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					      II.4 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ENGLISH VOCABULARY:
      PRACTICAL TASKS AND EXERCISES
     SELF-CHECK AND CONSOLIDATION QUESTIONS
     1. What does lexicology study?
     2. What is vocabulary?
     3. What is the main function of a word?
     4. What is the external structure of a word?
     5. What is the internal structure of a word?
     6. What is a word?
     7. What are stylistically neutral words?
     8. What are stylistically marked words?
     9. What is a functional style/register?
     10. Which stylistically marked groups of words are used in the formal style?
     11. Which stylistically marked groups of words are used in the informal style?
     12. What is slang?
     13. What are the characteristics of colloquial words?
     14. What are literary (bookish) words?
     15. What are officialese words?
     16. What are terms?
     17. What is a neologism?
     18. What is an archaism?
     19. Which languages has English mainly borrowed from?
     20. What are translation loans?
     21. What is the difference between source of borrowing and source of origin?
     22.What are etymological doublets?


STYLISTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF ENGLISH VOCABULARY

Exercise 1

Look at these three text extracts and decide which register types you would
classify them in (formal/informal). Underline key stylistically marked words which
help you decide the register. Guess what kind of text these extracts are taken from.
Find examples of stylistically colored words: terms, colloquial/slang words,
bookish/poetic words, officialese/literary words etc.

A)

Dear Mr Brown,

Because Mr. Jones is out of the office for the next two weeks I am
acknowledging receipt of your letter dated May 20, l983. It will be brought to
his attention immediately upon his return. If I may be of any assistance
during Mr. Jones' absence, please do not hesitate to call.
  B)
  Jim's dad enters with Nadia. She's in sweats and a leotard, carrying a duffel
  bag over her shoulder. Jim's dad is delighted, fidgety, almost giddy.
  JIM'S DAD: Son. This lady's here for you.
  JIM: I know. Hey Nadia.
  NADIA: Hello James. Ready to study?
  JIM'S DAD: Oh, you bet he is. Jim's quite the bookworm.
  JIM: Dad…
  JIM'S DAD: Oh, no, not too much of a bookworm. He's a good little kid. Er,
  guy. Man.
  JIM: Dad!!
  JIM'S DAD: Okay, okay. I'll let you hit those books.


  C)

  Bacteria have a thick, rigid cell wall, which maintains the integrity of the cell,
  and determines its characteristic shape. Since the cytoplasm of bacteria
  contains high concentrations of dissolved substances, they generally live in a
  hypotonic environment (i.e. one that is more dilute than their own
  cytoplasm). There is therefore a natural tendency for water to flow into the
  cell, and without the cell wall the cell would fill and burst (you can
  demonstrate this by using enzymes to strip off the cell wall, leaving the naked
  protoplast).

  D)
  Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary,
  Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore,
  While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping,
  As of some one gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door.
  `'Tis some visitor,' I muttered, `tapping at my chamber door -
  Only this, and nothing more.'

  Ah, distinctly I remember it was in the bleak December,
  And each separate dying ember wrought its ghost upon the floor.
  Eagerly I wished the morrow; - vainly I had sought to borrow
  From my books surcease of sorrow - sorrow for the lost Lenore -
  For the rare and radiant maiden whom the angels named Lenore -
  Nameless here for evermore.

Exercise 2.    Put the words on the left into the correct columns in the table.
  purchase     handy           Formal          Informal
  loo          resume
  thus         terrific        purchase
  quid         commence
  apprehend    reckon
  guy
Now find a formal/ informal/neutral synonym for
each of the words from this list.
   therefore toilet convenient catch/stop start         man    start again
   pound think fantastic buy

e.g. purchase—buy

Exercise 3. Rewrite these sentences in more informal English.
  1. When are you going to collect your bicycle?
  2. Most of these children are very clever.
  3. I think it'll commence quite soon.
  4. Would you like to go out for a meal?
  5. My flat is five minutes from where I work, thus it is very convenient.
  6. What's the matter?
  7. The man in the market wanted twenty pounds for this ring.
  8. Where did you purchase that book?
  9. They'll never apprehend him.
  10.I'm just going to the toilet.

Exercise 4. Now rewrite this letter in more suitable formal English.
Dear Mr Collins
We're really sorry to say that we can't lend you the sum of
five hundred quid that you need, but it may be possible to
give you a loan for some of the money.
If you are still interested, do you fancy getting in touch with
our main office to fix up an appointment with the assistant
manager. He will be happy to talk to you about it. Yours
sincerely
    Source: English Vocabulary in Use (pre-intermediate & intermediate)
Exercise 5.

Replace the slang words which are in bold in the sentences below with more
formal equivalents. If you don’t find them in a dictionary, it should be possible to
guess what it is. Notice that some of the words have a slang meaning which is
different from their everyday meaning.


   1. The newsreader on TV last night seemed to be pissed as he was reading the
      news.
   2. He’s quite a nice bloke really.
   3. Have you got wheels or shall we call a taxi?
   4. I’m dying for a cuppa. I haven’t had one since breakfast.
   5. I was absolutely gobsmacked when she told me she was leaving.

CHANGES IN ENGLISH VOCABULARY

Exercise 6.

If you meet a new word it is often possible to work out its meaning from its
context. Practise by explaining what the words in bold in the following sentences
may mean.
    1. I very much prefer restaurants where there is no microwavery.
   2. They’re building a new cineplex on the edge of the town so we should be
      able to choose from a variety of films on Saturday nights.
   3. Upskiing, which uses small parachutes, is a rapidly developing sport in the
      USA.
   4. World AIDS Day was inspired by the health globocrats of the World Health
      Organization.
   5. He is writing a thesis on humorology.

Exercise 7.
Now guess the meaning of the following neologisms (ca. 2006) studying their
natural context and explain in which way they were formed.

DOLLARIZE
Example Citation:
"American officials said today that they doubted Argentina would decide to
'dollarize' its economy unless it came under dire pressure from an economic
meltdown in Brazil."
—"Resistance to Argentine 'Dollar'," The New York Times

COSPLAY
Example Citation:
The cult of cosplay sprang to life more than 15 years ago, when Japanese anime
otaku (fans) began dressing up as their favourite cartoon characters at annual
anime meets, where fans attended talks, meet-the-artist sessions and caught up with
each other.
Soon, cosplay masquerades were appearing in countries like the US, Canada,
Hongkong and Taiwan. In 1990, Project A-kon in Dallas, Texas, was one of the
first US anime conventions to feature a cosplay contest.
—Clara Chow, "Spider can eat my shorts," The New Straits Times, March 8, 2002
EXTREME TOURISM

Example Citation:
"Ah, vacation! Balmy breezes, ice-cold margaritas, compliant snipers. Snipers?
Yep. The newest kick for jaded tourists who have hit all the world's hot spots is to
hit the world's really hot spots. The idea behind what some are calling terror travel
or extreme tourism is basically to take the U.S. State Department's travel advisory
warning list and make an itinerary out of it."
—Justin Doebele, "Club Dead," Forbes, December 15, 1997
     III.7 THE PROBLEMS OF A WORD MEANING: PRACTICAL TASKS
     AND EXERCISES
   SELF-CHECK AND CONSOLIDATION QUESTIONS

   1. What is the difference between the lexical meaning and the grammatical
       meaning of a word?
   2. What is denotative meaning?
   3. What is connotative meaning?
   4. What is a polysemantic word?
   5. What is linguistic metaphor?
   6. What is an antropormorphic metaphor?
   7. What is a zoormorphic metaphor?
   8. What is antonomasia?
   9. What is linguistic metonymy?
   10. What is a euphemism?
   11. What is the difference between homographs and homophones?
   12. What is a paronym?
   13. What is a synonym and what are the criteria to define synonyms?
   14. What is a synonymic dominant?

THE STRUCTURE OF MEANING, TYPES OF MEANING

Exercise 1
Define lexical and grammatical meanings of the underlined words in the
following text.

An Austrian town is to open a James Bond museum to mark its brief appearance in
Quantum of Solace. Local government (1) officials (2) say the museum will open
in Bregenz on March 20 to celebrate the (3) location's links with 007. The museum
(4) will feature props from shooting and pictures and fact sheets for (5) visitors.

Example:
(1) officials
Lexical meaning: ‘one who holds an office or position’.
Grammatical meaning: a noun, plural number


Exercise 2
Define the meaning of the polysemantic word in the following contexts:

rough
   1. Grace made her way slowly across the rough ground. uneven, not
        smooth_____
   2. The sea was rough and no swimming allowed.
   3. Rugby's a rough game at the best of times.
   4. It was quite a rough part of our town.
   5. All women have a rough time in our society.
   6. The virus won't go away and the lad is still feeling a bit rough.
   7. We were only able to make a rough estimate of how much fuel would be
      required.
   8. I've got a rough idea of what he looks like.
   9. The bench had a rough wooden table in front of it.


Exercise 3. Provide suitable context (example of usage) for each meaning of
the polysemantic word.
   1. astute, as in business;
   This magazine is for smart young professionals who want to better know the
   tendencies in the market.
   2. clever or bright, quick, witty, and often impertinent in speech:
   3. fashionable; chic; socially elegant
   4. well-kept; neat; trim in appearance
   5. vigorous or brisk

Exercise 4
Define which of the meanings of polysemantic words and expressions below
are:
         a) general (wide)
         b) special (narrow)
         c) direct
         d) figurative

soup (noun)
  1 liquid food made by boiling meat, fish, or vegetables in water.
        ...home-made chicken soup.
  2 soup
     If you say that someone is in the soup, you mean they are in trouble.
(INFORMAL, JOURNALISM)
        She has a knack of landing herself right in the soup.
cite (verb)
[citing, cited]
1. to quote or refer to (a passage, book, or author)
2. to summon to appear before a court of law



CHANGE OF WORD MEANING

  Exercise 5.
Explain the logical associations in the following groups of meaning for the
same words. Define the type of transference which has taken place.
   1) the wing of a bird - the wing of a building; e.g. metaphor (similarity of form)
   2) the eye of a man - the eye of a needle;
   3) the hand of a child - the hand of a clock;
   4) the heart of a man - the heart of the matter;
   5) the bridge across the river - the bridge of the nose;
   6) the tongue of a person - the tongue of a bell
   7) green grass - green years;
   8) black shoes - black despair;
   9) nickel (metal) - a nickel (coin) ;
   10)       Ford (proper name) - a Ford (car);
   11)       Damaskus (town in Syria) - damask.

Exercise 6
Define in which sentences the underlined words are used in the metaphorical or
metonymical shifted meaning.

   1)   I went to kick the ball and I completely missed it.
   2)   I immediately regretted having said this. I could have kicked myself
   3)   He stirred his coffee with a spoon.
   4)   She likes her tea with two spoons of sugar.
   5)   Some sharks have very sharp teeth and may attack people.
   6)   Beware the sharks when you are making up your mind how to invest.
   7)   He fumbled with the buttons at the neck.
   8)   He fumbled his lines, not knowing what he was going to say.

Exercise 7
Antonomasia.
The following are names of characters in popular fiction. They are so well-
known (even by those who have never read or even heard of the original
work) that they are often used in ordinary conversation. Put each on in its
correct place in the sentences below.


Walter Mitty          Jekyll and Hyde Little Lord               Tarzan
Big Brother           Rip Van Winkle Fauntleroy                 Cinderella
                                           Sherlock Holmes


   1) He’s a strange person. Usually he’s very pleasant and reasonable, but there
      are times when he gets very bad-tempered and almost violent. He’s got a
      ___________ personality.
   2) How on earth did you guess his nationality, occupation and all those other
      things about him just from his appearance? You’re a proper ___________ .
   3) I don’t like this new government proposal to put details of everyone’s
      private life on computers. I cant see it will mean greater efficiency and all
      that, but, well, it’s a bit like ___________, isn’t it?
   4) I think the neighbour’s kids should be allowed a bit of freedom to wear what
      they like and get dirty having fun, not make to look like ___________ .
   5) She’s really exploited by her family. They make her do everything for them,
      cook, clean… She’s a sort of ___________ .
   6) He’s a body-builder and weight-lifter. Have you seen him in a swimsuit? He
      looks like ___________ .
   7) He sounds very impressive when he talks about his adventures and
      achievements, but it’s all fantasy. He’s a ___________ character.
   8) Come on, ___________, wake up! It’s nearly lunch-time.




SYNONYMY
Exercise 8.
Work with your dictionary and explain why the following synonyms are partial.
Give the meanings in which they coincide.
          a) tongue – language
          b) dear – expensive
          c) ripe - mature
Exercise 9
Prove that the following synonyms have different combinability
   a) sick – ill
   b) living/live – alive
   c) all-every


Exercise 10
The following polysemantic words enter different synonymic series. Build these
series according to the common meaning that they share. Define the synonymic
dominant.
   1. be
   2. remain
   3. persist
   4. rest
   5. stay
   6. stay on

Meaning and usage
  1) e.g. stay the same; remain in a certain state stay, remain, rest, be
  2) continue in a place, position, or situation ………………………
  3) be left; of persons, questions, problems, results, evidence, etc.
     ……………………
  4) stay behind …………………………



Now study the difference between the synonyms STAY and REMAIN.

remain - stay
      Remain and stay are often used with the same meaning. Remain is more
formal than stay.
      To remain or stay in a particular state means to continue to be in that state.
         Oliver remained silent.
         I stayed awake.
      If you remain or stay in a place, you do not leave it.
          Fewer women these days stay at home to look after their children.
       If something still exists, you can say that it remains. You do not say that it
`stays'.
          Even today remnants of this practice remain.
       If you stay in a town, hotel, or house, you live there for a short time.
          She was staying in the same hotel as I was.
       You do not use remain with this meaning.


Exercise 11
Define, whether STAY and REMAIN are:
   1. full or partial synonyms;
   2. synonyms with identical or different combinability

Exercise 12
Choose the right word (STAY or REMAIN); sometimes either can be used. Be
careful to use the correct grammar form of the word.
          1) I have done three exercises and two ….
          2) The place was so nice that we decided to … there all summer.
          3) Few leaves … on the trees and they are not green any longer.
          4) I was allowed to … at home.
          5) He was cut off from what … of his family.
          6) How long can you … in Brussels?



HOMONYMY
Exercise 13
Read the sentences aloud and translate them. Find homonyms and define
their type.
1. Excuse my going first, I’ll lead the way. 2. Lead is heavier that iron. 3. He tears
up all letters. 4. Her eyes filled with tears. 5. In England the heir to the throne is
referred to as the Prince of Wales. 6. Let’s go out and have some fresh air. 7. It is
not customary to shake hands in England. If the hostess or the host offers a hand,
take it; a bow is sufficient for the rest. 8. The girl had a bow of red ribbon in her
hair. 9. He took a suite at the hotel. 10. No sweet without some sweat. 11. What
will you have for dessert? 12. The sailors did not desert the ship. 13. In England
monarchs reign but do not rule. 14. The rain in Spain stays mainly in the plain.
Exercise 14
Find pairs of homonyms whose meaning is given below:
   1. What word means weapons and are also parts of the body?
   2. What word means to get down from and also means to be on fire?
   3. What word is a group of musicians and also describes a thin strip for
      binding?
   4. What word describes a round object and is also a formal dance?
   5. What word describes the sound a dog makes, tree covering and also a
      sailboat?
   6. What word means the land along a river, the place where financial
      transactions take place and also means a row of things?
   7. What word is a large animal, and also means to support or carry?
   8. What word means to hit hard and also means to send out a stream of air?
   9. What word means good quality and is also the money paid as punishment?
   10.What word means solid or hard and also is a business or company?
More difficult words and not only homographs:
e.g. ungenerous/ a facial expression – mean/mien
   11.a bucket/ almost colorless
   12.a male child/ a circular object thrown to a drowning man
   13.time to go to sleep/ a noble soldier on horseback
   14.a story/ the movable growth at the back of the animal
   15.a low voice/ foundation
   16.to inter/ a small fruit
   17.an oriental country/ a large bird
   18.honest/ the price a passenger pays
   19.a very big mammal that lives in the sea/ to cry out
   20.a manner of walking/ it closes an opening in the wall or fence
   21.loss or wrong use/ the narrow part of a human body
   22.a person who inherits somebody’s property/ the space above the ground
   23.a liquid substance giving flavour to food/ a place from which something
      comes
   24.a kind of fruit/ two
head of the town council/ a female horse
    IV.4 MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE ENGLISH WORD.
    TYPES OF MORPHEMES: PRACTICAL TASKS AND EXERCISES
   SELF-CHECK AND CONSOLIDATION QUESTIONS
   1. What is a morpheme?
   2. What is the difference between the bound and the free morphemes?
   3. What is the difference between the root and the affix?
   4. What are derivative words and non-derivative words?
   5. What are simple words and compound words?
   6. What are full words and contracted words?
   7. What is affixation as a model of word building?
   8. What is back-formation as a model of word building?
   9. What is conversion as a model of word building?
   10. What is composition as a model of word building?
   11. What is shortening as a model of word building?
   12. What is the difference between clipping, blending and abbreviation?

Exercise 1
Split the following words into morphemes and define their type.
E.g.:undivided
un- prefix, bound morpheme
divid(e)- — root, free morpheme
-ed — grammatical suffix, bound morpheme

   1)   shorten
   2)   power
   3)   immovable
   4)   criticized
   5)   secretaries

AFFIXATION

Exercise 2
 Make a proper word to fill in the blank.
Affixes to be used in the word:
-ment -hood -ish -less -like -able -proof         -ed    -ly   dis-


child
        1) He was remembering a story heard in his __childhood____. (period of
           life when a person is a child)
        2) She is very ______ and selfish. (immature)
        3) Thousand of ______ couples come to this doctor with a hope. (having no
           children)
        4) She looked at me with big, ______ eyes. (with appearance of a child)
       5) A medicine chest should be secure and ______. (ensuring that children
          cannot access it)
agree
   1. I’ve gone out of my way to be ______ to my boss. (pleasant and trying to
      please other people)
   2. All the government members are ______ that something should be done
      about the situation. (being of the same opinion)
   3. We can't go on unless we have his ______ .(same opinion, joint decision)
   4. Orange juice seems to ______ with some babies (makes to feel unwell)
   5. The taste is bitter and ______ sour. (of unpleasant quality)

Exercise 3
Fill each space in the sentences below with the correct form of the word in
bold print about it. .
E.g. decide
(a) We must come to a _____ very soon.
(b) We beat them_____ . We won 7:0.
(c) He can never make up his mind. He's very_______.

Answers:
(a) decision         (b) decisively        (c) indecisive

1     beauty
(a)   She is very _____ .
(b)   She's training to be a _____ .
(c)   They're going to_____ the town with more trees and parks.

2     pay
(a)   To buy this car I made a monthly _____ of £280 for two years.
(b)   Please make your cheque _____ to John Watson.
(c)   The person a cheque is made out to is called the _____ .

3 receive
(a) She works as a _____ . at a hotel in Scotland
(b) Ask for a_____ when you buy something, in case you need to return it.
(c) I made several suggestions to improve production, but the management was
not very _____ to my ideas.

4     hero
(a)   He received a medal for his_____ .
(b)   They fought _____ in the war.
(c)   She was described as a______.

5 produce
(a) _____ of the new sports car has been halted by a strike.
(b) China is one of the world's leading _____ of rice
(c) I'm afraid the talks were totally _____. We didn't reach agreement on
anything.

6     explain
(A)     An _____ leaflet is given to all purchasers of the machine.
(b)    His disappearance is very strange, in fact quite_____.
(c)    I think you owe me an _____ for your behaviour.

7 compare
(a) This is _____. better than that. In fact, there is really no _____.
(b) Scientists have made_____ tests on the new drugs.

8 advise
(a) Until the situation has settled down, it is _____ to travel to that country.
(b) The government set up an _____ body on the use of drugs in sport.
(c) I doubt the _____ of drinking alcohol while undergoing that medical
treatment

9     admire
(a)   She was a pleasant, attractive girl, always surrounded by _____ .
(b)   I am full of_____ for what she has achieved.
(c)   I approve of him wholeheartedly. He is an _____ man.

10 stable
(a) To _____ the boat in rough sea, we redistributed the weight.
(b) Between 1860 and 1900 the country had a number of revolutions and
uprisings. It was a time of great _____ .
(c) The exchange rate is going up and down dramatically. It's very _____ at the
moment.

11    economy
(a)   We're spending too much. We must _____.
(b)   This car uses a lot of petrol. It's terribly _____.
(c)   The Chancellor (Minister of Finance) is responsible for_____ affairs.

12    reside
(a)   This is the President's official _____.
(b)   There's no industry or entertainment nere. It's a _____ district.
(c)   All _____ of the neighbouring houses were warned of the gas leak

13    comfort
(a)   In that tense situation I found the good news very _____ .
(b)   I felt rather _____, so I put a soft cushion behind me.
(c)   She sat in terrible _____ on the hard chair for over an hour
14    dead
(a)   The increasing number of _____ in traffic accidents is alarming.
(b)   Be careful! That's a _____ poison!
(c)   The doctor gave him an injection to _____ the pain.

15 demonstrate
(a) The _____ marched through the streets chanting slogans.
(b) Grandfather rarely showed the affection he felt for his family. He was a very
_____person.
(c) What you say is_____ false. Let me show you the facts.

COMPOSITION
Exercise 5

Compound Adjectives
Warm-hearted means kind, considerate.
Can you match the correct words from the first two columns, and then match the
compound adjective with its definition from the column three?
1                      2                          3
tight-                 minded                     mean (with money)
two-                   sighted                    bossy
narrow-                skinned                    good at planning
thick-                 headed                     obstinate
high-                  fisted                     hypocritical
pig-                   faced                      insensitive
far-                   handed                     intolerant

What semantic and syntactic type do these compound adjectives belong to?

Exercise 6

Rewrite each of the sentences below, forming a compound adjective from the two
words in italics and making any other changes necessary.
E.g.         The journey took ten hours. — It was a ten-hour journey.
             They make these chocolates by hand. — These chocolates are hand-
made.
              Her hat caught everyone's eye. — She wore an eye-catching hat.
             The doctor was trained in Germany. — He's a German-trained doctor.
             The memory was both bitter and sweet. — It was a bitter-sweet
memory.
1
(a) That thing looks dangerous.
(b) Mr Reed is an accountant who was born in London.
(c)    She always dresses very smartly.
(d)    It was painted red like the colour of bricks.
(e)    She had eyes like a cat.
(f)    It was an occasion which was happy and sad at the same time.
(g)    The tower has a shape like a mushroom.
 (h)    He was famous all over the world.
(i)    We had to write a composition of 200 words.

2
(a)        The meal tasted awful.
(b)        Only planes with a single engine can land here.
(c)        A building of five storeys suddenly collapsed.
(d)        We walked along a corridor which had a red carpet.
(e)        This machine is operated by hand.
(1)         The new director is an economist educated at Oxford.
(g)        He has very broad shoulders.
(h)        She's always very satisfied with herself.
(i)         My sister is very conscious of dress.
3
(a)        We'll have a guide who speaks French.
(b)        The walls were as blue as the sky,
(c)        I looked at the sea, which was rather blue but also rather green.
(d)        The ship sailed with a crew of eight men.
(e)        She had fair hair.
(f)        The new machinery, built in America, will arrive next month.
(g)        I heard a voice that sounded strange.
(h)        These tigers eat men.
(i)         He always has a bad temper.

(From B.J. Thomas Advanced Vocabulary and Idiom)

CONVERSION
Exercise 7
Conversion is the derivational process whereby an item changes its word-class
without the addition of an affix. Conversion is particularly common in English
because the basic form of nouns and verbs is identical in many cases.

Find cases of conversion in the following sentences. Indicate the part of speech
of the words derived by conversion and guess their meaning.

      1.    The Army would radio the location to the nearest airstrip.
      2.    We summered in Kashmir.
      3.    They pensioned him off when they found a younger man for the job.
      4.    You aren’t down. Nothing will down you.
      5.    It doesn’t interfere with your own likes and dislikes.
   6. When did you get the invite, Mother?
   7. It has been quite a wait before he heard her voice.
   8. The detectives tailed the thief to the station.

CLIPPING
Exercise 8
Many of the words in the English language are shortened forms of longer
words. For instance, the word "modem" is the shortened form of "modulator-
demodulator." Guess the full form of the words from which the following
clipped words were formed.

   1. pants
   2. movie
   3. limo
   4. math
   5. flu
   6. auto
   7. burger
   8. ad
   9. varsity
   10.lab
   11.lunch
   12.memo
   13.mum
   14.typo


PORTMANTEAU WORDS

The standard linguistic term for this type of word is a blend. It was Lewis Carroll
in Through The Looking Glass who coined the word portmanteau to describe them.
In the book Humpty Dumpty explains that: "Well, 'slithy' means 'lithe and slimy'.
'Lithe' is the same word as 'active'. You see, it's like a portmanteau - there are two
meanings packed into one word." Among several other words Carroll created
chortle (a combination of 'chuckle' and 'snort') and galumph (a combination of
'gallop' and 'triumph').

So, a portmanteau or blend word is one derived by combining portions of two or
more separate words. Interestingly, portmanteau itself is a blend word, originating
from the French portemanteau, a compound formed from porter (to carry) and
manteau (cloak).

Exercise 9
Now guess the full form of the words from which the following portmanteau
words were formed.
1. advertainment
2. Beatles
3. bionic
4. bit
5. blog
6. camcorder
7. docudrama
8. email
9. fanzine
10.freeware
11.malware
12.pulsar
13.Spanglish
14.sitcom
15.webinar
    V.4 WORD COMBINATIONS. PHRASEOLOGY: PRACTICAL TASKS
    AND EXERCISES.
   SELF-CHECK AND CONSOLIDATION QUESTIONS

   1. What are the differences between free and set (phraseological) word
      combinations?
   2. What word-combinations can be considered idioms?
   3. What is a cliché?
   4. What is a proverb?


Exercise 1. Which of the following word combinations in bold are set phrases?
Classify them according to the semantic approach. What ensures the stability
of their components?

             1) Where do you think you lost your purse?
             2) Don't lose you lose your temper when you talk to her.
             3) Have a look at the reverse side of the coat.
             4) The reverse side of the medal is that we’ll have to do it ourselves.
             5) Keep the butter in the refrigerator.
             6) Keep an eye on the child.

Exercise 2

Numeral idiom quiz.
Fill in the blanks with proper numerals to make an idiom with the specified
meaning.

ONE TWO THREE FOUR(S) FIVE                   SIX(ES) SEVEN(S) NINE            TEN

   1) She crawled on all _____ to the window = on her knees, feet and hands.
   2) He is at _____ and _____ = He is confused and doesn’t know what to do.
   3) He puts _____ and _____ together.= He begins to draw conclusions about
      something
   4) He looks out for number _____ = He only thinks about his interests.
   5) "the _____ R's." = The basics of education
   6) He has a _____ o'clock shadow. = A man hasn't shaved for a day or two
   7) Things that are very cheap and common are _____ a penny.
   8) This four bedroom home, located in Country Club Estates, is completed and
      ready to move in. This home has "the whole _____ yards" in convenience.'
      (=all of it)

Exercise 2
Color idiom quiz
       Many expressions and idioms in English are based on colours. Can you fit
the correct expression into each sentence? The meaning of each expression is
shown in brackets.
out of the blue                        saw red
in black and white                     once in the blue moon
in the red                             browned off

         1) I’ve overspent this month and I’m _____.(owing money in the bank)
         2) The manager said he would consider my complaint if I put it down
            _____.(in writing)
         3) She used to visit me every week, but now I only see her _____.( very
            occasionally)
         4) I hadn’t heard form my brother for years and last week I got a letter
            from him _____. ( very unexpectedly)
         5) He says that he is very _____ (depressed) because he doesn’t enjoy
            his job.
         6) I listened to his stupid argument for about ten minutes and suddenly I
            _____. (lost my temper)
II KEYS
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ENGLISH VOCABULARY
Exercise 1.
A) Formal register (an official letter); examples of officialese/literary words: am
acknowledging; receipt; assistance etc.
B) Informal register (an extract from a movie script (American Pie)); examples of
colloquial/slang words: bet; hit books; guy; kid
C) Formal register (an extract from a book on microbiology); examples of learned
words/terms: integrity; cytoplasm; dissolved substances etc.
D) Formal register (an extract from a famous poem Raven by E.A. Poe); examples
of literary/poetic/archaic words: dreary; 'Tis; wrought; morrow; surcease

Exercise 2.
Formal           Informal
purchase         handy
resume           loo
thus             terrific
commence         quid
apprehend        reckon
                 guy

purchase-buy; handy-convenient; loo-toilet; resume-start again; thus-therefore;
terrific/fantastic; quid-pound; commence-start; apprehend-catch; reckon-think;
guy-man

Exercise 3.
  1. When are you going to pick up your bike?
  2. Most of the kids are very bright.
  3. I reckon it'll start pretty soon.
  4. Do you fancy going out for a meal?
  5. My flat is five minutes from where I work, so it's very handy.
  6. What's up?
  7. The guy in the market wanted 20 quid for this ring.
  8. Where did you buy/get that book?
  9. They'll never catch him.
  10.I'm just going to the loo.

Exercise 4.
 We regret to inform you that we are unable to lend you the sum of £500 that you
require, but it may be possible to grant you a loan for part of the sum.
If you are still interested, would you like to contact our main office to arrange an
appointment with the assistant manager. He will be happy to discuss the matter
further.
Exercise 5.
  1. drunk
  2. man
  3. car
  4. cup of
  5. amazed


CHANGES IN ENGLISH VOCABULARY

Exercise 6.

   1.   cooking by microwave oven
   2.   a building which houses a number of different cinemas
   3.   skiing uphill
   4.   high-ranking, powerful members of international organizations
   5.   the study of humor


Exercise 7.
dollarize (verb; affixation)
For a country to abandon its national currency in favour of the U.S. dollar.

cosplay (noun; blending of costume and play)
A play or skit in which fans dress up as their favorite Japanese cartoon characters.

extreme tourism (noun; compound word)
Tourism that involves travelling to dangerous places or participating in dangerous
events.
—extreme tourist
THE STRUCTURE OF MEANING, TYPES OF MEANING
Exercise 1
(2) say
Lexical meaning: to speak, pronounce
Grammatical meaning: a finite verb, plural, third person, Present Simple
(3) location's
Lexical meaning: a site or position
Grammatical meaning: a noun, singular, possessive
(4) will feature
Lexical meaning: to give prominence to
Grammatical meaning: a finite verb, future simple.
(5) visitors
Lexical meaning: a person who visits
Grammatical meaning: a noun, plural number

Exercise 2
2. turbulent
3. acting with or characterized by violence
4. shaggy
5. difficult
6. difficult or unpleasant
7. approximate or tentative
8. not elaborated, perfected, or corrected; unpolished

Exercise 3
Sample variants
2. He thinks he is smarter than me.
3. We spent the night in the smart club.
4. He is smart and well groomed but not good-looking.
5. He moved with smart steps.

Exercise 4
soup
  1 General, direct meaning
  2 Figurative meaning

cite (verb)
[citing, cited]
1. General, direct meaning
2. Special meaning (term)

CHANGE OF WORD MEANING
Exercise 5
         2) metaphor (similarity of form)
         3) metaphor (similarity of form)
         4) metaphor (similarity of function)
         5) metaphor (similarity of form, function)
         6) metaphor (similarity of form, function)
         7) metaphor (similarity of quality, age)
         8) metaphor (complex associations based on synaesthesia)
         9) metonymy (material/thing made of material)
         10)     metonymy (producer/thing produced)
         11)     metonymy (place of origin/thing)

Exercise 6
Define in which sentences the underlined words are used in the metaphorical
or metonymical shifted meaning.
         1) I went to kick the ball and I completely missed it . (direct)
         2) I immediately regretted having said this. I could have kicked myself.
            (metaphorical = annoyed that you got something wrong).
         3) He stirred his coffee with a spoon. (direct)
         4) She likes her tea with two spoons of sugar. (metonimical = measure)
         5) Some sharks have very sharp teeth and may attack people. (direct)
         6) Beware the sharks when you are making up your mind how to invest
            (metaphorical = people, who treat other people out of their money).
         7) He fumbled with the buttons at the neck. (direct)
         8) He fumbled his lines, not knowing what he was going to say.
            (metaphorical = speak in a clumsy and unclear way)

Exercise 7
         1)   Jeckyll and Hyde
         2)   Sherlock Holmes
         3)   Big Brother
         4)   Little Lord Fauntleroy
         5)   Cinderella
         6)   Tarzan
         7)   Walter Mitty
         8)   Rip Van Winkle

SYNONYMY
Exercise 8.
  a) tongue—language. If you have a look in a dictionary, you will see that these
     two words have only one meaning in common: 1) a body of words and the
     systems for their use common to a people of the same community or nation,
     e.g. mother/native tongue, native language etc.
  b) dear—expensive. Common meaning: sold for a high price, precious
  c) ripe—mature. Common meaning: characterized by full development of body
     or mind

Exercise 9
a) sick - ill
       Ill and sick are both used to say that someone has a disease or some other
problem with their health.        e.g. Davis is ill. A sick child.
In British English ill is used only after a link verb and is not used before a noun.
          Your uncle is very sick.
b) Alive is never used in front of a noun. Instead living to talk about people, or live
to talk about animals.
          I have no living relatives.
          There are many problems in transporting live animals.
c) You can often use every or all with the same meaning. For example, `Every dog
should be registered' means the same as `All dogs should be registered'.
       However, every is followed by the singular form of a noun, whereas all is
followed by the plural form.

Exercise 10
1. stay, remain, rest, be
usage: stay the same; remain in a certain state; "The dress remained wet after
repeated attempts to dry it"; "rest assured"; "stay alone"; "He remained unmoved
by her tears"; "The bad weather continued for another week"
2. stay, stay on, continue, remain, be
usage: continue in a place, position, or situation; "After graduation, she stayed on
in Cambridge as a student adviser"; "Stay with me, please"; "despite student
protests, he remained Dean for another year"; "She continued as deputy mayor for
another year"
3. remain, be
usage: be left; of persons, questions, problems, results, evidence, etc.; "There
remains the question of who pulled the trigger"; "Carter remains the only President
in recent history under whose Presidency the U.S. did not fight a war"
4. persist, remain, stay
usage: stay behind; "The smell stayed in the room"; "The hostility remained long
after they made up"

Exercise 11
Define, whether STAY and REMAIN are:
   1. partial synonyms: only some of their meanings coincide
   2. different combinability: ‘remain’ cannot be used in expressions stay in the
      hotel/city

Exercise 12
Choose the right word (STAY or REMAIN); sometimes either can be used. Be
careful to use the correct grammar form of the word.

          1) I have done three exercises and two remain.
         2) The place was so nice that we decided to stay/remain there all
            summer.
         3) Few leaves remained on the trees and they are not green any longer.
         4) I was allowed to remain/stay at home.
         5) He was cut off from what remained of his family.
         6) How long can you stay in Brussels?

HOMONYMY
Exercise 13
1,2 lead/lead (homographs)
3,4 tears/ tears (homographs)
5,6 heir/air (homophones)
7,8 bow/bow (homographs)
9, 10 suite/sweet (homophones)
11,12 dessert/desert (homophones)
13,14 reign/rain (homophones)

Exercise 14
  1. arms
  2. alight
  3. band
  4. ball
  5. bark
  6. bank
  7. bear
  8. blow
  9. fine
  10.firm
  11.pail/pale
  12.boy/buoy
  13.night/knight
  14.tale/tail
  15.bass/base
  16.bury/berry
  17.Turkey/turkey
  18.fair/fare
  19.whale/wail
  20.gait/gate
  21.waste/waist
  22.heir/air
  23.sauce/source
  24.pear/pair
  25.mayor/mare
MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE ENGLISH WORD. TYPES OF
MORPHEMES.
Exercise 1
  1) short — root, free; -en — derivational suffix, bound
  2) power — root, free
  3) im- — prefix, bound; mov(e) — root, free; -able — derivational suffix
  4) critic — root, free; -ize — derivational suffix, bound; -ed — inflectional
     suffix
  5) secretari(/y) — root, free; -es — inflectional suffix

AFFIXATION
Exercise 2
child
   1) childhood
   2) childish
   3) childless
   4) childlike
   5) childproof

agree
   1) agreeable
   2) agreed
   3) agreement
   4) disagree
   5) disagreeably

Exercise 3

1 a) beautiful b) beautician c) beautify
2 a) payment b) payable c) payee
3 a) receptionist b) receipt c) receptive
4 a) heroism b) heroically c) heroine
5 a) production b) producers c) unproductive
6 a) explanatory b) inexplicable c) explanation
7 a) incomparably, comparison b) comparative
8 a) inadvisable b) advisory c) advisability
9 a) admirers b) admiration c) admirable
10 a) stabilise b) instability c) unstable
11 a) economise b) uneconomical c) economic
12 a) residence b) residential c) residents
13 a) comforting b) uncomfortable c) discomfort
14 a) deaths b) deadly c) deaden
15 a) demonstrators b) undemonstrative c) demonstrably
Exercise 5
tight-fisted = mean (with money)
two-faced = hypocritical
narrow-minded = intolerant
thick-skinned = insensitive
high-handed = bossy
pig-headed = obstinate
far-sighted = good at planning

Exercise 6
1 a) That's a dangerous-looking thing, b) Mr Reed is a London-born accountant, c)
She is always very smartly-dressed, d) It was painted a brick-red colour. e) She had
cat-like eyes f) It was a happy-sad occasion, g) The tower is mushroom-shaped, h)
He was world-famous, i) We had to write a 200-word composition.
2 a) It was an awful-tasting meal, b) Only single-engine/single-engined planes can
land here, c) A five-storey building suddenly collapsed ) We walked along a red-
carpeted corridor, e) This machine is hand-operated, f) The new director is an
Oxford-educated economist, g) He is very broad-shouldered, h) She's always very
self-satisfied i) My sister is very dress-conscious.
3 a) We'll have a French-speaking guide, b) The walls were sky-blue, c) I looked at
the sea, which was blue-green, d) The ship sailed with an eight-man crew, e) She
was fair-haired, f) The new, American-built, machinery will arrive next month, g) I
heard a strange-sounding voice, h) These are man-eating tigers, i) He is always
bad-tempered.

CONVERSION
Exercise 7
  1. The Army would radio the location to the nearest airstrip. = verb, ‘to
     transmit by radio’
  2. We summered in Kashmir = verb, ‘to spend summer in some place’
  3. They pensioned him off when they found a younger man for the job. = verb,
     ‘to retire or dismiss with a pension’
  4. You aren’t down. Nothing will down you. = verb, ‘to bring, put, strike, or
     throw down’
  5. It doesn’t interfere with your own likes and dislikes. = ‘a favourable feeling,
     desire, or preference’; ‘feeling of distaste or aversion’
  6. When did you get the invite, Mother? = noun, ‘an invitation.’
  7. It has been quite a wait before he heard her voice. = noun, ‘the act of
     waiting or the time spent waiting’
  8. The detectives tailed the thief to the station. to follow closely

CLIPPING
Exercise 8
  1. pants         pantaloons
  2. movie               moving picture
   3. limo         limousine
   4. math         mathematics
   5. flu          influenza
   6. auto         automobile
   7. burger             hamburger
   8. ad           advertisement
   9. varsity            university
   10.lab          laboratory
   11.lunch        luncheon
   12.memo               memorandum
   13.mum          chrysanthemum
   14.typo         typographical error

PORTMANTEAU WORDS
Exercise 9

   1. advertainment      advertisement + entertainment
   2. Beatles            beat + beetles
   3. bionic                    biology + electronic
   4. bit                binary + digit
   5. blog               web + log
   6. camcorder          camera + recorder
   7. docudrama          documentary + drama
   8. email              electronic + mail
   9. fanzine            fan + magazine
   10.freeware           free + software
   11.malware            malicious + software
   12.pulsar             pulsating + star
   13.Spanglish          Spanish + English
   14.sitcom                    situation + comedy
   15.webinar            web + seminar

WORD COMBINATIONS. PHRASEOLOGY.
Exercise 1
  1) lost your purse - it is a free word combination, as it allows any
      combinations without change of the basic (denotative) meaning of words,
      e.g. lost you bag, found your purse etc.
  2) lose your temper – it is a set (phraseological) word combination, as the
      meaning of the word ‘lose’ in this combination is not direct but figurative (=
      to become angry).
  3) reverse side of the coat - it is a free word combination, as it allows any
      combinations without change of the basic (denotative) meaning of words,
      e.g. reverse side of the dress
  4) reverse side of the medal - it is a set (phraseological) word combination, as
     the meaning of the words in this combination is not direct but figurative (=
     other side of the matter)
  5) Keep the butter - it is a free word combination, as it allows any
     combinations without change of the basic (denotative) meaning of words,
     e.g. keep the cheese in the refrigerator etc.
  6) Keep an eye - it is a set (phraseological) word combination, as the meaning
     of the words in this combination is not direct but figurative (= to watch
     closely or carefully)

Exercise 2
  1) fours
  2) sixes and sevens
  3) two and two
  4) one
  5) three
  6) five
  7) ten
  8) nine

Exercise 3
  1) in the red
  2) in black and white
  3) once in the blue mood
  4) out of the blue
  5) browned off
  6) saw red