of the data generated                should be conducted in the future – be they co-                 and its ongoing responsibilities – will it become the
      and an increased number of activities and      •   A lack of formal structures within agencies     ordinated interventions or more ad hoc support.                 implementation body too; if not, who is expected to
      events                                             to integrate community plan findings and        This section builds on the key learning points and              take on this role?
•     New projects and initiatives are generated.        ‘community intelligence’ into policies,         highlights the main challenges facing such future
      Most successful and prevalent are small            strategies and plans                            programmes.                                              •      A formal concordat between the plan group and
      scale environmental projects and initiatives                                                                                                                       the Parish Council would ease the potential for
      that provide for the needs of children or      iii)	   There	 are	 a	 number	 of	 significant	                                                                     misunderstandings about their relative roles and
      older people.                                          problems	associated	with	sustaining	                                                                        responsibilities in the community planning process.
•     ‘Community intelligence’ is gathered in an
                                                             the	impact	of	community	plans.
      unprecedented fashion – on a whole range of                                                                                                                    •   Parish Council involvement should be encouraged
      issues including strategic problems around                                                                                                                         given their key role as a tier in local government.
                                                     •   Burn out can be a real problem for groups
      housing, traffic and public transport.
                                                         where huge amounts of energy have been
                                                                                                                                                                     •   The limited coverage of some issues, including the
                                                         expended in producing the plan, and there
ii)	     Communities	 have	 had	 limited	                                                                                                                                local economy and generic health care provision,
         success	in	influencing	at	the	district	         is less enthusiasm, capacity and support
                                                                                                                                                                         for example, is of concern. The extent to which this
         and	 county	 levels	 despite	 wide	             for the implementation phase
                                                                                                                                                                         reflects	a	lack	of	confidence	and	knowledge	among	
         support	 among	 agencies	 for	 the	 •           Mechanisms to bring new people with
                                                                                                                                                                         support staff needs assessing and then addressing.
         concept	of	community	planning.                  appropriate skills and knowledge for
                                                         implementation are often lacking
                                                                                                                                                                     •	 There	 is	 significant	 value	 in	 consulting	 relevant	
Success is more likely when:                         •   External support is sometimes withdrawn
                                                                                                                                                                        agencies near the start of the community planning
                                                         or reduced following completion of the plan
                                                                                                                                                                        process to avoid frustration from raised expectations
•     A specific issue fits in with the strategic        – communities feel ‘let down’
                                                                                                                                                                        at	a	later	stage,	to	take	advice	from	officers	as	to	
      priorities of the relevant agency              •   There can be a lack of ready access to
                                                                                                                                                                        the most helpful format and structure of consultation
•     There is an existing relationship with             grant aid, particularly in areas that are not
                                                                                                                                                                        data,	 and	 to	 satisfy	 officers	 of	 the	 rigour	 of	 the	
      officers, or an up front involvement in the        designated regeneration areas
                                                                                                                                                                        methodology. The support workers will be a key
      development of the plan                        •   Plans become out of date quickly because
                                                                                                                                                                        intermediary in this dialogue. It should be done in
•     Officers have a strong commitment to and           monitoring and review processes are not in
                                                                                                                                                                        a fashion that avoids compromising the bottom up,
      see the value of community engagement              place
                                                                                                                                                                        community led nature of the process and suggests
•     Dedicated resources are available to help      •   Agencies do not provide clear routes into
                                                                                                                                                                        the need for training staff to engage effectively and
      the plan group disseminate their plan and          their policy and strategy procedures for
      seek to exert influence                            community plans
                                                                                                                                                                     •	 Support	 workers	 will	 need	 confidence	 to	 continue	
                                                                                                                                                                        guiding	 the	 process	 once	 other	 officers	 become	
                                                                                                                                                                        involved, to ensure plans remain a grass roots initiative
                                                                                                                                                                        and remain wholly in community ‘ownership’.

                                                                                                                                                                     •   Communities need access to resources to both
                                                                                                                                                                         undertake and implement their plans. This includes
                                                                                                                                                                         support workers in an enabling (and not simply
                                                                                                                                                                         administrative) role and grant aid. Where co-
                                                                                                                                                                         ordinated interventions are planned, consideration
                                                                                                                                                                         should be given to support continuing through to the
                                                                                                                                                                         implementation phase.
7.3	    Planning	the	plan	process                               7.4	    Effective	influencing                                    7.5				Agencies	ready	to	receive

There are weaknesses in the way that plans are                  There is a limit to what can be achieved within and              There is real potential to build on the interest
currently undertaken, and there is a need to                    by communities themselves. Their capacity to exert               in community planning among stakeholders.
devote more time or more rigour to planning                     influence	on	other	service	providers	is	therefore	critical.      Ideally this needs some form of co-
how the plan will be put together.                                                                                               ordination.
                                                                •   Currently there is something of a random pattern to
•    A stakeholder 12 analysis should be undertaken                 the	                 of	
                                                                        dissemination	 plan	             This	 such	 critical	
                                                                                                findings.	    is	    a	          •   Agencies need to be fully briefed about the
     at the outset of the community planning                        stage in the process and it needs more attention.                nature and purpose of community plans, and
     process. This will guide the selection of the                  At the very least communities need guidance about                how they can be of benefit and contribute
     appropriate methodology to reach different                     relevant agencies and named individuals. Knowledge               to their work. The emphasis needs to be
     parts of the community, as well as the                         about how to then best present and explain their                 on the added value that community plans
     appropriate approach to dissemination.                         findings	 is	 also	 lacking	 and	 should	 be	 addressed.	        can bring, and how they can contribute
                                                                    Early contact with agencies (as discussed above) will            to those agencies achieving their goals
•    The limitations of community planning                          go	some	way	to	improving	and	directing	findings	to	              and indeed obligations within the current
     processes must be recognised. Consideration                    the right people in the appropriate format.                      legislation and government guidance.
     must be given to how difficult and hidden
     needs can surface in the most appropriate                  •	 There	 may	 be	 some	 benefit	 in	 producing	 written	        •   The intrinsic value of community plans
     fashion, and the extent to which community                    guidance	on	the	potential	significance	of	influencing	            needs promoting – both in terms of
     members can (or cannot) be involved in                        effectively, with up to date information about the                their impact on communities and their
     such a process.                                               most	relevant	agencies	and	officers	to	target.                    potential to provide valuable ‘community
                                                                                                                                     intelligence’. This work needs to happen
•    Plan groups need to research relevant,                     •   Community plan groups should be made aware                       across organisations and disciplines, but
     local plans and strategies with which their                                                                                     will require validation at the highest level
     work should interface – the role of support                                                                                     within organisations if community plans
     workers is likely to be critical in guiding this           	   of	the	benefits	of	and	receive	support	in	linking	their	         are to be taken seriously.
     process.                                                       work to relevant policies, strategies and plans of
                                                                    other organisations. The Community Strategy and              •   There is a need for agencies to agree a
•    Consideration must be given to how and                         Local Development Framework are of particular                    strategy for responding to the community
     when other officers should become involved                     relevance and early contact with their co-ordinators             plans they receive.
     in the process, to make best use of their                      would be highly desirable.
     input and to avoid over loading them with                                                                                   •   Leicestershire and Rutland RCC has
     requests.                                                  •   Appropriate frameworks are required to ease the                  pioneered the application of a community
                                                                    burden	 of	 this	 influencing	 role.	 The	 benefits	 of	         plans protocol. Relevant agencies nominate
•    Sustainability is a key issue that needs                       adopting elements of community plans as SPDs                     a named individual to liaise with community
     thought from the outset: who will implement                    needs promoting, but that would require collaboration            plan groups as required, and to receive
     projects within the community, what is the                     and support to agree a community friendly process                plans and prepare a co-ordinated response
     vehicle for influencing relevant agencies,                     with acceptable rigour in the breadth and depth of               within a given period. The potential for
     how will we monitor and review progress                        consultation and the undertaking of the Sustainability           applying this model in Derbyshire is worth
     etc.                                                           Appraisal.                                                       exploring.


12       Anyone who can affect or is affected by the process.
It is known that community planning has been        In summary, the recommendations arising from
promoted for some time; while it has been           this research are as follows:
implicitly seen as ‘a good thing’ there has been
no local evidence to support this position. This    • Future work on community planning needs re-
research does provide significant evidence            thinking to reflect the findings of this research
about the impact of community plans on the            and the challenges that have been identified.
socio economic status of rural community life.
                                                    • Communities need to be re-assured about
Community plans have been found to have               future community planning initiatives, and
many strengths, particularly in terms of their        there needs to be clear co-ordination between
impact within the communities that undertake          agencies.
them. However, there are many findings              • Communities that have already undertaken
about how this impact can be improved and             plans need to be offered follow up support.
better sustained over time. While this is local       The process of being involved in this research
evidence, a similar picture has been found            is likely to have re-ignited the interest of
elsewhere in the country – the situation is not       some plan groups and this potential should
unique to Derbyshire.                                 be harnessed.

It is therefore clear that community planning       • There is a need to develop strategic
does need something of a re-think for the             relationships with the agencies whose role
future. There is scope to build on the aspects        it is to deliver the services under scrutiny in
that currently work well while addressing the         community plans – dissemination of these
inherent weaknesses in the existing processes.        research findings offers an opportunity to
Much of this is covered in the previous section       begin this process.
and the researchers would recommend that
considerable thought is given to the planning of
future support and co-ordinated interventions
in the field of community based planning. It is
time to learn from what has gone before and
to take a new approach.

There is some danger in working in different
kinds of ways. Communities have already
been confused about the plethora of different
schemes and interventions around community
planning and this should be avoided in the
future at all costs. New approaches will require
careful explanation and importantly co-
ordination among all relevant agencies.

Doing the research has in itself raised	 the	
profile of community planning. Communities
have re-visited their plans and there will be
a need for DRCC and others to offer further
support in this review process. Additionally, the
profile of community planning has been raised in
the organisations where stakeholders have been
interviewed – in many cases this has prompted
questions in those organisations about how
best to approach the issue in the future. This
provides a very positive foundation upon which
to build strategic relationships for the future	
development	 and	 success of community
planning in Derbyshire.
                                                                  appendix 1                                                                                                         appendix 2
Research questions                                                                                Background on the 6 case study communities

CONTEXT AND INPUTS                                                                                                     Chinley,      Chapel enle Frith   Wormhill CP:      Litton CP:      Whitwell CP      Clowne CP:
                                                                                                                    Buxworth and     CP (Doveholes):     High Peak Bor-    Derbyshire      (Hodthorpe):    Bolsover Dis-
1.     What were the origins of the plan – whose idea was it and why was it needed?                Census Data      Brownside CP:     High Peak Bor-      ough Council    Dales District   Bolsover Dis-    trict Coucil
                                                                                                      2001          High Peak bor-     ough Coucil                          Council        trict Council
2.	    What	was	the	socio-economic	profile	of	the	community?
                                                                                                                     ough Council
3.     To what extent were there local champions / volunteers available to get involved in the
4.     What skills and knowledge was held in the community to engage in this process?            Total                  2647               8821              1085              558             4636            7447
5.     What funding and other ‘in kind’ help (e.g. free copying) was available and how was it    Population
       obtained?                                                                                 5 - 15yrs              417                1288              158               63               628             976
6.     What was the nature of support from agencies to the community in developing their         5 - 15yrs %            16%                15%               15%              11%              14%             13%
       plan?                                                                                     16 - 24yrs             200                 794              112               49               458             729
                                                                                                 16 - 24yrs %            8%                 9%               10%               9%              10%             10%
                                                                                                 25 - 44yrs             767                2438              311              138              1277            2133
                                                                                                 25 - 44yrs %           29%                28%               29%              25%              28%             29%
7.     How was the project managed and executed (from project idea to plan dissemination         45 - 64yrs             715                2368              280              176                70            1899
       and project development)?                                                                 45 - 64yrs %           27%                27%               26%              32%              27%             26%
8.     What methods were used to engage with the community to undertake the research?            Total Persons 16       1899               6380              780              416              3434            5460
9.     How inclusive was the process in reaching the whole community?                            - 74
10.    How useful was the support and contribution of agencies?                                  16 - 74yrs Eco-        1279               4300               518              277             1899            3220
11.	   How	were	the	plan	findings	disseminated?                                                  nomically Ac-
                                                                                                 tive, Employed
                                                                                                 16 - 74yrs Eco-        67%                67%               66%              67%              55%             59%
NB: The process relates to the whole duration of the project – from initial idea to produce a    nomically Ac-
plan,	through	to	disseminating	the	findings	and	acting	upon	what	has	been	learnt.                tive, Employed
                                                                                                 16 - 74yrs              40                132                19                8              123             211
OUTPUTS                                                                                          Economically
                                                                                                 Active, Unem-
12.    Is there a clear and deliverable action plan in place?                                    ployed
13.    What projects have happened as a direct result of the plan process?                       16 - 74yrs              2%                2%                 2%               2%              4%              4%
14.	   What	steps	have	been	taken	to	use	the	plan	influence	the	plans	and	delivery	of	other	     Economically
                                                                                                 Active, Unem-
       agencies in the community?
                                                                                                 ployed %
15.    What has been the impact on the community infrastructure (e.g. number of groups and
                                                                                                 16 - 74yrs              548               1839               224              121             1355            1906
       volunteers, and community leadership)?
                                                                                                 16 - 74yrs             29%                29%               29%              29%              39%             35%
                                                                                                 inactive %
16.	   How	has	the	plan	influenced	the	policies	and	delivery	of	other	agencies?
                                                                                                 Total Households       1093               3589               424              233             2020            3156
17.    Has the plan led to improved dialogue and understanding between the community and
       service providers?                                                                        Owner                   939               3039               326              198             1351            2404
18.    To what extent has the community developed its capacity to tackle issues for them
       selves?                                                                                   Owner                  86%                85%               77%              85%              67%             76%
19.    What has been the impact on individuals within the community?
20.    What has been the environmental impact of the plan?                                       Council /               73                311                44               19              484             485
21.    What has been the economic impact of the plan?                                            Social Landlord
22.	   To	what	extent	is	the	plan	addressing	the	identified	needs?                               Council /               7%                9%                10%               8%              24%             15%
23.	   What	is	the	new	socio	economic	profile	of	the	community?                                   Social Landlord
                                                                                                 Private Rented          81                239                54               16              185             267
                                                                                                 Private Rented %        7%                7%                13%               7%              9%              8%
                                                            appendix 3
List of external stakeholders involved in this research

      Paul Armstrong        High Peak Borough Council
           Jennifer Ball    Bolsover District Council
             Liz Ballard    Peak District National Park Authority
  Malcolm Beardmore         Rural Transport Partnership
      Elizabeth Black-      DRCC
                   stock    Former Village Agent
         Jenifer Bower      Bolsover Local Strategic Partnership
            Pam Brown       Clowne businessman and Chair of Clowne Town Centre Part-
   Tony Buckingham          nership
            Peter Corke     Derbyshire Dales District Council
       Tracy Critchlow      Former Village Agent
           Sue Douglas      Derbyshire County Council
           Joe Dugdale      DRCC
              Julie Hirst   High Peak and Derbyshire Dales Primary Care Trust
             Sian Jones     High Peak Borough Council
         Adele Metcalf      Peak District National Park Authority
          Neil Moulden      Derbyshire Dales CVS
             Jim Neeve      Involve team
          Scott Nichols     Bolsover District Council
          Marika Rajah      High Peak Borough Council
      John Sherwood         Bolsover District Council
             Ken Smith      Peak District National Park Authority
           Brian Taylor     Peak District National Park Authority
          Tony Trafford     Bolsover Housing and Environment Action Group
           Fiona Unwin      Involve team
        Tina Wilkinson      Bolsover Community Empowerment Network
          Ben Williams      High Peak Borough Council
             Dan Yates      Peak District National Park Authority
 anning Togethe
 ing Together
Planning Toget
mpact of parish plans and village appraisals in Derby
h plans and village appraisals in Derbyshire
e impact of parish plans and village appraisals
   Derbyshire Rural Community Council                     Icarus             
   telephone 01629 824797               telephone 0870 080 2935

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