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Project on Customer Perception Towards Private and Public Insurance Sector

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					1.Systems and Environment
    of the Public Sector
                                                                                              • Value: Productivity
                                                                                                Effectiveness ↔ Ethics, Responsiveness
                                                                                              • Practice: War on Poverty, NPA
                            Reinventing                                                         Great Society Program
                            Government,                               5. Program              • Theory: Operation Research
                                                                                                Cost-benefit analysis
             •••••          Productivity                             Effectiveness              Cost-effectiveness analysis, PPBS
      •••
                                      1. Honest,                                                          4. Human
                                     Businesslike
                                     Government                       Five Great                        Behaviorism
• Value: Neutrality, Businesslike                                       Ideas                                    • Value: Humanism
• Practice: Pendleton Act                                                                                        • Theory: Motivation
• Theory: Reform Movement.                                                                                         Behavioral Model
  Public Choice Theory                                                                                             Human Relation School
                                                     2. Classic                        3. Politics and             Organization Development School
  Dichotomy
                                                    Management                         Policy Making
                                                       Model                               Model
                                                • Value: Efficiency                              • Value: Politics, Policy
                                                • Practice: Brownlow Committee                   • Practice: Sunset Law
                                                • Theory: Closed Model                           • Theory: P.A=Politics+Management
                                                  Scientific Management                            Bureaucratic Politics(Iron Triangle)
                                                  Bureaucratic Model(Weber)                        Decision Making Theory
                                                  Ten Principles(Urwicks)
                                                  POSDCORB(Gulic)


                                                                                   PI Model
                                       ROF Model                                                                                          ROF Model
            COF Model

    1890           1900             1910      1920         1930         1940         1950          1960          1970           1980          1990
                                     Dichotomy:             Dichotomy          Rejection
                   Politics
                     &
                Administration                              Hierarchical      Structural         Legitimacy
                                    Accountability:        Accountability     Mechanism            of P.A.



                 Bureaucracy        Most Rational            Bounded          Instrumental       Democratic
                     &                 Mode                 Rationality        Rationality       Principles
                 Democracy

                                        Bureaucratic                Public Choice              Humanistic
                                          Model                                                Approach
Organization     Organization
                     &
  Theory         Management                                                                  Organizational
                                      Generic Theory                Incrementalism
                                                                                               Learning


                   Theory             Scientific             Logical          Interpretive         Critical
                      &               Approach              Positivism          Theory          Social Theory
                   Practice



               Theories of Public       Within Political
                                                                     As a Part of
                                           Science
                                                                     Management              As a Profession
                 Organization                                          Theory
                       Wilson (1887)
             • Academic Field of P.A.                                     Productivity
             • Politics-Admin. Dichotomy

                           Goodnow (1900)
                  • Politics-Admin. Dichotomy
                  • Two Functions

                                 Taylor (1912)
                       • Scientific Management
                       • The one best way

The Field of Study                 Willoughby (1918)
                             • Executive Budgeting System                                Budgeting Theory
                             • Budget Reform

                                            Weber (1922)
                                  • A set of Structural Arrangement.   Organization Theory
                                  • Politics-Admin. Dichotomy

                                                White (1926)
                                       • Academic Field of P.A.
                                       • Basis for the Study of P.A.

                                                    Follet (1926)                         Behaviorism
                                           • Law of Situation                      Participatory Management
                                           • Theory of Individuals
                                             within Organization
                               • Scientific Methodologies                                       • Human Behavior &
• Reform                       • Autocratic Organizational                                        Relations
• Administrative Neutrality      Structures                                                     • Participatory Management
• Dichotomy                    • Rational Decision Making      • Reconciliation with Politics   • Organizational Development

  Exploratory Period               Administration Science           Political Science            Public Administration


                                                         Paradigm
 Multidiscipline
• Law        • Political Science
• Sociology • Anthropology
• Psychology • Economics
• Business Administration
                                                   P.A. Pedagogy                            New Trends
• Management Science
                                                                                         • Impact of Electronic Information
                                                                                         • Self-Awareness in
                                                                                           Instructional Techniques
      Actors                                                                             • Ethics Dimension
• Teachers & Students                                                                    • Gender & Diversity
  - Professional & Personal                                                              • Literary & Artistic Environment
    Philosophies & Histories
                                                   Knowledge Base


   Orthodox School                   Behavioral School              Rational School                 Political School

• Scientific Management        • Organization Theory &         • Policy Analysis                • Public Programs
                                 Behavior                      • Management Science             • State and Local Government
                               • Bureaucracy                                                    • Values & Public Service
                               • Comparative P.A.
Traditional Public Administration                                         Postmodern Public Administration

                                                                Governing for the
                                                                                                         Polity: Inclusiveness of
                                                              betterment of Society                      Civic Society
               State

                                                               High Performance                                            Diverse
                                                                                                                           groups,
                                                                                                    Oppositional
                                                                                                                           minority,
                                                                                                    Civil Society
                                                                                                                           pluralism
           Bureaucracy                                          • Dialectical Exchanges




                                           Public Officials
                                                                • Trust




                                                                                          Citizen
       Citizen, Lay person                                      Social issues
                                                                                                    Active participation
                                                                     • Open                         Democratic Inclusion
                                                                                                                           Corporatism
                                                                     • Honest



     Governing State                 Normative Criteria for Democratic
                                     Deliberation (King, Feltey, Susel 1998)
     • Hierarchical relationship                                                                                 State Stability:
                                    • Directness
     • Direct, Command                                                                                           Selective Democracy
                                    • Shared Decision
     • Uniformity
                                    • Equal status
                                    • Collaborative Discussion                                              Election
                                                                                                                             vote
                 Classic
                 Bureaucratic
                 Model                            Conflict with Goals
                                                  and Resources



Top Level        Neo             Top Level
Management       Bureaucratic    Management       New Public
and              Model           and              Administration
Administrators                   Administrators                         Street Level
                                                                        Bureaucrats                 Citizens

                                                  Social Equity
“the             Institutional   “the
Bureaucracy”     Model           Bureaucracy”     Participation          Discretion                 Actual
                                                  Redefining             Citizen                    Behav.
                                                  Theories               Participation              Attitude

                                                  New Blood
                 Human                                                                   Conflict
                 Relations
                 Model




                 Public                             Determine Policies
                 Choice
                 Model




     1950‟s                       1960‟s           1970‟s                 1980‟s                        1990‟s
                                                                       - Politics and P.A.
                                                                       - Public v.s Private
                                                                   - Bureaucracy
                                                                   - Federalism
Definition                                                      - Structure
                                                   Organization - Informal Group
                           Media                                                       Citizen
Purpose

 Problem
 Solving      Social          Policy                  Implementation                          Outcome
 Process     Problems

                                                                         - Behavior
               Social                                                                            Academic
             Environment                           Management                                  Environment
                                                   Decision Making - Function
                                                                                              - Theory
                                                   Communication


                                         Finance                 Personnel
                      Political                                                        Economic
                    Environment        - Budgeting              - Motivation          Environment
                                       - Taxing                 - Leadership
                                       - Auditing
                                       - Accounting



              Philosophy:Value(Democracy, Efficiency v.s Responsiveness, Public v.s Private…)
              Definition: Purpose, Scope
              Ethics: Norm(Relationship Between Ethics and Public Services)
                 GOVERNMENT




Legislative     Executives            Constituencies
  Body           Offices

                                          Direct
                             Public
                                         Services
              Input          Agency
                                         (Output)
                           5
            4


                     Coordinate
    3                                           6
                        12



                                  Develop
                                                    7
         Promote                  People
2       Innovation                   11
            10
                                            8
        1
                               9
                Measure, Evaluate,
                   and Control

            Measure Results
                                                           Administrative
                                                             behavior


          Theory of organization                    Theory of decision making                          Historical & synthetic analysis


      Division                                                                                       Toward profession and already satisfies
      of work                                                                                                    some criteria

•Human nature, time, space                           Rational         Org-             Gov-
                                                      actor         process           politics
•Machinery                                                                                          Continuous debate about theory core, role,
                                                                                                                identity, content
•Material handled
•Three limits             Make
                        democracy                                   Process of
                                                     Reason of      procedures        Politics of
                          work          Focus           gov                          government
                                                                      of large                            Politics-admin. Dichotomy remain
                                                      decision         orgs.                             questionable in academic & practice

           •From both top and bottom
                                                                                                       Asmini-pricate dichotomy debatable with
                                        Unit of        Gov.                            Political
          Organizational                                            Org. output                                     sector blurring
                                       analysis       choices                         resultant
             pattern

           •Subdivision of executive
                                                                                                         After classical & behavioral school, a
           (POSDCORP)
                                                                                                                   science of admin.
                                                                     Strength        Perception
                                                      Goals of      procedure        motivation
                                       Concepts
                                                     the nation     repertoires       position
                                                                                       power
                                                                                                        Trend toward profession continue with
                                                                                                                debates and paradox
•Method: organization or
intelligent singleness                                A sort of     Org. features   Resultant of
                                       Pattern of   action a type    procedures     bargaining
•Span of control                                                                      among
                                       inference       of goal       repertoires                     Ethics remains in the orientations of Weber
•One master                                                                           players         and Wilson, but it‟s a endless enterprise
•Technical efficiency

  Coordination                         Decision      Calculating    What‟s the                             Challenge to bureaucracy quiet
                                                                                    What did what
    of work                                          the rational   context and                                  revolution new PA
                                       analysis                      pressures
                                                                                      to whom
                                                        thing
            Culture for                Communication
           Quality Service                of SQI


                         Climate for
                          Change

                       Quality Program
                        Perceptions




    Job        Occupational    Organizational
Satisfaction    Alienation                        Patient Care
                               Commitment
            Culture for            Quality Program
           Quality Service          Perceptions




               Climate for          Communication
                Change                 of SQI




    Job          Occupational   Organizational
satisfaction      Alienation                     Patient Care
                                Commitment
 External    Internal         Organizational    Internal   External
 Growth      Growth            Resources        Growth     Growth
Enhancing   Enhancing                           Limiting   Limiting
 Effects      Effects   (+)               (-)    Effects   Effects
      Issue               Focus                 Solution          Control



                                                 Fiscal
                          Unit                   Legal              Unit
Content-related       Organization             Managerial     Administrative
Process-related     Extraorganization            Policy           System
                                                             Extraorganization




   Classification                 Resolution                Implementation
                                  Policy
                                  Ideas                         If Policy      Political
                                                                              Ratification


                                                       Informal
Sources of Ideas                 Borderline         Consultation with
                                  Cases               Politicians
•Bureaucrats
•Clients
                   Ideas for
•Vendors
                   Practice
•Experts
•Politicians
•others                            Policy
                                                if Innovation
                                 Advancing
                                Innovations
                                                                             Bureaucratic
                                                                            Implementation
                                Bureaucratic
                               Implementation
                                                      Sharing Political
                                                           Credit
                                          Organization as
Bounded Rationality                        Decision Unit                 Modes of Organizational
                                                                           Influence
Cognitive limits on
rationality                                                              1)   information
                                                                         2) Organizational loyalties
                               Human Problem-Solving Process             3) Criterion of efficiency
                                                                         4) Advice and information
                                                                         5) training



          True Scientific Method                            Logical positivism

          Principles of administration:                     1)Distinction between fact
          inconsistent, conflicting,                        and value
          inapplicable                                      2)The role of values
                                                            emphasized the subjective
                                                            elements of decision maker
                                                            3)Science is concerned
                                                            with facts, not values
                                     DEVELOP PROGRAMS                 ATTRACT RESOURCES
      MAKE POLICY
                                       Devise Programs to          •Recruitment and selection of
Formulate Policy Based on
                                       Implement Policies          personnel
Best Available Knowledge
                                                                   •Taxing
                                                                   •Grantsmanship

  ANTICIPATE CHANGE
  Anticipate demographic,                                       ABSORB RESOURCES
  economic, and political                                       •Processing of new employees
          changes
                                                                •Buying supplies and equipment




                               WHAT
                                                                 ABSORB MANAGE
                    The organization is doing
                                                   Evaluate      •Budgeting and financial
                            How WELL               Activities    management
Apply Lessons of            It is Doing It                       •Labor relations
future activities
                        Current LEVEL                            •Record keeping

                             of Activity
                      Environment


        Decisions                     Situational Factors
                       Decision
                        Maker

  Input: Results                             Output: Information



                     Technology for
                    Display and Use


                         Data
Normative                                        Expert
                       Analysis
 Models                                         Systems
                       Capability




                        Data Bank
                 System Planning

                   Preliminary
                 Systems Analysis

                   Preliminary
                 Systems Design

                 Initial Prototype
                 Implementation

                      Evaluation



                    Prototyping
Implementation                             Analysis
                       Cycle


                        Design




            Operation and Maintenance
                  (Postaudit Evaluation)
Customers                                   Employers
                                            •Involvement
 •Q Products
                                            •Empowerment
 •Q Services
                                            •Fair Wagers
 •Fair Prices
                                            •Pride
 •Soc. Resp.
                    Quality                 •Soc. Resp.
 •Ethics
                  Management                •Ethics


                Continuous Improvement
                     Funders
                      •Cust. Satisfaction
                      •Efficiency
                      •Effectiveness
                      •Fair R.O.I.
                      •Soc. Resp.
                      •Ethics
  User                                                     The
community                                              organization



             Decision about
                                            Organizational
              support and
                                              activities
              participation




            Performance                        Accounting
            assessment                          system


                               Financial
                              disclosures
                                                      Oversight and
                                                       mentoring
2.Developing Human
    Resources
      Federalist        The Jeffersonians                 Era of the Spoils             The Road to Reform
  Period,1789-1800         1801-1829                         1829-1865                      1865-1883

                                                                         Safety Needs

                                                      Psychological
                                                         Needs        Theory Y
                                                                                           Civil Service Reform
                                                                       Carrot-Stick
                                                                        Approach
                                                                                            Early 20th Century

                                                                       Formal Organizations


                                              Social Needs
                                                                            Necessary for
Downsizing
                           Theory X                       Ego Needs    informal organizations     Wartime and
  1990s              Motivation        Self-Fulfillment                                         Peacetime Needs
                                                                              Example:               1940s
                                                                      "Invisible Government"
Retrenchment
    1980s
               Reform              Accountability,         Slow Growth in Govt
               1970s              Equity & Justice               1950s
                                       1960s
   Objective           Assessment           Experienced      Individual Attitudes
    Factors              Criteria           Environment         and Behavior

Space
Furnishings
Equipments
Illumination
                  Adequacy
Thermal Factors
Cleanliness
                  Arrangement
Acoustics
                                           Sense of Place   Job satisfaction
Colors
                  Symbolic features
Surfaces
Ventilation
                  Extent of user control
Fixtures
Way-finding
properties
Ergonomics
                                                                                                     “Pure”                              “Pure”
                                                                                                   management                         management
                                                                                                    by results                        by objectives
                                                    Subordinate
                                                       only
LOCATION OF CONROL OVER SUBORDINATES‟ ACTIVITIES




                                            Subordinate in
                                           consultation with                                                                    Actual
                                               superior                                                                       mgmt. by
                                                                                                                              objectives

                                                                                                              Actual
                                                                                                              mgmt.
                                                                                                                by
                                          Subordinate and
                                                                                                              results
                                           superior jointly




                                            Superior in
                                          consultation with
                                            subordinate


                                                                                  “Pure”
                                                   Superior only               management of
                                                                                 activities




                                                        None




                                                                        None           Sup. only     Sup. in cons.      Sub. & sup.      Sub. in cons.   Sub. only
                                                                                                       w/sub.             jointly          w/sup.

                                                               LOCATION OF CONROL OVER SUBORDINATES‟ OBJECTIVES AND GOALS
PROGRAM COMPONENTS Personnel
Allocation Track                                OBJECTIVES


Central control of SES allocation            Rational deployment of SES in
                                             response to federal priorities

   Rank-in-person mobility                 Improve career noncareer interface                Improve program
                                                                                             performance

Performance Effectiveness Task
                                    Reward good executives
                                                                         Improve         Improve
                                    dismiss incompetents
 Pay-linked performance                                                  individual       agency
 appraisal systems                                                       competence    performance
                                        Clarify and link agency,         motivation
                                        program and individual           performance
                                        performance objectives

Personnel development
and certification track

 Executive development programs                  Attract women and minorities

    Controls against prohibited
       personnel practices                          Attract outside talent
Certified professional qualifications
                                                     Eliminate prohibited                   Increase public
    Executive recruitment and                        personnel practices                    confidence and
       placement systems                                                                    satisfaction
Companies                                                   Upper-Level                                                Other sources
in Related and Unrelated                                    Management                                                 Private sector
Industries                                                                                                             Party officials
                                                                                                                       Elected officials
                                                                                                                       Political appointees
                                                                                                                       in other gov‟t agencies


                                #3
                                                            Middle-Level
                                                            Management
Companies in                                                                                                              Other Gov‟t
Related Industries                                                                                                        Agencies




                                     #2                    Lower-Level                                            #2
Workers                                                                                                                   Workers
                                                         Management and
Colleges & Univ.                                                                                                          Colleges & Univ.
Companies in
                                                          professionals                                                   Other Gov‟t
Related Industries     #1                                                                     #1                          Agencies



                                                               Workers
                           Private Sector                                                      Public Sector
                                #1 Hourly or non-professional employees who reach the first level of management
                                #2 New or recent college graduates who reach the middle management level
                                #3 Middle managers who reach the upper management level
                     Existence an Objective Condition

                        Perception of the Condition

Organizational          Definition of the Condition       Organizational
Characteristics                                              Setting
                         Generation of Strategies

                          Selection of Strategies
                           “Hire a Consultant”

                             Direct Management

                                 Evaluation               Pay Consultant
                   Planned                    Unplanned
                  Outcomes                    Outcomes
                                  Maintain
                                   Retain
                                    Alter
                                  Abolish
                              Existence of an
                             Objective Condition
                                        Leadership
                                        •preferences
                                        •situational




Power Bases/ Sources                                      Decision Bases
•Legitimate / position / coercive                         •Rational Calculation
•Expert                               Policy / Decision   •Ethical Imperatives
•Informational                                            •Political Desirability
                                           Making
•Referent / Connection                                    •Administrative Feasibility
                                                          •System Shifts




                                    Power Development
                                    •Ability
                                    •Credibility
                                    •Goal Setting
                                    •Buffering
                                    •Coalition Building
                              Gaining the Power to Lead


                                  Sources of Power


                                     Hierarchy
                                 (Formal Positions)


  Expert Power                       Referent Power                 Informational Power
(Formal Positions)              (Individual or groups as         (Being in the know having
                                   points of reference)                access to info)



                     Developing Power sources to the Best Advantage



 Ability        Credibility          Goal Setting          Buffering     Coalition-Building
                                                                            Strategies
                  Broad Perspective



                     Leadership




                                            Action Orientation
Results Focus
                  Inter-




                                                                                   Organizational
                personal




                                                                 Personal
                                                                            Team
                sensitivity Communication

                      Tech.
                    Competence


                      Flexibility
3.Adapting Technologies
                                                        Toward
Organizational Learning Model                      Decentralization                        Digital Democracy Model
(Human Relations)                                   Differentiation                        (Open Systems)
                                                     (Flexibility)           Data sharing
                                 Agency autonomy
                                                                      access to public information




      Human capital investment                                                        Citizen participation
          End user focus




  Internal focus                                                                                       External focus




            Internal operations focus                                                    Cost efficiency




                                        Security       Toward Centralized implementation standardization
                                        privacy                            one-stop service
                                                    Centralization
Information Security Model                           Integration                             Cost Efficiency Model
(Internal Process)                                   (Flexibility)                           (Rational Goal)
                            Regulatory environment                               Tax Issues
                            Will IT and the Internet make markets more           Tax or Not (tax exemption or imposing tax)
                            efficient?                                           To Whom? (to sellers or to buyers)
                            Will IT and the Internet boost competition?




Individual Level                                                    Societal Level                   Policy Issues
                                                                                                     •Global Integrationist
                                  Organizational Level
IT use to individual                                                •Dystopian Theory                Theory
                                  •Democratization/
transformation and
                                  Decentralization Theory
development of social                                               •Social Capital                  •Right regulatory and
capital through virtual                                                                              public policy
                                  •Sociotechnical Theory
communication, education,                                                                            environment for the
and work.                                                                                            digital economy




                                 Information Technology and Communication
  (Technology is complex and situational, as a result, information technologies are connected reciprocally
          with individual behavior, organizational/ institutional arrangements, and social issues.)
                                            Decision to Make Capital Request
                                       (cost meets predetermined dollar threshold)


  Request forms completed and submitted to                                      Technology assessment committee
  Capital Planning Committee


Is a Technology Assessment Indicated?
                                                                                     Apply initial screening criteria
Criteria may include:
                                                             Yes
- high cost/high tech
- controversial
- has potentially broad (hospital wide) implication                                                TA


                                                           No TA
                                                                               Consider Sub-Committee or Ad Hoc
                     No                                                         (literature review/data collection)



  Apply capital decision making process
  (consider use of key question)                                                           Apply key questions




       Decision made on request                                                 Decision (yes or no) to recommend
                                                                                acquisition made on request
                                                  No


       Yes
                          Acquisition of new technology                      Overnight for implementation and evaluation
 External Factors            Internal Factors           Outcome




Political/ Regulatory
    Environment         •Top management support
                        •Partnership approach
                        •Selective outsourcing with a
                        strategic fit
   IT Marketplace       •Commitment of financial and    Performance
                        human resources
                        •Relationship management
                        •Management capacity
                        •Performance management
 Characteristics of
                        using service-level contracts
Technology Services
                                                                                                                         Horizontal
                                                                                                                         Integration

                                              Complex
                                                                                                                     -Systems integrated
Technological and Organizational Complexity
                                                                                                                     across different
                                                                                                                     function

                                                                                                    Vertical         -Real one stop
                                                                                                                     shopping for citizens
                                                                                                  Integration
                                                                                             -Local systems linked
                                                                                             to higher level
                                                                                             systems
                                                                                             -Within similar
                                                                              Transaction functionalities
                                                                           -Services and Forms
                                                                           online
                                                                      -Working database
                                                                      supporting online
                                                            Catalogue transactions

                                                        -Online Presence
                                                        -Catalogue
                                              Simple




                                                        Presentation
                                                        -Downloadable
                                                        Forms

                                                        Sparse                                                               Complete
                                                                                       Integration
       Design and Cognition Problems                         Organizational Cooperation Problems
       Reliance on outside consultants                                 Inter-organizational
       Difficulty in anticipating future                               Intra-organizational
              information needs



                              Collection of data not             Net costs for data
Rigidity: tech.               regularly used                     collectors                    Reliance on
resources not available                                                                       shared system
for modification of                                                                             may reduce
system to meet                                                                                 timeliness of
changing needs                                                                                    reports


                                              Poor data quality
                                  Support of two systems during start-up
                                       Need for continuous training


              Poor data quality                                            Lack of use hinders
              discourage use                                               error correction

                                               “vicious cycle”

                                      Failure to realize potential uses
                                      Lack of in-house resources for
                                               special studies
              Building                          Building
              Permits                           Permits




   Health
                                  Health




 Department
                               Department of
              Sidewalk                         Sidewalk
               Seating                          Seating


              Garbage                          Garbage




Trade Waste
Commission
              Collection
                               Trade Waste
                               Commission
                                               Collection




    DEP
                                   DEP

                Food                             Food
              Certificates                     Certificates




    DOB
                                  DOB




              Certificate of                   Certificate of
               Occupancy                        Occupancy




    FDNY
                                   FDNY




                 Zoning                          Zoning




    DBS
                                   DBS




               Information                     Information



                Business




    Affairs
                                                Business
                                 Affairs




  Consumer
                 Taxes                           Taxes
                               Consumer
                               City




     City
              Business                         Business
              Incentives                       Incentives
                               Planning




   Planning
                                 DOT




      DOT




               Insurance                        Insurance



                                                   Pay
                  Pay
                                Finance




                                                Violations
   Finance
                               Department




               Violations
                                             E-government Efficiency




              -Personnel Requirements                         -Enterprise Systems
              -Labor Relations\                                     •Financial management
              -Role of Consultants (Privatization)                  •Procurement
                                                                    •Personnel Management




             Org posts                        Dynamic web presence
Bricks       static info            Basic         Transactional  Communicative   E-governance Organizational
And Mortar   to the web.            Interactions Interactions    Interactions                  Transformation

                                                             -Enterprise Resource Planning
             -IT infrastructure                              -Business Process Re-engineering
             -Social Equity and the Digital Divide           -Strategic Planning for IT and E-gov.
                                                             -Measuring e-government performance
                                                             -Citizen satisfaction and participation



                                          E-government Effectiveness
                                                   Technology-Centric   IT Paradigm
Organizational / Cultural      Leadership styles
      Influences                                     Citizen-Centric    PA Paradigm


                 IT Capacity
                                   Explicit
Intranet Sophistication
                                   Tacit


Decision-making                    Centralized
                                   Decentralized

Integration                        Integrated
                                   Distributed

Strategic planning process         Useful                                 Performance of E-
                                                    Implementation      Government application
                                   Not Useful


Staffing                           Useful
                                   Not Useful


                                   Objective
Evaluation & performance
measurement                        Subjective

                                   Technical
Security                           Policy
                                                                         Other possible outcomes:
                                                                         agenda setting for organized
                                                                         groups, election platforms,
                                      CASE ISSUE:                        citizens as consumers (public
                                                                         choice theory), ignoring voices
                                      Does citizen                       of disenfranchised, adoption of
                                      participation through              e-government methods
Democratic Citizenship/
Participatory Democracy/              surveys necessarily                        Government
Deliberative Democracy                improve participatory
  Citizen participation/public        democracy?
  engagement/civic                                                              Trust
  engagement                                                                    Accountability
                                                                                Performance
-Voting                                                                         Productivity
-Public hearings                     Active participation
                                                                                Efficiency/
-Letter campaigns                                                               effectiveness
-Protests                                                                       Transparency
-Surveys/polls (i.e. E-Town                                                     Better policy
Panel)                                                                          decisions
-Volunteer/civic leader                                                         Communication
-Technological means                 THEORETICAL BASE
                              New Public Service (Denhardt & Denhardt)
4.Building Partnerships
                                 How citizens participate?

                                 Public hearings (most ineffective)   Why citizens don’t participate?

 Why citizens participate?       Vote
                                 Surveys                               Exclusion based on social class,
                                                                            systemic barriers, etc.
  -The issue                     Negotiated rule making
  -Systemic participation        Citizens review panel
                                 Public deliberation
                                 Political discussion



                                                                             How to improve citizen
                                                                             participation?
 What is the outcome?                                                        Empowering and educating
                                                                             citizens
Effect decision-making of        PUBIC                                       Re-educating administrators
administrators and                                        AUTHORITY
politicians
                             DELIBERATION                                    Creating enabling structures
                                                                             and processes
                      Deliberative Democracy
                                                 Broad
                                                 Informed
                                   Citizens
                                                 Deliberative
                                                 Credibility

                      Authentic political inclusion




Issue                Reality                    Ideal           Solutions



                               Administrators



                          Directive     Generative
                          approach      approach
        Efficiency
                          Reactive       Adaptive
                          approach       approach


                               Effectiveness
                              Policy
Problem   Reality                           Legitimacy


             Aggregation                Public
                                        deliberation


                           Systematic
                           Endogenou                     Solution
          Economy          s Difficulties      Ideal




                                            Exogenous
                                            Resource
Benign Inclusion & Passive Exclusion
         (e.g. Corporatism)                                                                                         Technocratic Form of Gov’t
      → Progressive Inclusion


Criteria for Public Deliberation     Central Features of Deliberation                                          Barriers to Participation
              -Public                            -Publicity                                              -nature of daily life in contemporary society
            -Inclusive                         -Non-Tyranny                                               -administrative structures and processes
          -Non-Tyranny                       -Political Equality                                      -current practices and techniques of participation


 Basic Elements of Public Deliberation                       Democratic Process Criteria
      -Strategic Issue Identification                -direct participation of amateurs in decisions
       -Stakeholder Collaboration                        -sharing in collective decision making                       Public Deliberation
          -Generative Learning                    -face-to-face discussion over some period of time
            -Executive Action                           -participating on some basis of equality


 Overcoming Barriers to Authentic Participation
                                                                              Democratic Criteria
      -Empowering and Educating Citizens
           -Reeducating Administrators                             Pluralism                 Direct Participation
 -Enabling Administrative Systems and Processes               -Numbers of Groups           -Numbers of Individuals
                                                            -Opportunity for Learning     -Improved Understanding
                                                               -Access to Officials      -Resources for Participation
 Authority Necessary to Deliberative Democracy                 -Means of Coercion           -Delegating Authority
              -Authority of Function
          -Authority of Distinctive Goods
                 -Authority of Talk                       Conceptualization of Public Deliberation
                -Authority of Voice                              -discourse with other citizens                                   Conditions
           -Authority of Shared Futures                           -some form of participation
                                                             -informal and unplanned exchanges
                                                              -a variety of methods of discourse
Large-Scale Public Deliberative Process                           -the public nature of issues
   -Broad, Representative Participation
      -Informed Public Participation
        -Deliberative Participation                     Political Equality
            -Credible Results
                                                            Inclusive
                                                          Deliberation
                                                            Authority
                                                         Non-Tyranny
                   Basis for Legitimacy                               Authority
                   Process of Citizens
                   Determining their Will
                                                                                                  Mobilization of
                                                                                                  demos as
Deliberation and Legitimacy                                                                       dangerous

Increase the possibility of
realization of reasonable results                                                                           Democratic Theorists effort
                                                                                                            to remodel politics in the
                                                                    Attaining the
– dimension of time and                                                                                     direction of making it more
                                                               appropriate combination                      deliberative ?
educative effect of repeated
deliberation                                                   depends on the situation

                                                                                                                    Democracy
                                          Deliberation         Avoid Universality and Unanimity


 Educative Power
                                             Deliberation as Discussion
                             Congruence




 Community-generating                                                                             Material prerequisites for deliberation
 Power                                       • Reveal private information                         are unequally distributed
                                             • Lesson impact of bounded rationality
 Fairness of Procedure
                                             • Particular mode of justifying results              •Equality in resources,
                                             • Legitimate choice                                  •Guarantee of equal opportunity to
 Quality of Outcome
                                             • Improve moral qualities of                           articulate persuasive arguments
                                               participants                                       • Equality in epistemological authority
                                             • „Right thing‟ independent of
                                                consequences
                                                           Pluralism                                     Conventional participation
   Direct participation
               C                                                             C
                                                                             CC

                         C
                        C                                        Govt.
       C      Govt.                                                                                                                 Bureaucrats
                                                                                                                    Rope as
                                                                                                                     Citizen
                                                                  C
                                                                 CC                                                 outreach
                                                                                                      Boulder as
               C                                                                                       Citizen‟s
                                                                                                     ignorance on
                                                                                                        subject
•Agreement at large                                                                                                                  Summit as
                                                                                                                                    deliberation &
•Input: talent, knowledge and showing up        •Limited agreement                                                    Slope as      decision area
                                                                                                       Citizen      participation
•Outcome: consensual decision & enlightenment   •Input:   talent, knowledge and showing up (elites)
                                                                                                                     framework
                                                                                                    organization
                                                          material resources (elites & members)

                                                •Outcome: decision & and lessons from defeat
                                                  Civic Engagement
                                                     Approaches

                                                     Adversarial

                                                      Electoral

                                                 Information Exchange

                                                    Civil Society

                                                     Deliberative

  Enhancing
 Government                               Citizen-Centered Collaborative                        Enhancing
Trust in citizens                               Public Management                               Government
                                                                                                Legitimacy




Enhancing Citizen                                                                             Enhancing
    Efficacy                                                                                 Government
                                                                                            Responsiveness




                    Enhancing Citizen Trust in                       Enhancing Government
                         Government                                      Competence
                          •Expert
                          Administrators




  More
            State




Exclusive
                          •Elected
                          Representiveness

                          •Professional
                          Stakeholders

                          •Lay Stakeholders

                          •Random Selection
            Minipublics




                          •Open, Targeted
                          Recruiting

                          •Open,
                          Self-Selection

                          •Diffuse
  More
            Publics




                          Public Sphere
Inclusive
   ACTIVE REPRESENTATION
                  Attitudes                          REPRESENTATIVE RESULTS
                    Ideology                              (Policy Processes)
              Political partisanship
             Perception of influence
              Program preferences                          Purposes
                                                               Goals
                   Actions
                                                              Issues
Political/policy contacts: frequency and direction
Time invested in policy making and public support
       Agency aspirations and advocacy                      Process
            Acquisition of federal aid                       Decisions
                                                              Choices


 PASSIVE REPRESENTIVENESS
                                                            Outputs
                  Attitudes                                Measurement
                                                             Evaluation
                  Social origins
   Demographic and (political) culture origins
                     Gender                                Outcomes
                 Race/ethnicity                               Impacts

               Attainments                                 Consequences

     Education: Degree and specializations
                Professionalism
                  Career paths
     Organizational experience and tenure
 Service, and Neighborhoods                   Assessments of Parts of Domain     with Domain

Demographic characteristics
•Age
•Race
                                                    Satisfaction with police
•Income                                             response time
•Education
•Sex
                                                    Satisfaction with police
Political Attitudes                                 treatment of people
•Assessment of quality of local government
•efficacy
                                                    Perceived equity of police    Satisfaction with police
                                                    protection                    protection
Service Delivery
•Number of arrests/number of serious crimes
                                                    Perceived equity of police
•Officers dispatched
                                                    response time
•Zone crime rates/population
•Response time
                                                    Perceived equity of police
Service Experience                                  treatment of police
•Contact with police
•Number of time victimized
                                                    Perceived equity of
                                                    amount of crime
Expectations
•Feeling of safeness
                                            AGENDA-SETTING CONTROL
(-i) Disingenuous Efforts        (i) Operational            (ii) Strategic               (iii) Normative




                                17. Referendum                                                                  (3) Delegative
                                                           3. Citizens‟ Assembly        7. Initiative
                                                          12. Participatory Budget     10. Local government




                                                                                                                                 DECISION - MAKING
                                                          21. Study Circle




                                                          2. Citizen Advisory Board
                                                          4. Citizen‟s Jury
                            13. Plebiscite                5. Focus Group               9. Internet Chat Group
                            22. Survey (closed-ended)     6. Green Paper              19. Sponsored Lobby Group (2) Consultative
                            25. Telepolling/televoting    8. Interactive Website      23. Survey (deliberative)




                                                                                                                                 CONTROL
                                                         14. Public Inquiry
                                                         18. Research Panel
                                                         20. Stakeholder Forum
                                                         24. Survey (open-ended)




                               1. Advertising
                              11. Newsletter                                           15. Public Meeting       (1) Informative
                              16. PSA                                                  (with Q&A)
                              26. White Paper




                                                                                                                (-1) Disingenuous
                                                                                                                       Effort
                             (3) Veteran       17. Referendum             3. Citizens‟ Assembly        7. Initiative
                                                                         12. Participatory Budget     10. Local government
                                                                         21. Study Circle
CITIZEN LEADERSHIP QUALITY




                                                                         2. Citizen Advisory Board
                                                                         4. Citizen‟s Jury
                                           13. Plebiscite                5. Focus Group               9. Internet Chat Group
                             (2) Novice    22. Survey (closed-ended)     6. Green Paper              19. Sponsored Lobby Group
                                           25. Telepolling/televoting    8. Interactive Website      23. Survey (deliberative)
                                                                        14. Public Inquiry
                                                                        18. Research Panel
                                                                        20. Stakeholder Forum
                                                                        24. Survey (open-ended)




                                              1. Advertising
                             (1) Rookie      11. Newsletter                                           15. Public Meeting
                                             16. PSA                                                  (with Q&A)
                                             26. White Paper




                                                (i) Veteran                    (ii) Novice                  (iii) Rookie


                                                               STATE OFFICIAL LEADERSHIP QUALITY
                   Political                       Public trust in
                   participation                   policy making



Public                 Demographic,                                  Public trust in
participation in       ideological personal, and                     government
government             institutional factors


                   Public
                                                   Public trust in
                   participation in
                                                   administration
                   administration
                              The Pinnacle
PUBLIC                        Byproduct
TRUST



Effectiveness

                Involvement

                                             Foothill
                                             Goals
                                                                                              There has been a
The role of the administrator
                                                                                        “generative learning” process
has shifted which in turn may
                                                                                        in which all learned from one
shift administrative structures                   External Stakeholders                            another




                                                    Internal Stakeholders



                                                        Authority

                                  Facilitators                              Authority
                                                   Strategic Question




                                                          Experts


                                                                                         Developed Trust – Authority
Effectiveness – The solution                     External Stakeholders                     continues to hold power,
     is one in which all                                                                   Experts continue to hold
stakeholders had input and                                                              information, Citizens continue
        are invested.                                                                           to have access
              Objective    Subjective

    (A)
Managerial
 Strategy        (B)
               Outcome       (C)
                          Perceived
                          Outcome           (D)
                                        Satisfaction       (E)
                                                       Trust EVLN

             Exogenous
             Influences
                 on B     Exogenous
                          Influences
                              on C      Exogenous
                                        Influences      Exogenous
                                            on D        Influences
                                                            on E
     City Council                                           Administrative Staff
                                      Citizenry
   1 or 2 members                   Majority members               1 or 2 members



                           Citizen Performance Team




Solicit citizen       Develop               Help        Work with        Assist officials
 input about        performance           develop a     officials to     to disseminate
perceivable          measures               data-      use citizen-        performance
outcomes of          based on             collection     initiated        measurement
    public          citizen input          system      performance        information to
   services                                            measures in          the public
                                                        decision-
                                                          making
                         Citizen survey
                         to reach all citizens, including the
                         passive, unvocal groups

          Citizen phone hotline
          for all citizens who are willing to call

            Interactive website
            for citizens who are
            comfortable with using
            computers

      Internet chat room
      for citizens with internet
      access who are willing to
      participate


    Focus groups
    with community
    leaders & citizens




Citizen
Performance
Team
                                   Public Deliberation




                                   5 Institutional Mechanisms
       4 Approaches to                                           Participatory Analysis:
  Public Sector Management:            Public Hearings
                                           Initiatives             Needed for science and
                                        Public Surveys                  technology
           Directive
           Reactive                 Negotiated Rule Making
          Generative               Citizens Review Panels
           Adaptive


                                                                       Education



   Pluralism and
Direct Participation          Deliberative Democracy            Effective Participation
  Remote      General               Operational
Environment Environment             Environment
                                                                                              Managerial
Uncertainty     Political        Authority controllers
                                                                                               Structure
Dispersion      Economic         Financial/budgetary                                                                  feedback
                                controllers (executive,
                                   legislative, etc.)
Complexity      Legal           Clients
                                                                   Program           Program Management and
 Risk           Technology      Individual and                     Experts                  Evaluation
                                organizational allies
                                and adversaries
              Social/Cultural   Interorganizational                                            Control
                                relations (statutory
                                and non-statutory          Needs                                           Decision
                                based)                                        Needs defined                             Implement
                                                          Assessed                             Clients     & action
                                                           (clients and
                                                                               & services                                and track
              Ecological     Constituencies/unions          residents)         determined      treated      results      treatment
              Media*         Public interest groups



                                                          Information flow
                                                          Attempted control




         * Elements of the media may have more operational influence on some human service organizations than others.
                      Citizens of
                      Des Moines
                                                                      Effective Communication Channel
                                                                                                                    Reports
                                                                  Readable to Ordinary Citizens                   Performance
Approval by Des                                                   - Tables with short verbal                  Information to Public
Moines Neighbors                                                  summaries
                        Political Equality


                                                                                                                                      Elected Officials
           City                                            CIPA Team
      Staff/Council                                                                                             Transparency



                                        Inclusiveness                                                                Uploading data
                                    - Encouraging Neighborhoods                                                      into CCRS
       IOWA State                             - Spider Graph
                                           - Project Marketing                                                                                 Data
       University                                                                                 Authority                                   Analysis

                                     Identify Important elements
                                           of Public Service                                                    Non-Tyranny

                                                                                                                                    Administrators
                                                                                   Use of
       Deliberation                                                                Technology
       -Neighborhood Meetings
                                                                                   - Digital Surveys
       - Orientation
                                                                                   - Use of handheld
                                                                                   computers, digital
                                              Elected Officials                    surveys, GIS
                                                                                   mapping
                                                                                                                   Develop Data
                                                                                                               Collection Techniques
                         Identification of
                           Performance
                            Measures
                                                                    Administrators                                             Reflectivity
                                                                          Impact of Performance
                                      Identification of Problems          Measurement System
A team of 23 members                                                      •Transparency
•citizens nominated by                                  ↓                 •Reflectivity
the Des Moines                                                            •Fairness
                                      collection of Performance Data
Neighborhood
                                                                          Conditions of Public
• Associations,                                         ↓                 Deliberation
•members of the council,              Analysis of Performance Data        •Political Equality
•city staff members
                                                        ↓                 •Inclusiveness
•representatives from
                                      Production of Performance Reports   •Deliberation
Iowa State University
                                                                          •Authority
                                         ↓                     ↓
                                                                          •Non-Tyranny




                           Outcomes                  Outputs

•Democracy Impacts
•City management Impacts
                                                     Deliberation Process
     Supply and Demand Strategy
                                                       Designing the Project
         Supply                   Demand               Forming a CIPA Team

          Networks                  Needs
          Platforms                Values
         Interfaces               Priorities
 Utilization Infrastructure    Digital Surveys   Identifying Performance Measures




                                                    Collecting
            Managerial Values                                  Performance Data
-Congruence between Organizational Goals
                                                    Analyzing
       and Measurement Schemes
-Improvement in Quality of Decision-Making
-Problem Identification and Problem Solving
       -Efficiency and Cost Savings
                                                 Reporting Performance Information

           Democratic Values
-Effective Communication among Participants
      -Civic Engagement and Education
                -Accountability
Des Moines, Iowa                  Characteristics of Participation
• 198,682 population              • Equality of participation
• 82.3% White                     • Inclusiveness people from all groups
• 21.8% college degree                                                               Spider-graph for ensuring
                                  • No domination of policy venue
                                                                                     fairness/representation of
                                  • Reflective community concern                     citizens from all groups
                                  • Effective communication

                                                                                             City-wide strategic planning
                                                  City‟s problems and
                                                 12 core service areas
                                                                               Policy Planning
 23 nominated                                                                  and Budgeting
 citizens                         • Identifying measure
                         CIPA’s
                                  • Collecting and analyzing data             City Government
                         survey
  • Monthly meeting               • Reporting performance
                         Team       information
  • Training
  • City survey with uses of IT
                                                                           •Civic education
                                                                           •Accountability

      Iowa State University

 Funding & Technical
 support (Fund for the
 City of New York)
5.Measuring for Performance
               Strategic                Result
               Planning                Oriented
                                       Budgeting




 External                  Values                   Internal
Monitoring                 Mission                 Monitoring
                           Vision




              Strategic              Performance
             Measurement             Measurement
                                                                         Managing for results
    macro


   Electoral         • Performance          Performance                   Performance                 Pay for
   Characteristics
   (states)          • Function             Measurement                   Appraisal                   Performance
   • Congress        • Role                 • Objective                   • Objective                 • Viable
   • Senate                                                               • Subjective                • Not viable
                     • others               • Subjective
   • Civil culture




                      citizen trust                        Interpersonal
                                      Recruitment
                                                           Trust
                         Image                             • knowledge base
                                                           • value base
                     Macro culture
Transformational                                           • calculus base
                                                                                      Transactional
   Learning                                                                             learning

                     organizational                        commitment
                     Culture
                                                           • affective
      Crises         • Hierarchy
                                                           • value based
                     • science
                                                           • continuance
                     • market
                                                                                                         micro
                     • transaction
Inputs                Activities                          Outputs                                Effects*




  efficiency/productivity                                         effectiveness

         *Effects (outcome) are nor part of the production process; they refer to the impacts on society
   INPUTS                             OUTPUTS


               PROCESSES
                                  •Products
•Mission           or             or
requirement   PROCEDURES          services
•Workload
•Resources
•Programs,
plans and     FEED BACK PERFORMANCE
schedules
                                   Flexibility



   Means: Cohesion; Morale                       Means: Flexibility; Readiness



   Ends: Human Resource Development              Ends: Growth; Resource Acquisition




People                                                                     Organization
                               Output Quality



   Means: Information Management                 Means: Planning; Goal Setting


   Ends: Stability; Control                      Ends: Productivity; Efficiency




                                    Control
                                             STRUCTURE
                                               Flexibility
                                                      +.40                         Flexibility/
                                                                                   adaptation
                                       Value of
    Morale                          human resources
                                                                                  Growth
           Training and                                      Readiness                        Utilization of
                                                      +.20
           development                                                                        environment
            emphasis

 Conflict/cohesion                         Quality
                                                                                                    FOCUS
People                                                                                            Organization
   -.40                      -.20                                          +.20                         +.40
                                                                  Planning and
                     Information management                        goal setting
                        and communication


                          Control                     -.20
   Means
                              Stability                                     Productivity

    Ends
                                                                    Efficiency
                                                      -.40
                                                Control
                        Vital Few




           Policymakers
           and the Public



         USE: Accountability



    Agency & Program Managers




USE: Align Strategic Management Systems




       Program Managers and Staff




USE: Continuous Program Improvement       Comprehensive
                          Performance Measurement




                                    Accountability

                   Reliable &
Citizen Surveys    Accurate          Transparency, Learning,                 5 Strategies:
                                                                   Tolerating competing product def.
                                    Appraising, Sanctioning      Banning a monopoly on producing fig‟s
                                                                     Limit functions/forums of PM
                                                                    Limit products subjected to PM
                                  Auditing the accuracy of        Use process & product perspective
Participation &   Audits create   Performance Data used to
 Engagement        safeguard
                                         create PM
                                                                        If PM not accountable
                                                                        then…
                                Negative information, language
 Efficiency &                    reporting has negative impact
Effectiveness      OR…


                          Success for PM
                                                                                             Lon
                                                                                              g            Lon
                                                                                             Ter            g
                                                                                              m            Ter
                                                 Top-down Performance                        Go             m
         Long Term Goals                             Measurement                              al           Go
                                                                                                            al
                                                                                                                    Long
                                                                                                                    Term
                                                                                                                    Goal
                                 Standardized Performance Measurement
 2014




 2012           G

                                                     Health and         Department
                               Social Security
                                                      Human             of Homeland
                               Administration
                                                      Services             Security
 2010       G       G

                                           Different measurements

                G
                                                          M                   M            Election
 2008
            G       G              M
                                                                                                         Election

            G       G                                  Fit
 2006
                                                   Measuremen
            G       G
                                                     t Here
                                                                                                                  Election
                                                                                      Administrative reforms reflect
Measures increase short term   Standardization may increase efficiency for decision   political values not technocratic
production                     makers but it stifles the ability administrators       solutions
                  Responsiveness                  Accountability

                                   Achievements



                    Local Media                Computer Database
 Organization &
 Dissemination




 Tools


                Technology           Surveys                  Education




Citizen                                                 Enlist
                   Advisory
                                                      Community
Participation       Group
                                                       Members

                                   Collect Data




      Citizen Involvement                      Measure Performance
Decision Making                                                                                 Planning for Results
• Future Demand                                                                                 • Vision & Mission
• Performance Targets                                                                           • Strategic - Goals
• Adjust Allocations if Required                                                                • Operational - Objectives
                                                                                                • Family of Measures per Program
                        Establish goals and measure results.                                    • Employee Performance Plans
                        Estimate and justify resource requirements.
                        Reallocate resources.
                        Develop organization-improvement strategies.                         Citizens
                        Motivate employees to improve performance.
                                                                                             Businesses
                        Control operations.
                        Predict periods of work overload or underload.                       The media
                        Develop more sophisticated capacities for measurement.
                                                                                             Interest groups

                                    Internal Audit               External Audit
                                    Department                   Groups                                  Budgeting for Results
                                                                                                         • Demand for Services
                                                                                                         • Performance Budget
Evaluating Results                                                                                       • Resource Allocation
• Performance Audit                Providing meaningful and useable
• Employee Evaluations             information
• Resources Consumed               To gain a greater understanding of
• Citizen Survey & Input           processes and programs,                   Performance assessment experiments
                                   To test for data accuracy, reliability,   Citizen surveys
                                   and comparability.                        Performance-reporting standards

                                                         Reporting Result
                                                         • Data Verified
                                                         • Actuals vs. Forecasts
                                                         • Baselines & Benchmarks
                                                         • All Customers Included
A control of complex network of self-controlling human being is ill–understood and delivering unintended results (Smith 1995, 280)


                  Assessing the performance of                                                        Future goals: long-
                  the performance measurement                                                         term Improvement of
             Unanticipated results (Smith 1995)                                                       gov’t performance
             • Tunnel vision
             • Sub-optimization
             • Myopia
             • Measure Fixation
             • Misrepresentation
             • Misinterpretation
             • Gaming
                                                                                         System / Design of Measure Aspect
             • Ossification
                                                                                         • Balanced - Multiple measurements
                                                                                         • Long-term attention
              The processes of Performance Measurement [PM]                              • Total performance measurement
                                                                                           (Triangulation)
                                                                                         • Contingent, Flexible to situation
                                                                                         • Constant review of the system and data
                                                                                         Human Resource Aspect
                                     Collaborations
                       Citizens                                                          • Professionalism
                                    Communication Government
                                                                                         • Active performance-Leadership
                                         Trust
                                                                                         • Information and education
Challenges                                                                               • Sufficient staff training
                                                 Challenges                              • Involve staff at all levels
• Disinterested
                                                                                         Institutional Aspect
• Limited personal concerns                      • Annoyed
                                                                                         • Political institution control
• Protecting personal interest                   • Disinterested                         • Centralized / Decentralized structure
rather than community                            • Time consuming
      Performance Measurement Systems and Targets
                                                             by Internal Agencies
          Will it be bad for my
          Organization?
                                                                Auditing

 If uncertain, Research has found a
 Participatory Approach Works Best

                                  Increases ability to change benchmarks
                                  As conditions evolve over time
                                                                           Good Idea But…
Allowing people being measured helped
                                                                      Practices?      Funding?
Alleviate uncertainty and fear of system
                                                                                                                            Who is going to pay for this?
                                                    What is the appropriate way to
                                                    Conduct the Audit?
                                                                                                                               Tight Budgetary Situation


                                                                        Maricopa County Standards
                                             GASB Standards
                                                                                                               Citizen-Taxpayer            Business


                                                                           Already tried and tested
                                           Researching possible national
                                           Outcome reporting
                                                                                                                            Perhaps in return for
                                                                               May be more appropriate for a wider audience implementing
                                                                                                                            More business-like
                                                        Service, Efforts, and Accomplishments                               practices
                                                                                                    Internal Managers /
                                                                                                    Administrators
                                                                                                        Allows them to gauge
                                                                                                        management and
                                                                                                        operations

                     Performance Measurement

                                                                                                Elected Officials

                                                                                                         Allows them to maintain
                                                   Who uses it?                                          oversight of
                             Why is it used?                                                             administrative
                                                                                                         departments


                                                                                                   Citizens



                                                                                                     Senior Internal Managers /
To give managers a better                                                                            Administrators
idea of what their
departments are doing and
are capable of doing                                         Problems Can Arise
                                                                                                              Allows them to
                                                                     Why?         1.Conflicting Priorities    monitor departmental
                                                                                                              performance
                                                                                  2. Measurement
                                                                                  Interpretation              Assists in the
                                           To allow senior management                                         disbursal of resources

Either way, helps administrators:
                                           to impose their own priorities               Unclear / Misunderstood
                                                                                        Inappropriate for
  1. Set goals, expectations, strategies   on middle and lower level                    the information
  2. Identify problems and solutions       management                                   that‟s really
                                                                                        needed
Phase 1                               Phase 2



Operations                           Methods
 review                            improvements                  continuing




Operations                                          Phase 4
               Phase 3
   list


               Activity                            Personnel
             measurement                           Budgeting



             Time/volume data                        Staffing             Phase 5
                                                   calculation
                                                      factor
                                                    summary
                                  Annual                                  Monthly
                                  budget                                 Reporting          continuing
                                  process


                                Budget worksheet                       Production reports
                                                                      manhour performance
                                                                           unit costs
                    Plan Objective       Plan Involvement                          Plan Process                        Plan Analysis and Improvement
                                                                                      Catalysts
Winston-Salem, NC




                        Improvement      Board of Aldermen                                                       Impacts/ Improvement
                          of Public                                                                              Transparency, Efficiency, HR, Prevention,
                        Performance      CERC: effectiveness                   332 observations and              Technology, Civic education, B/C Analysis
                                         and efficiency reviews                  308 recommend-                  Long-term, Information utilization,
                                                                                      ations                     Work Reorganization, Coordination

                             120 self-                                                Efficiency,
                             selected       7 review teams                                                                                      Systematic and
                                                                                Effectiveness, Use of                                           thoughtful
                            volunteers                                                                                  City Government
                                         -Equality in participation            IT, Reflect community                                            evaluation of PM
                                         -Inclusive most citizens
                                                                                        needs                            Public officials
                                         -Close discussion                         Data sharing, Analyzing, Feedbacks, Benchmarking




                                                                      Mobilize performance improvement of city gov‟t
Dayton, OH




                                                                               QL Indicators                           Data collection                   Public
                       Improvement             Dayton                                                                                       Reports
                                                                               40-50 --> 15-20                           & analysis
                    in QOL of citizens      Priority Board                                                                                              Interest
                                                                               Education, Housing,
                                                                               Security, Neighborhood                     Collaboration
                                                                               appearance, Park and                        Feedback
                                           Center for Business                 Recreation                                Communication
                                           Economic Research:
                                                 CBER
                                                                                                                                                      Forced
                                                                                                                        City Government               Improvements
   Performance Measurement
     PM as a Process → Contingent Nature        Unintended Consequences
                                                        -Tunnel Vision
                                                       -Suboptimization

                      PM Impact
                                                            -Myopia
                                                      -Measure Fixation
                                                      -Misrepresentation
                                                       -Misinterpretation
                                                           -Gaming
Legislature-to-administration communication              -Ossification
   Citizen interest in PM communication
              Goal specification
            Problem identification
       Inter-department coordination
                 Restaffing                       Performance Paradox
                Restructuring                   “incongruence between reported
             Resource allocation                   Performance Indicators and
                                                    actual performance itself”




            Dual Potentialities
-Controlling by holding employees accountable          Barriers to PM
   -Empowering by giving them discretion         Practical, Political, Managerial,
                                                  Psychological Explanations
Positive Effects                                                                                          Negative Effects
                                   What to Measure                            How to Measure                    -game playing
   -transparency
                                                                                                            -internal bureaucracy
-incentive for output
                                         Strategies                        Auditing Performance Data      -obstacle to innovations
   -accountability
                         -tolerance for a variety of product definitions                                   -obstacle to ambitions
                                                                               -complexity of process
                           -a ban on a monopoly on meaning giving                                          -evasion of complexity
                                                                              -organizational changes
                                                                                                             -obstacle to system
                                -reducing functions and forums              -interpretation of measures          responsibility
                               -a strategic selection of products               -reporting capabilities           -obstacle to
                        -managing the competing “product approach”             -functional boundaries         good performance
                                    and “process approach”
                                                 ↓
                                -reserved use, space and trust
                                       -rules of the game

                           Citizen-Driven Gov‟t Performance
                                 Use of Citizen Surveys
                                 Performance Reporting




                                          Political                               Technical

                                     Citizen Participation                   Methodological Rigidity


                          Perceptions of Usefulness and Satisfaction
      Leadership                                                                    Resources
                                          Use                                   (Financial, HR, IT)

                                    Planning for
                                       results

                    Decision                               Budgeting for
                    making            Design                  results
                                  • Congruent with organization
                                    strategic plan
                                  • Customized to the local context                            Organization
Unintended                        • Meaningful & balanced measures                             Performance
Consequences                      • Appropriate data collection                                Improvement
                                    procedures
                                  • Regularly audit and review
                    Evaluating      the measurement                 Reporting
                     results                                     results


                                  Participating for
                                       results
       Civic                                                                      Staff Training
   Engagement and                                                                 and Education
   Communication

                               Supporting structures
                            Stakeholders
                            -politicians, managers, funders,
                            providers, purchasers, and                               Purposes
                            consumers
policy
implementation
                                     Test scores
                                     Crime report
                                                                      Performance
                                     Creaming                         Leadership
                 Internal                                      Unintended
                                     practical                 Consequences of
                                                               measuring outcomes
                                     political
    PM
                                     managerial
                                                                 Self-Interested Thinking
                                     psychological fear of
                                                                 Societal Thinking
                                     consequences
                 External
                                     Cost
                                     Quality
                                                                  Unintended Consequences of
                                     Performance/resources        measuring customer satisfaction
                                     Learning cycles
                                     accountability
                                     satisfaction
                                     measurement
          Strategic
          Objectives




      Outcomes Goals




        Output Goals


     Program/Org. Units


Resources ($$, FTE, Capital)
Long-term            Improved program quality, responsiveness,
outcomes                         and effectiveness




Intermediate   Better management of programs and public organizations;
  outcomes     more informed fiscal allocation decisions



                  Changed/improved communication among program/
   Initial
                   agency staff and with external stakeholders and
 outcomes
                                    policymakers


                    Communication of performance information about
 Outputs
                               programs and activities



 Activities    Performance measurement development and integration
               into existing and new decision processes and systems
   Role of the Public            System Components     Accountability Functions


Provide input to selection                              Inform the public; align
and development of goals
                                     State Goals        agency plans and programs




Provide input to indicator                             Inform the public, policymakers,
selection and development;         Social Indicators   and other decision-makers about
use data for advocacy and                              societal trends in the context of
other purposes                                         the state goals



                                                        Inform agency decisions
Provide input to strategic          State Agency        about programs portfolio and
goals and objectives               Strategic Plans      resource allocation



Provide input to                                        Inform agency decisions
measurement development;         Agency Performance     about program improvement
use indicator data in public         Measures           and support
discussion



 Inform program selection                               Inform decision about
 and evaluation design; use                             program implementation and
 results in public discussions
                                 Program Evaluation     funding
                           Organizational
                              Climate

            Feedback       •Organizational               Feedback
                           environment
                           •Organizational
                           communication
Organizational             •Employee role    Organizational          Organizational
   Culture                 conflict          Performance             Readiness for
                                              Outcomes                  Change
•Organization              •Supervisory
structure                  support           •Employee job               •TQM
•Technology                                  satisfaction                philosophy
•Role clarity                                •Employee job
                           Organizational    performance
•Social support               Policies
and interaction
                           •Training/
                           development
                Feedback   process                            Feedback
                           •Reward
                           systems
City Strategic Plan




     Goals
                       Departmental      Departmental
                      Strategic Plans     Measures




  Strategies          Objectives         Indicators
                       (Goals)


                                         Outcomes
Action Items          Strategies
                                         Measures


                       Services          Outputs &
                      (Programs)        Activity Costs
       EFFICIENCY




                                     MATCH
Input       Throughput   Output of           Standards for
Resources   Operations   Goods and           Goods and
                         Services            Services




                             EFFECTIVENESS
 1. Comprehensive                             2. Standards for
       Plan                                        Service
       Workforce
 Equipment & Materials                              Quality

       Facilities                                    Cost

       Financing                                    Scope

  Political Objectives

                          Financial Data


4. Corrective Action                           3. Monitoring
                                           + Fund Balances
+ Resource Reallocation                    + Operating Costs &
+ Reorganization                           Expenditures
                                           + Sub Contract Costs
+Changes in Operations
Methods Procedures                         +Performance
Standards                                  + Workforce levels
                                           +Earned Hours
                                           + Efficiency
                           Productivity    + Quality
                              Data
                       START


                     Decision and
                    Commitment to
                   implement PMS
                                       •Impacts
                                       •Problem
                  Problem Analysis
                                       •Causes
                   and Definition      •Goals
                                       •Objectives
Development of                         •Activities
  the System      Program Definition
                                       •Organizations
                                       •Goal-Related
                                              •Trend measures of
                    Measurement               magnitude, severity, nature
                                              of problem
                     Definition         •Objective-Related
                                               •Resources workload
                                               Outputs/Results
                                        •Targets
                   Program Plans
 Reporting and                          •Variances
Operational Use                         •Report Preparation &
                  Program Execution     Distribution
                                        •Analysis & Evaluation
                                        •Management Review
                     Changes/           •Management Decision-
                   Reprogramming
                                    Weekly
    Daily                                                  Production
                                    Count
    Crew                                                   Report
                                    Sheet
    Log
                                   (crew report)




 Weekly
                                   Manpower
 Leave &                           Utilization
 Absence                           Report
 Report

Reports                                               Data Sources
Daily Crew Log                                     Work Done in Field
Weekly Count Sheet (crew report)                   Daily Crew Log
Leave & Absence Report                             Daily Attendance Record
Manpower Utilization Report                        Weekly Count Sheets
Production Report
Context:
(1) Political values
(2) Forces of political interest groups/communities
(3) Institutional structure
(4) Decision making modes
                                                                                Improve performance
(5) Preferences of public officials                                             of public organization/program



                                                               Implementation                […Performance
                                                                                             measurement is not
                                                              1.   Data collection            an end in itself…]
                                                                   (comprehensiveness,
                               Design/strategies of                timeliness, costless)
                               performance system
                                                              2.   Resources (finance,
                                                                   HR, Organization
Purposes:                         1.   Coverage: Input,            capability)
                                       output, outcome
Evaluate, Control, Budget,             citizen satisfaction
Motivate, Promote, Celebrate,
                                  2.   Meaningful
Learn
                                       standard/baseline
                                                                              One size does NOT fit all and
                                                                                 multiple sets of measure
Natures of work:
•Service delivery/production
•Regulation
•Financing/Funding
Core Outcomes
  of Agency
   Defined
                  Management
                  Applications

                    Strategic
Agency Outcome
                   Priorities &
   Indicators
                    Planning



   Impact        Benchmarking
  Measures       & Best Practice



  Risk-based        Maximising
   Targeting       Benefits from
     Tools       Intervention Mix

Linked Outcome
   Measures
                    Business
                 Process Design
                 Define in      Measure as
Identify Core                                   Identify Areas
                Measurable       Outcome
  Outcomes                                       For Change
                  Terms         Indicators



                 Strategy Formulation
    Cost                                        Define / Refine
Effectiveness                                    Intervention
  Analysis                                           Logic
                 Optimising              Ex
                 Performance             Ante

  Impact          Design &       Prioritise        Identify
Measurement        Deliver      Intervention     Intervention
Framework       Interventions     Options          Options
 Define/refine      Development of the                Why do you exist?
 Department         Mission                              -- Mandates
 Mission                                              -- Policy Agendas


Discuss/Review                               Major effects on the organization‟s
                    Environmental Scan       capacity to most effectively pursue
Internal/External
                                             its mission
Factors


Departmental                                 Describes what the agency
                    Development of Key
                                             needs/wants to do stated in the
Key Objectives      Objectives               form of outcomes



Roles of Programs   Development of          How do you accomplish the key
                                            objectives? What strategies should
                    Strategic Initiatives
                                            be employed?


  Strategy                                  Activities constitute the strategies for
  Activities of           Activities
                                            accomplishment of key objectives.
  Programs                                  Multiple programs.



                                             Progress towards key objectives.
 Performance        Monitoring/Evaluation    Plan implementation phases.
 Measures                                    Evaluation process
                                   Performance Planning
                                   •Targeting outcomes
                                   •Determining resources
                                   •Setting priorities
                                   •Establishing standards


Performance Prediction and                                    Performance
Development                                                   Monitoring
•Analyzing performance                 Performance-Based      •Tracking progress
                                       Decision Making
•Improving performance                                        •Performance feedback
                                       •Organization and
•Developing potential                                         •Making adjustments
                                       program related
•Predicting future performance         •Performance related


                                                              Performance Appraisal
Performance Reinforcement
                                                              •Comparing performance
•Determining and applying incentives                          against expectations
                                                              •Determining levels of
                                                              performance reached
                                                              •Performance feedback
                                          Impacts Assessment




  Input:        Implementation   Monitoring
Resources
                                               Short-run       Long-run
                  Processes      Outputs
                                               Impacts         Impacts
 Input:
Demands                          Performance Monitoring




       Productivity Monitoring
                     Intervention Activity


                 Organizational Work Setting


                              Social
Organization                 Factors
arrangements                                   Physical Setting
                          Technology




                     Individual Behavior



                    Organizational Outcomes


Organizational                                  Individual
Performance                                    Performance
                                                                        Organizational
                                                                        Changes
                                                                                          Interpretation of
                                                    Complexity of
                                                                                          Measures
                                                    the Process
                                                                    Auditing Performance
                          Incentive                                 Measurement Data
                          for Output
                                                                                         Reporting
                                                          Functional
  Transparenc                                                                            Capabilities
                                                          Process
  y                           Accountability




                                                                                                                        Outcome-oriented Indicators
                                                                                                                           Broader Understanding
                                                                                                                                of Efficiency
                                                                      Link Between
                                       Punish Good
                                       Performance                  Output & Outcome                            Public
                                                                                                                Performance
                                                                                                                Measurement
                Game Playing                                        NCPP Guidelines
  Internal                                                                                                      Professionals
Bureaucracy                              System
                                                             Measures & Indicators Select                                             Levels of
                                       Responsibility                                                   Outcome                 Citizen Participation
                      Blocks                                     Set Performance Targets
    Blocks
  Innovation
                     Ambition                                                                   Effectiveness                      Empower
                                                                             Monitor Results
                                                                                                                                  Collaborate
                                                             Output            Report Performance
     Public Productivity Measurement
                                                                                                                                      Involve
     Diseases & Cures                                      Administrators                 Outcome Indicators
                                                           Efficiency                                                                  Consult
     - Optimal Measure to minimize dysfunctional                                                                                        Inform
     effects & maximize functional effects
                                                                    Representative Democracy
6.Improving Public
   Productivity
           Motivational                  Skill


                            Human



                          Productivity             Systems
Quantity                    Causal                    &
                            Factors                Controls
             Product
                                         Process




             Quality                 Technology
                               Managing for quality
                         Developing human resources
                              Adapting technologies
                              Building partnerships
                            Measuring for performance


  Resource inputs
(money, labor, energy,                                        Internal Capacities
         etc)
                                                              Outputs (services)

                                                             Outcomes (Impacts)


                                                         Subjective/
                                                          personal
                                                                            Objective/
                                                                            empirical


     Feedback Re: budget-                             Legislative/chief executive/
     management decisions                                  corporate/media/
                                                          citizen judgments
                                          Managing for quality
                          Top Management Support            Employee Employment and Teamwork
                          Customer Focus                    Measurement and Analysis
                          Long-Term Strategic Planning      Quality Assurance
                          Employee Training and Recognition


                                  Developing human resources
                          Recruitment the Best and Brightest Building Services by Building Teams
                          Providing systematic Training      Providing Employee Assistance
                          Recognizing Diversity              Balancing Employee and Organizational
                                                             Needs

                                        Adapting technologies
                                            Providing Open Access to Data
                                            Automation for Enhanced Productivity
                                            Delivering on the Public‟s Demands
                                            Cost-Effective Applications
                                            Cross-Cutting Techniques

                                          Building partnerships
                                            Community Partnerships –Citizens and
                                            Volunteers Public Sector Partners
                                            Private Sector Partners
                                            Not-for-Profit Partners

                                    Measuring for performance
                                            Establishing Goals and Measuring Results
                                            Estimating and Justifying Resource Requirements
                                            Reallocating Resources
                                            Developing Organization Improvements Strategies
                                            Motivating Employee to Improve Performance
Resource inputs (money,                                                                              Internal Capacities
   labor, energy, etc)

                                                                                                      Outputs (services)

                                                                                                     Outcomes (Impacts)

                                                                                           Subjective/                Objective/
                                                                                            personal                  empirical

       Feedback Re: budget-                                                 Legislative/chief executive/ corporate/media/
       management decisions                                                               citizen judgments
        Productivity Investments                     Spending as Usual



                                       Develop and
 Build government                       implement
                                        operations                        Agency
agency productivity                                                  Performance and
 and management                       improvement
                                        projects to                   Agency costs
      capacity
                                     improve agency
                                       productivity

                                      Feedback

Asses improvement and investment needs and constraints;
Community-based performance measurement and reporting for:
         agencies‟ service effectiveness and efficiency; community, customer, or clients needs;
Manager and employee capacity-building needs defined;
Monitoring and forecasting revenues and expenditures;
Assessment based on dynamic models of reality;
Improvement sought based on shared community vision and goals
     EXTERNAL FORCES                                          PRODUCTIVITY ACTIONS
•Increased demand for services by citizens                 •Develop formal productivity programs
•Jurisdiction experiencing financial stress                •Update professional talent and skills
•Population decline                                        •Set goals and standards for operations
•Reduced business activity                                 •Reorganize functions
•Political cultural limiting options




                                         INTERNAL ACTIONS
               Strategies                                    Coordinative/Operational
      •Limit union demands                           •Use advanced technology
      •Cut human services                            •Implement stricter accounting procedures
      •Cut police and fire services                  •Contract out for service delivery
      •Reduce capital expenditures                   •Implement program budgeting
      •Increase taxes                                •Prepare studies documenting problems
      •Institute across-the-board cuts               and needs
      •Make dramatic cuts
      •Cooperate with other jurisdictions to bring
      pressure
Dimensions                                                                                                    I. Informational
                 Constants                                                                                Demands for Productivity
                                           Problems                                                            Misperceptions
                                                                                  Opportunities Information Sharing
                                           Procedural Rigidity and Irregularity
                 Public Management Scope




                                                                                             ActionsMeasurement of Performance




                                                                                                                                                                                Bureaucratic Pathologies
                                                                                                                                                         Management-Workforce
                                                                                  Structures, Systems


                                                                                  Workforce Training




                                                                                                                                                                                                           Cultural Differences
                                                                                  Management and
                                                                                      and Controls




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  II. Social
                                                                                                                                                             Cooperation
                                                                                                                                          Motivational
IV. Managerial




                                                                                                                                          Incentives
                                                                                                                Public Sector
                                                                                                                 Productivity
                                                                                                                Improvement


                                                                                                        Local Technological Adaptations

                                                                                                             Technology Transfer

                                                                                                             Capital Underfunding
                                                                                                              National Priorities

                                                                                                               III. Technological
                                              •Reallocate manpower
                                             •Change work schedules
           •Combine tasks or                    •Reduce crew size              •Improve inventory
           functions                                                           control system
          •Automate process                                                    •Improve
     •Improve dispatching                                                      distribution system
                                              Sufficient work not
     procedures                               available or work-                     •Improve equipment
     •Revise deployment                       loads unbalanced                       maintenance
     practices                   Response or
•Adopt project                processing time too             Lack of equipment      •Reevaluate equipment
                                     slow                        or materials        requirements
management techniques


                              Excessive manual                  Self-imposed idle
                                effort required                 time or slow work
                                                                       pace
                                              Too much time                           •Train supervisors
•Mechanize repetitive tasks
                                               spent on non-
                                                                                  •Use performance standards
                                            productive activities
                                                                                     •Schedule more work




                                      •Reduce excessive travel time
                          •Reevaluate job description and task assignments
                         Productivity




                   Production Process
                                                     =




Inputs
                                                   Results

                                                   Outputs




                         Efficiency
                                                                   Direct Results Programs




                         Productivity




         Production Process               Tract Logic
Inputs
                                                         Results




                               Outputs
                                                                   Indirect Results Programs




            Efficiency                   Effectiveness
What Has Caused Productivity Declines ?
                                                                                               •High Turnover




                                          Workload Factors Management Factors Human Factors
                                                                                               •Loss of skilled employees
                                                                                               •Drop in employees‟




                                                                                                                                                             Human Factors Management Factors Workload Factors
                                                                                               efficiency
                                                                                                                               •Increased efficiency of
                                                                                               •Increase in nonproductive      personnel
                                                                                               time for training
                                                                                                                               •Acquisition of skilled
                                                                                                                               personnel




                                                                                                                                                                                                                 What Has Caused Productivity Improvement ?
                                                                                                                               •Job enrichment – job
                                                                                                                               restructuring
                                                                                               •Phase-in of new facilities
                                                                                               •Reorganization
                                                                                               •Lag in workforce               •Improvement through
                                                                                               adjustments                     capital investment
                                                                                               •Outmoded facilities            •Automation
                                                                                               •Uneconomic contraction         •Procedures simplifications
                                                                                                                               •Organization improvement
                                                                                                                               •Affirmative improvement
                                                                                              •More complex adp                program
                                                                                              requirements
                                                                                              •Rapid drop in military forces
                                                                                                                               •Workload increases
                                                                                              •Increase in output complexity
                                                                                                                               •Workload stability
                                                                                              •Quality increase
                                                                                                                               •Workload predictability
                                                                                              •Change in character of work
                                                                                                                               •Workload in complexity
                                                                                                                               •Workload in quality
    Input (Environmental factors)         Process (Internal factors)      Output



Demand for citizen participation
                                     Top management commitment
Demand for existing services
                                     Committed people at all levels
Public opinion
                                     Employee training                 Productivity
Community involvement
                                     Performance measurements          improvement
Political pressures and legitimacy
                                     Managing for quality
Budget constraints/laws
                                     Technology/structural change
Cooperative among agencies



                                          Feedback
                               Random Variations



Economic                       Public Technological                 Public Service
 Inputs                              Process                          Outputs


               Adjustment in Inputs
                     (+ or -)




                                      Control



                                                          Actual Output
   Resources               Planned
                                                      which might Differ from
                           Outputs
                                                         Planned Outputs
    Objective     Assessment               Experienced   Individual Attitudes   Organizational
     Factors        Criteria               Environment      and Behavior         Outcomes


Space
Furnishings
                   Adequacy
Equipments
Illumination
Thermal Factors
Cleanliness       Arrangement

Acoustics                                                   Satisfaction &
                                           Sense of Place                  Productivity
Colors                                                      Performance

Surfaces
                  Symbolic features
Ventilation
Fixtures
Way-finding
properties        Extent of user control

Ergonomics
The degree to which the individual
and the organization have clearly                                                                   Job satisfaction
thought out their own expectations
toward giving and receiving




                                                               Matches              More
                                                                                  matches
The amount of open discussion of                            The number of         increase
expectations initiated by the                                                                The individual‟s productivity
                                                            matches in the          Less
organization, the individual, or both
                                                         psychological contract   matches
                                                                                  decrease
                                  Low amount decreases
          High amount increases




The degree to which the individual                                                           The length of time the
understands the organization‟s                                                               individual stays with the
expectations and vice versa                                                                  organization
                            Social and Economic

                      Multiple Motivational Approach
                                      to
                      Motivate ALL Factors of Production

                       Employee, Dept., Taxpayer




                                                           Saving-Sharing
                                                           Workers‟ Trusts
                            Which can be achieved
                            in government through   High Synergy Organization
       Unified                                       1.Goal setting
Cooperative Organizations                            (social and economic)
                                                     2. Feedback
                                                     3. Participation
                                                       (social, psychological,
                                                       and economic)
                                   Fiscal Year

Management        Schedule and Conduct Management Reviews
 Reviews
                                            Identify Possible
                                              Management
                                          Improvement Actions



                     Recycle                        Select Management
                                                   Improvement Actions
  Annual
Management
Improvement
   Cycle         Assess Improvement                Formulate Improvement
                       Result                      Goals and Performance
                                                         Indicators
              Compare Performance
              and Initiative Corrective              Initiate Management
                        Action                      improvement Actions
                                 Stage 1:                                 Stage 2:                              Stage 3:
                           Learning to be Effective                Learning to be Efficient                Learning to Expand
High
Performance




                                                      Transition




                                                                                              Transition
              Initiation




                                                                                                                                Maturity
Low




                                                                          Time
                                                                                                              (3)
 Highly
Routinized                                                                                             Disappearance Stage
                       Displaced
                        Practice                                                               •Governance rules change
                      (if relevant)                                                            •Internal and permanent practioner
                                                                                               training
                                                                                               •Promotion of personnel
                                                                                               •Turnover of Key personnel
                                                               (2)
                                                                                               •Attainment of widespread use
                                                          Expansion Stage
                                               •Equipment turnover
                                               •Transition of local budgetary support
                                               •Appropriate organizational status
                                               •Stable arrangement for maintenance
                                               and supplies
                          (1)                  •Personnel classification

                 Improvisation Stage
             No passages or cycles
             achieved                                                                               •Public (if aware) identifies
                                                         •Top agency officials continue to          innovation as part of standard
                                                         allocate resources                         practice
                                                         •Coordinator works directly on             •Other jurisdictions become users of
                                                         organizational changes                     innovation (and may purchase
                          •Innovation is operational                                                service)
                                                         •Innovation is applied to core
Marginally                •Support by innovator          practices                                  •Old practice are discontinued
Routinized
                          •Decision to adopt             •Practioners gain direct experience        •Practioners derive clear benefits
                                                         with innovation                            and fully support innovation
               Time

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Description: Project on Customer Perception Towards Private and Public Insurance Sector document sample