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PIKES PEAK OR BUST

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					PIKES PEAK OR BUST
PIKES PEAK OR BUST
GOLD
 Why Gold is Valuable
Rare
Indestructible-Does not tarnish
Medium of exchange (most societies accept
this as money)
Can’t reproduce it
Malleable-Can be broken
 to any size
Gold is gold-Pure in form unlike diamonds (A
karat is 1/24 part of pure gold-24K=Pure gold)
      Major Gold Finds

1828-Georgia-Led to Indian dispersal (Trail of
Tears)
1848 Sutter’s Mill near Sacramento Ca.
1859-Pike’s Peak area
1859-Va. City Nevada-Gold and silver found
1863-Montana
1876-Black Hills of S.D.
1890’s-Klondike of Alaska;Canada in Yukon
area
Conclusion?
        Placer Mining
Surface mining
Panning
Needs water
Sluice Box
Long Tom
Sluice box
  HARD ROCK MINING
Underground -- load mining
Veins were
underground
Required expensive
equipment (brought
from east)
Shafts, tunnels
Quartz had to be
crushed to get gold
ore
      MINING TOWNS
Sprung up overnight
Colorful names-Whiskey Creek, Poker Flat
Tailings left as a monument to ambition and
greed
Crammed into small narrow valleys
Towns were made of wood and tents; few of
brick
     MINING TOWNS
Needed volunteer fire dept
Most burned at least once
Many types of business
Predominance of saloons-Leadville had
82 at one time
Gambling was the vice
What Kinds of people were
needed to support miners?
Blacksmiths      Barbers
Bakers           Gunsmiths
Saloon keepers   Liverers
Butchers         Assayers
Bankers          Lawyers
Retailers        Hotel owners
Leadville
             MINERS

Dreamers             All types of people
                     (lawyers, priests)
Risk takers
                     Hopeless situations left
Lived in hope        many despondent
Most knew nothing    Not glamorous
about mining         Few independent
Most were not rich   miners
(long hours for      Suicide epidemic in
                     Denver
$1.85/day)
                     Former 49ers
     SPRING OF 1859
100,000 59ers rushed west; 25,000 stayed
No time to organize governments-miners
formed their own mining districts, laws and
courts
Mining camps led to many other businesses
(storekeepers, Blacksmiths, saloonkeepers,
bootmakers, carpenters, lawyers, doctors,
teachers and ministers)
              59ers
Fall Leaf, who was an army scout,
returned to Kansas with gold
This led to the Lawrence group coming
to Colorado
A group from Oklahoma (Wm. Green
Russell) found several hundred dollars
in gold and brought others out here
Led to the cry “Pike’s Peak or Bust”
FIRST GOLD STRIKES
Idaho Springs
Gold Hill (above Boulder)
Central City (Black Hawk)
          GOVERNMENT
Pioneers had created their own mining districts.
Now decided to create own territory instead of
belonging to Kansas and Nebraska.
Congress refused to accept this territory called the
Jefferson Territory
Slavery kept from becoming a territory because
South did not want Colorado to become a free
state.
When the South seceded Colorado was made a
territory on February 28,1861. President Lincoln
selected William Gilpin as the first governor
REASONS FOR GROWTH
     OF DENVER
Location was the key
 Last outpost before the Rockies
 Supply and service trade center for the
  gold rush
 Junction of Cherry Creek and the Platte
  River as well as being close to Clear Creek
  County
EARLY SETTLEMENTS
Russell-Englewood
Montana City-5 miles south of the
capital
St Charles-Cherry Creek and Platte
Denver-Jumped St Charles claim
Auraria-South side of Cherry Creek
Auraria
                      St Charles

          Denver
          (Larimer)
    OTHER FACTORS
Transcontinental railroad to go through
Wyoming; Denver leaders, led by John
Evans, built the Denver Pacific Railroad
to connect Denver with Cheyenne
Silver Boom (1864-1894) brought silver
kings to Denver and brought Denver a
new social class-Molly Brown, Baby
Doe Tabor
OTHER FACTORS CONT.
Sheep and cattle ranching and farming-
packing houses and stockyards
Marketing, distribution and coinage
center (Denver Mint-1860)
Stages came to Denver and freight
trains brought supplies here
SURVIVED DISASTERS
1863-Fire destroyed the center of
Denver (70 buildings rebuilt in brick)
1864-Cherry Creek flooded-buildings,
including Rocky Mountain News were
washed away. 11 killed
           LEADVILLE
1860-Gold found in this area
Established as Oro City
10,000 people here by 1861
Horace Tabor and his wife Augusta
were some of the first arrivals into this
area and Augusta was the first woman
in the area and would remain the only
one for quite some time
               TABOR
Horace Tabor had been to many of the gold
camps (Idaho Springs, Central City) with no
luck. He finally struck for $7,000
He opened a general store, became the
postmaster and also the mayor. As mayor he
played a role in naming the town “Leadville”
Tabor grubstaked many of the miners-Food
and supplies for a part of their claim
This area began to fade after the initial gold
rush of the 1860’s
           LEADVILLE
One major problem was a heavy black sand
that kept clogging the sluice boxes. Analyzed
in 1876 and it was carbonate of lead-loaded
with silver
Earlier silver, lead and zinc were looked upon
as a nuisance-no market
Increasing industrial activity and
governmental purchases increased the value
The silver rush was on
         LEADVILLE
Population
 1877-200 People
 1878-5,000 people

 1880-30,000 people
 Leadville built an
Ice Palace in 1896
      Ice Palace Cont’d
Built in 36 days with
5,000 ton of ice
Housed:
   Ball room
   180 ft ice rink
   Curling rink
   Restaurant
   Dance floor
   Gaming room
   Theatre
   Toboggan runs
           LEADVILLE
Tabor grubstaked two shoe cobblers. Result
of this grubstake was “The Little Pittsburgh”
which brought Tabor $20,000/wk. Sold his
share for $500,000
“Matchless” produced $10,000,000 worth of
silver
Bought a mansion in Denver but spent most
of his time in Leadville
         LEADVILLE
Noticed Elizabeth McCourt-Baby Doe
Secret divorce in Durango and secretly
married Elizabeth in St. Louis
Durango priest had refused to sign
divorce papers-living in sin led to a
scandal and not complete acceptance
from Denver’s social elite
             TABORS
Spent lavishly until silver crashed in 1893
Horace became postmaster in Denver for
$3,000/year
He died 16 months later and 14,000 attended
his funeral
He told Baby Doe to hold on to the Matchless.
She turned into a reclusive old woman who
eventually froze to death in the cabin by the
Matchless mine.
          LEADVILLE
By the end of the silver rush Leadville
had given over $500,000,000 worth of
ore
The hills had also been stripped of their
trees and tailings were everywhere
        GEORGETOWN
1859 Had a minor gold rush
Became Colorado’s first silver queen
Belmont-Lode was the first silver mine in the state
The first power drill was also used here
August 1877 the Colorado Central came to
Georgetown. The Georgetown Loop was a narrow
gauge went from Georgetown to Silver Plume
Silver Plume is 1.5 miles from Georgetown and
1,000ft higher yet it took 3 years and 4.5 miles of
track to complete
      GEORGETOWN
Georgetown became the shopping
center, distribution center and
transportation center for the district
Over $100,000,000 worth of ore taken
out of Georgetown
At one time the only town in Colorado
without a mayor
              ASPEN
Only camp to rival Leadville
Silver gave Aspen it’s start
Almost passed Leadville in the 1890’s
Had the richest ore-93%
Largest nugget ever found-over 1 ton.1840lbs
after it was trimmed
Population went over 15,000
1893 depression and the population dropped
to 700
      CRIPPLE CREEK
In the shadow of Pike’s Peak
Pike’s Peak had given it’s name to the gold
rush yet none had been found there
1890’s Cripple Creek became Colorado’s
greatest gold district
Bob Womack discovered gold here in the
1880’s taking the sting out of the silver crash
      CRIPPLE CREEK
Winfield Scott Stratton-Most famous
millionaire
His independence Mine (July 4,1891) made
several million before he sold for $10,000,000
(with no income tax)
Last of the great 19th century mining rushes
Mining was big business and miners began to
join labor unions
1894 strike over low pay and long hours led
to 8 hour days at $3/day
       SAND CREEK
        MASSACRE
1864-Indians had attacked
or at least blamed for an
attack outside of Denver
Gov. Evans wanted war
The Arapaho and Cheyenne
had surrendered all land
except for a triangular
shaped reservation between
the Arkansas River and
Sand Creek
        SAND CREEK
Chivington led a surprise attack and lost
control of his men
Resulted in a massacre
Investigated by Congress
Led to an attack at Julesburg
Approximately 150-184 killed
Mostly women, children and older men

				
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