Retail Clothing Store Questionnaire

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					CLOTHING INTEREST AND SHOPPING PATTERNS

    OF USED-CLOTHING-STORE PATRONS

                  by
   JEANETTE CAROLYN CHRISTIE, B.S.
               A THESIS
                  IN
         CLOTHING AND TEXTILES

  Submitted to the Graduate Faculty
     of Texas Tech University in
       Partial Fulfillment of
        the Requirements for
            the Degree of

 MASTER OF SCIENCE IN HOME ECONOMICS

              Approved




              Accepted




           December, 1980
        //c3, r / -^      ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

      Appreciation is sincerely extended to Dr. Patricia
Horridge, for her continued support and encouragement during
the completion of this study.        Gratitude is expressed to
other members of my committee. Dr. Joan Kelly and Dr. Mary
Lynne Richards, for their suggestions and professional
criticism.    Acknowledgment is given to Karen Cole, graduate
assistant in Classical and Romance Languages, for her help
in the Spanish translation of a questionnaire used in the
research.    Many thanks to the participants of the study.
      Finally, I wish to offer a special thank you to my
husband. Art, and children, Gavin and Claire, for their
patience and understanding during the completion of this
research study.




                                11
                                 TABLE OF CONTENTS


    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS                                                  ii

    ABSTRACT                                                          V

    LIST OF TABLES                                                   vii

 '2
- v 1 CHAPTER
       \
           -^I.   INTRODUCTION                                        1

                       Statement of Problem                           2

                       Purposes of Study                              3

                       Hypotheses                                     3

                       Survey Questions                               4

                       Limitations                                    4

                       Definition of Terms                            5

                       Background and Significance of Study      .    6

           II.    REVIEW OF LITERATURE                                3

                       Clothing Interests and Attitudes    ...        8

                       Studies Concerning Consumption of

                       Used-Clothing                                 14

       III.       METHODOLOGY                                        16

                       Selection and Development of Test

                       Instruments                                   16

                       Selection of Research Samples                 18

                       Administration of Test
                       Instruments                                   19
                       Statistical Treatment of Data                 20

                                         111
    IV.    F I N D I N G S A N D INTERPRETATIONS                               23
                  Selection o f Research Samples                               23
                  Selection and D e v e l o p m e n t of
                  T e s t Instruments                                          24
                  Analysis of Findings                                         25
                  Findings Related to Hypotheses                   ....        26
                  Findings Related to Survey Questions                     .   43
     V.    S U M M A R Y , C O N C L U S I O N S , A N D RECOMMENDATIONS   .   48
                  Selection o f Research Samples                               48
                  Selection and Development of
                  Test Instruments                                             49
                  Analysis of Findings                                         50
                  Findings Related to Hypotheses                   ....        51
                  Conclusions from Hypotheses
                  Findings                                                     53
                  Findings Related to Survey Questions                     .   56
                  Conclusions from Survey Findings                    ...      58
                  Recommendations for Further Research                     .   59
LIST OF REFERENCES                                                             61
APPENDIX
    A.     GENERAL CLOTHING INTERESTS QUESTIONNAIRE . .                        65
     B.    SURVEY OF USED-CLOTHING-STORE MANAGERS . . .                        68
     C.    SCALE MEANS BY DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES . . . .                        73



                                         IV
                             ABSTRACT

         This research was designed to investigate clothing
interest of used-clothing-store patrons and retail-clothing-
store patrons in relation to various demographic variables:
age, level of education, employment status, marital status,
and level of income.     The study included a secondary prob-
lem investigating the policies of used-clothing stores and
the shopping patterns of used-clothing-store patrons.
         The General Clothing Interests Questionnaire was dis-
tributed to 110 used-clothing-store patrons and 110 retail-
clothing-store patrons.     It consisted of 32 attitude state-
ments which represented eight specific clothing interest
scales.     One hundred twenty-one returned questionnaires were
statistically analyzed by t-test and analysis of variance
tests.     The hvpotheses were accepted or rejected at the
.05 probability level.     The study determined that, in
general, clothing interests of women are similar regardless
of type of store patronized, age, level of education, employ-
ment status, marital status, and level of income.     Differ-
ences, however, were recognized in regard to various
specific clothing interest scales.
      A Survey of Used-Clothing-Store Managers, consisting
of 17 questions, was distributed to 4 9 managers in the West
Texas area.   Frequency distributions and percentages were
calculated for the 25 responses obtained.   It was found the
number of used-clothing stores have increased in the past
five years.   Policies of the used-clothing store were found
to vary with (1) how the merchandise is obtained and (2)
where the store profits go.   A majority of used-clothing-
store managers reported similar shopping patterns of their
patrons.




                              v:
                        LIST OF TABLES

Table
   1.   Distribution of Sample by Demographic
        Variables                                    27
   2.   Clothing Interest Scales, Means, and
        t-Values for Used- and Retail-Clothing-
        Store Patrons                                28
   3.   Statement 32, Means, and t-Value for Used-
        and Retail-Clothing-Store Patrons            29
   4.   Analysis of Variance of Clothing Interest
        Scales According to Patron and Age           31
   5.   Type of Store Patron X Age Mean Scores
        for Scale 5                                  33
   6.   Analysis of Variance of Clothing Interest
        Scales According to Patron and Level of
        Education                                    34
   ^,   Analysis of Variance of Clothing Interest
        Scales According to Patron and Employment
        Status                                       37
   8.   Analysis of Variance of Clothing Interest
        Scales According to Patron and Marital
        Status                                       38
   9.   Type of Store Patron X Marital Status
        Mean Scores for Scale 2                      39
  10.   Analysis of Variance of Clothing Interest
        Scales According to Patron and Level of
        Income                                       41
 11.    Type of Store Patron X Level of Income
        Mean Scores for Scale 5                      42
 12.    Policies of Used-Clothing Stores as
        Reported by Store Managers                   44

                              VI1
Table

  13.   Shopping Patterns of Used-Clothing-
        Store Patrons as Observed by Store
        Managers                               45
  14.   Scale Means by Demographic Variables   74




                             Vlll
                            CHAPTER I

                         INTRODUCTION

      As consumers, we are all involved in the continuous
task of securing those items that we feel are necessary for
our existence.   However, in recent years, these necessities
have been more difficult to obtain because of the economic
crisis our country is experiencing (12). For many indi-
viduals, there is a need for serviceable low cost clothing.
The used-clothing store can provide this type of clothing,
generally at a lower cost than clothing purchased from a
retail-clothing store (4).
      Used-clothing from the United States has long been
accepted for purchase by people of other nations (16). In
past years, however, Peters (15) reports the American
consumer in only the lower socio-economic class has accepted
the used-clothing outlet.
      The number of second-hand or used-clothing stores in
the United States is on the increase (21, 22).   Nearly all
Americans are familiar with the typical Goodwill Industries
store, but few people are familiar with used-clothing stores
that deal in high fashion.    An example of the latter is a
New York City shop, "Encore," with a branch store in
Washington, D.C.   At "Encore," designer clothes of the
wealthy are resold to the less wealthy at about one-third
of the original price.   The owner of the shop then divides
the profits with the original owner of the garment.      This
method of disposing of once-worn clothing gives a better
incentive than a tax deduction for donations of clothing to
The Salvation Army (11).
      Researchers have studied the socio-psychological
reasons why people select certain clothing, but very little
research has been done concerning the purchase of used-
clothing.   This research will attempt to determine if
clothing interests of used-clothing-store patrons are simi-
lar to clothing interests of retail-clothing-store patrons.
In addition, the used-clothing store will be studied as a
possible market for both purchasing and discarding clothing.

                     Statement of Problem
      This research is designed to investigate clothing
interests of used-clothing-store patrons and retail-clothing-
store patrons in relation to various demographic variables.
The study includes a secondary problem which focuses on the
investigation of policies of used-clothing stores and
shopping patterns of the used-clothing-store patrons.
                       Purposes of Studv
                          "                I*


      The purposes of this study were:
      1.   To visit used-clothing stores and make unstruc-
tured observations to acquaint the researcher with the
problem.
      2.   To measure clothing interest of used-clothing-
store patrons and retail-clothing-store patrons.
      3.   To determine if clothing interests of used-
clothing-store patrons and retail-store-patrons are similar
      4.   To determine if there is a relationship between
clothing interests, type of store patrons, and selected
demographic variables.
      5.   To develop and administer a questionnaire for
managers of used-clothing stores to survey store policies
and shopping patterns of the used-clothing-store patrons.

                              Hypotheses
      The following null hypotheses will be investigated:
      1.   There is no significant difference in clothing
interests of used-clothing-store patrons and retail-
clothing store patrons.
      2.   There is no significant relationship among
clothing interests, type of store patrons, and selected
demographic variables:
           a.   age
           b.   level of education
           c.   employment status
           d.   marital status
           e.   level of income.
                        Survey Questions
      The following questions will be investigated through
a survey of used-clothing-store managers:
      1.   What are the differences among used-clothing-
store policies?
      2.   What are the differences among the shopping
patterns of used-clothing-store patrons?

                           Limitations
      The following limitations and assumptions are recog-
nized in this research:
      1.   The study was limited to used-clothing-store
patrons and retail-clothing-store patrons in Lubbock
County, Texas, which has a population of 200,,000 (24).
      2.   The survey of used-clothing-store managers was
limited to stores within West Texas cities exceeding
30,000 population (23).
      3.   There were three samples used in the study:
           a.   patrons of local used-clothing stores from
                June to September 1980
           b.   a representation of patrons of local retail-
                clothing stores from June to September 19 80
           c.   managers of used-clothing businesses in
                West Texas surveyed June 19 80
       4.   The study was limited by the reliability and
validity of the General Clothing Interests Questionnaire
to measure clothing interests.
       5.   The study was limited by the reliability and
validity of the Survey of Used-Clothing-Store Managers to
evaluate store policies and shopping patterns of the used-
clothing-store patron.

       6.   It was assumed that the research subjects
answered the questionnaires honestly,
       7.   Only volunteer respondents were used.
       8.   The findings of the study and any conclusions
drawn are limited to the research samples of the study.

                       Definition of Terms
       The definition of terms used in the study are:
       1.   Used-Clothing:   Clothing previously owned and
usually previously worn.
      2.    Used-Clothing Store:   An established business
operation in which a minimum of 50 percent total sales are
used-clothing.
      3.    Retail-Clothing Store:   An established business
operation which sells directly to the consumer and purchases
new clothing for resale.
      4.    Consignment Sale:   A sale in which a percentage
of the profit is given to the consignee or owner of the
garinent.
      5.     Clothing Interest:     An individual's attitudes
concerning clothing.

      6.     Fashion Innovativeness:     Selection of clothing
which demonstrates variety and currency, and displays the
owner's originality.

      7.     Fashion Interest:     Selection of clothing con-
sidered to be the latest style in design and color.
      8.     Opinion Leadership:     Selection of clothing to
show others the latest style in design and color.
      9.     Individuality:   Selection of clothing to project
one's personality.
     10.     Clothing Conformity:    Selection of clothing to
be like peers in style, color, and design details.
     11.     Clothing Economics:    Selection of clothing
because of the amount of time, money, and energy expended.
     12.     Shopping and Clothing Acquisition:    Selection
of method of obtaining clothing.
     13.     Comparison Factors in Clothing Decisions: Con-
sideration of style, price, quality, and comfort in clothing
selection.

              Background and Significance of Study
      Prior to 1947, the majority of studies in the clothing
discipline were concerned with design and construction.
Researchers then began to recognize the importance of the
socio-psychological factors of clothing consumption (19).
Many studies have been conducted on clothing interests of
the consumer, but until the early 1960's little or no
research had been conducted in the specific area of the
purchase of used-clothing.     These more recent studies
directed by Winakor (24) investigated the purchase of used-
clothing as a solution to the lower income family's budget
problem.     However, no investigation has been conducted to
determine if the consumer of used-clothing is similar in
clothing interests to the consumer of retail-clothing.
      The findings of this study are significant to con-
sumers of all socio-economic classes, family financial con-
sultants, and teachers of family economics.    These groups are
all concerned with helping today's budget-conscious family
in getting the most for their clothing dollar.    Managers of
used-clothing stores can use the results of this study to
aid in evaluation of their policies and advertising methods
in order to better understand their patrons' clothing
interests.
                            CHAPTER II

                       REVIEW OF LITERATURE

      The review of related literature is divided into two
areas:     (1) clothing interests and attitudes and (2) studies
concerning consumption of used-clothing.

                 Clothing Interests and Attitudes
         Several studies on clothing attitudes and interests
have been done in recent years.      Ryan expressed her opinion
of their findings to state:
    . . . individuals may vary in their interest in
    clothing and the values which they assign to
    clothing. These differences are related to the
    individual's general values which are expressed
    in other areas of living. (19:116)
Ryan also concluded that attitudes toward clothing
importance and clothing interest for an individual vary with
socio-economic class, occupational mobility, age, education,
and size of home town.
         In 1934, Barr (3) developed a questionnaire on moti-
vation in fashion.     Her sample was composed of 3 50 women
ages 17 to 50.     She concluded that an individual's clothing
selection was related to the general attitudes of conformity,
comfort, artistic impulse, and self-expression.


                                 8
     A similar study was conducted by Aiken (1) investi-
gating the relationship between clothing interest and
selected personality variables.    He categorized clothing
behavior in five areas:    decoration, comfort, interest,
conformity, and economy,    Aiken compared these clothing
behaviors to the Allport, Vernon, and Lindzey measure of
general values (2). A positive relationship was found in
the following categories:    economy with theoretical value,
conformity with economic, social, and religious values.
Negative relationships were found between conformity and
aesthetic value as well as decoration and theoretical value.
Aiken's results concurred with the results of Barr's earlier
research.
      In 194 8, Rosencranz (18) developed a test to measure
an individual's clothing interest.    Her findings indicated
age, rural or urban background, occupation, and income
showed a positive relationship with scores on the Clothing
Interest Questionnaire.    There has been much criticism of
this test concerning its validity but nonetheless it is
considered a landmark study into an area which had not been
investigated (19).
      Lapitsky (13) studied the relationship of clothing
values and general values to social security and insecurity.
She used the Allport-Vernon-Lindzey scale (2) omitting the
theoretical and religious values and dividing the social
                                                              10

value into Social I—love of man, and Social II—social
approval and conformity.     In 1959 the test measures were
administered to 8 0 teachers and 80 female students and
results indicated the aesthetic and economic clothing values
were of high importance to adult women.     She also concluded
that positive relationships exist between clothing values
and general values.    When comparing values in relation to
social security and insecurity, Lapitsky found women in the
socially secure group placed more importance on aesthetic
clothing value than the Social II value (social approval and
conformity).     The socially insecure group indicated the
inverse, the Social II value was more important than the
aesthetic clothing value.
      In 1963, Creekmore (5) investigated the basic needs,
general values, and clothing behavior of 300 college women.
A measure of human needs was developed using Maslow's theory
of motivation.     General values were measured by an
adaptation of the Allport-Vernon-Lindzey test of values.
The measure of clothing interest consisted of 130 attitude
statements in 14 classifications.     She found selected
clothing behaviors were related to specific general values
in the following manner:
                                                                 11

      Clothing Behavior    with     Value Related High
      Management of Clothing        Economic
      Experimentation in Clothing   Exploratory
      Status Symbol                 Political
      Appearance                    Aesthetic
      Conformity                    Social
      Fashion                       Political
      Modesty                       Religious
      Gurel (9) demonstrated construct validity of a later
revision of Creekmore's clothing interest test.     Gurel com-
pared eight factors:   personal appearance, experimentation
with clothing, conformity, modesty, psychological awareness,
self-concept, fashion interest, and comfort to the eight
subscales derived by Creekmore and associates.     Gurel's
sample consisted of 500 clothing and textile students at
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.     Signifi-
cant correlations between factors and subscale scores indi-
cated a strong relationship.   Gurel interpreted this as an
indication of construct validity for the instrument,     Gurel
compared selected demographic characteristics of the sample
with the clothing interest score and found there were
moderate relationships of clothing interest and sex and
clothing interest and college of enrollment.      She found no
significant relationships between clothing interest, age,
marital status, and socio-economic class.
      Francl (8) collected data from 8 5 homemakers in
Fort Dodge, Iowa, to investigate the relationship of fashion
interest to family life values and status.      Her findings
                                                                    12

revealed that status is involved in clothing choices, but
number and type of memberships in community organizations
may affect choices.
         In 1977, Sproles (20) investigated clothing attitudes
and values which could be used as basic inputs for the
development of extension clothing and textile programs.         A
survey was mailed to 2000 Indiana homemakers in rural,
urban, and highly urban population areas; a 54 percent
response was obtained.     The questionnaire consisted of
31 clothing attitude statements measuring eight clothing
interest areas.     Findings indicated that Indiana women
generally are not fashion opinion leaders or fashion inno-
vators but are interested in current fashion trends.        A
comparison of the rural, urban, and highly urban groups found
that clothing attitudes are more similar than in the past.
Sproles found younger women were more fashion conscious,
while older women appear to be more economy and socially
conscious.     Women with higher levels of education and income
appear to be more fashion conscious than women with lower
levels of education and income.     He also found employed
women tend to be more fashion conscious than unemployed
women.
                      .)
         Fortenberry ( 7 studied 9 0 professional women who
ranked in the four highest social class levels.     She revealed
that as the social class level increased women preferred
                                                                13

shopping alone, paying by bank card, and consulting of
fashion magazines.
      Harps (10) did a similar study with 141 single black
women in the Washington, D.C. area.     A chi-square test of
independence was used to compare the data obtained.     She
found the upper-middle socio-economic group was least likely
to pre-plan price to be paid or have a charge limit.     Women
from the lower-middle socio-economic class were most likely
to feel uncomfortable about clothing choices.     The upper-
lower group was most likely to pre-plan the number of
garments purchased, do comparison shopping, and shop with a
friend or relative.     Harps found the upper-lower group was
least likely to feel that clothing was an indicator of social
class.
         Several studies have demonstrated the importance that
individuals and different groups place on clothing.      Horn (11)
concludes that attitudes most often associated with clothing
relate to:     (1) desire to conform, (2) desire for self-
expression, (3) desire for aesthetic satisfaction,
(4) prestige values, (5) desire for social participation,
(6) physical comfort, and (7) economy.     She further states
clothing decisions are sometime difficult because of the
competing or conflicting nature of these values for the
individual.
                                                              14

                Studies Concerning Consumption of
                          Used-Clothing
      The majority of research in the area of used-clothing
was accomplished by a research project at Iowa State
University under the direction of Winakor (24) • The
following theses are part of the research project.
      Else (6) studied the purchasing practices of families
from various socio-economic levels.    She found both urban
and small town families purchased used-clothing.     The urban
family group had a higher percentage of used-clothing in
its wardrobe.    Else concluded this is due to the lack of
used-clothing business in the small town area.      Economy was
the reason given for the purchase of used-clothing,
      Robertson (17) interviewed Minnesota migrant farm
families on their clothing needs and purchasing patterns.
Of the eleven families studied, nine indicated they depend
upon used-clothing for part of their clothing needs.      Of the
nine families, six purchased nearly 50 percent of their
clothing needs from used-clothing sources.
      In 1968, Peters (15) researched the acquisition of
clothing from supplementary sources.    She defines supple-
mentary as purchased used, gift, handed down, exchanged,
made-over, inherited, borrowed or rented, or acquired with
trading stamps.    Of the 419 studied, 18.6 percent reported
they purchased used-clothing.    Families with a female head
of household were more likely to purchase used-clothing than
                                                               15

families with male heads.    However, income rather than sex
was found to be the reason.    Of the families purchasing
used-clothing, children were more likely to acquire used-
clothing than adults, and women more than men.    In general,
larger families and those with lower incomes were more
likely to purchase used-clothing.    This study indicated
the acquisition of used-clothing drops off sharply above the
poverty level of income.
      Cramer (4) investigated the sale of used-clothing by
businesses in Fort Collins, Colorado, to demonstrate the
alternatives available to the consumer for the purchase of
serviceable clothing.    Emphasis was placed on four used-
clothing businesses.    They were compared by quantity and
price of clothing with two discount and three catalog
businesses.   In all garroent categories, used-clothing was
lowest in price.
                         CHAPTER III

                         METHODOLOGY

      The methods and procedures used in this study will be
discussed in the following areas:    (1) selection and
development of test instruments, (2) selection of research
samples, (3) administration of test instruments, and
(4) statistical treatment of data.

               Selection and Development of
                     Test Instruments
General Clothing Interests
Questionnaire
      The instrument selected to measure clothing interests
of used-clothing-store patrons and retail-clothing-store
patrons was an adaptation of Sproles' Consumer Interest and
Priorities of Indiana Women questionnaire (20). The
questionnaire consists of 32 clothing attitude statements
representing eight specific clothing value and interest
scales:
      Scale 1 - Fashion Innovativeness
      Scale 2 - Fashion Interest
      Scale 3 - Opinion Leadership
      Scale 4 - Individuality

                                16
                                                               17

      Scale 5 - Clothing Confoirmity
      Scale 6 - Clothing Economics
      Scale 7 - Shopping and Clothing Acquisition
      Scale 8 - Comparison Factors in Clothing Decisions
      The research subjects were to indicate a response on
a five-point Likert scale from "Strongly Disagree" to
"Strongly Agree."     A section was included to obtain
demographic data.     The questionnaire was designed for use
with adult subjects.     Refer to Appendix A for General
Clothing Interests Questionnaire.
      Sproles (2 0) established face validity through group
interviews.   In addition, validity was tested with ten
respondents completing the questionnaire followed by
personal interviews.     A factor analysis was conducted for
the entire sample (989 respondents) to test the placement
of attitude statements within the eight scales.     Six factors
were derived from the analysis.
      In March 1979,a pilot study was conducted to
establish the reliability of the General Clothing Interests
Questionnaire.   A group of 25 adult women of various ages,
education, employment status, marital status, and income
levels were tested.     The same group was administered the test
three weeks later with 21 respondents completing the second
testing.   A .7249 correlation was obtained.
                                                               18

Survey of Used-Clothing-Store
Managef¥             _ _

        A questionnaire for used-clothing-store managers was
developed consisting of 17 questions concerning the policies
of the used-clothing store and shopping patterns of the
used-clothing-store patrons.     Information collected
included:     percentage of used-clothing sales compared to
total store sales, type of clothing in highest demand, and
shopping patterns of used-clothing-store patrons.
        Content validity was established by a panel of experts
consisting of previous managers of used-clothing stores
and Clothing and Textiles Department faculty of Texas Tech
University.    The Survey of Used-Clothing-Store Managers was
printed in English and Spanish because of the high number
of Spanish speaking-owners of businesses in the research
area.    Refer to Appendix B for the Survey of Used-Clothing-
Store Managers questionnaire.

                  Selection of Research Samules
Used-Clothing-Store Patrons
        A list of used-clothing stores in Lubbock County,
Texas, was compiled.    There were four businesses in the area
in which over 50 percent of sales were consignment used-
clothing.   After discussing the research plan with the
managers of each business, patrons from all stores were used
in the research sample.    The patrons of the stores were
                                                                19

volunteer respondents.     Questionnaires were distributed at
each store for one business day by the researcher.     Because
of the small number of customers per day at the stores,
store managers distributed additional questionnaires to
patrons from June to September 1980.

Retail-Clothing-Store Patrons
      A list of 300 households was compiled from the
Lubbock, Texas, telephone directory by means of a table
of random numbers (14). A telephone call was placed to
each number on the list, 116 women were contacted.     The
remaining numbers were disconnected numbers, no answer, or no
female in the household.    One hundred ten of the 116 women
were selected for participation in the study because they
had not shopped in used-clothing stores.

Used-Clothing-Store Managers
      A list of West Texas cities over 30,000 population
was compiled from census reports (23). The yellow page
sections of telephone directories of these cities were used
to compile a list of 49 used-clothing stores.     The Survey
of Used-Clothing-Store Managers and a stamped return envelope
was mailed to each store.

             Administration of Test Instruments
      The test packet containing a letter of introduction
and the General Clothing Interests Questionnaire was
                                                                   20

administered in Lubbock County, Texas, from June to
September 1980, to both used-clothing-store patrons and
retail-clothing-store patrons.     Questionnaires were coded
U for used-clothing-store patrons and R for retail-clothing-
store patrons.     The research subjects were asked to complete
the questionnaire and return it in the addressed, stamped
envelope which was included in the packet.        A total of
22 0 packets were distributed, 110 to used-clothing-store
patrons and 110 to retail-clothing-store patrons.        Thirty-
eight usable responses were obtained from used-clothing-
store patrons, a total of 34 percent.     The retail-store-
patrons returned 83 of the 110 questionnaires, a total of
75 percent.
      The Survey of Used-Clothing-Store Managers was
distributed to the research subjects during June, 1980. Of
the 49 received by the store managers, 25 usable responses
were obtained.

                  Statistical Treatment of Data
      The data obtained from the two questionnaires of this
study were analyzed separately:     (1) General Clothing
Interests Questionnaire and (2) Survey of Used-Clothing-
Store Managers.
                                                              21

General Clothing Interests
Questionnaire
      The General Clothing Interest Questionnaire was the
focus of analysis for this research.    Thirty-two attitude
statements were constructed using a five-point Likert
scale with respondents indicating the level of disagreement
or agreement with each statement.
      The clothing attitude statements are grouped in eight
related scales:
      Scale 1 - Fashion Innovativeness (3 items)
      Scale 2 - Fashion Interest (4 items)
      Scale 3 - Opinion Leadership (3 items)
      Scale 4 - Individuality (3 items)
      Scale 5 - Clothing Conformity (3 items)
      Scale 6 - Clothing Economics (4 items)
      Scale 7 - Shopping and Clothing Acquisition (7 items)
      Scale 8 - Comparison Factors in Clothing Decisions
                (5 items)
      The questionnaires were coded according to type of
store patron.     The eight clothing interest scale scores and
txhe total clothing interest score were compared for used-
clothing-store patrons and retail-clothing-store patrons.
A t-test was used for the comparison.     The relationship of
clothing interests, type of store patron, and selected
demographic variables was computed by an analysis of vari-
ance test.   Levels of significance were established at the
                 .%'jBmk V I




                                                                    22

.05 level or greater.          Hypothesis acceptance or rejection
was based on total clothing interests score.         However,
significant relationships by specific scales were reported.

Survey of Used-Clothing-Store
Managers
      The Survey of Used-Clothing-Store Managers was admin-
istered to obtain information concerning (1) policies of
used-clothing stores and (2) shopping patterns of used-
clothing-store patrons.          Frequency distributions and per-
centages were calculated for each of the 17 questions.
                           CHAPTER IV

                  FINDINGS AND INTERPRETATIONS

        The data for this research were collected and
analyzed to determine if there were differences in the
clothing interests of patrons of used-clothing stores and
retail-clothing stores.    In addition, the study investigated
the clothing interests of clothing-store patrons in rela-
tion to selected demographic variables:    age, level of
education, employment status, marital status, and level of
income.    The study included a secondary problem investi-
gating questions concerning:    (1) policies of used-clothing
stores and (2) shopping patterns of used-clothing-store
patrons.

                  Selection of Research Samples
Used-Clothing-Store Patrons
        Patrons of four used-clothing stores in Lubbock County,
Texas, were selected for the clothing interests study.       The
General Clothing Interests Questionnaire was used to measure
the used-clothing-store patrons clothing interests.     A total
of 110 questionnaires were distributed from June to September
1980.


                               23
                                                              24

Retail-Clothing-Store Patrons
      A representation of retail-clothing-store patrons
were randomly selected from the Lubbock, Texas, telephone
directory.   One hundred ten women who had not shopped used-
clothing stores agreed to participate in the study.     The
General Clothing Interests Questionnaire was mailed to each
participant.

Used-Clothing-Store Managers
      Managers of used-clothing stores from West Texas
cities of over 30,000 population were selected for the
research (23). A questionnaire, concerning used-clothing-
store policies and shopping patterns of used-clothing-store
patrons, was mailed to 49 businesses in these cities.

                 Selection and Development of
                       Test Instruments
General Clothing Interests
Que stionnaire
      An adaptation of Sproles' Consumer Interest and
Priorities of Indiana Women questionnaire was selected to
assess the store patrons' clothing interests (20). The
questionnaire consisted of 32 attitude statements which
represented eight specific clothing interest scales:
      Scale 1 - Fashion Innovativeness
      Scale 2 - Fashion Interest
      Scale 3 - Opinion Leadership
                                                               25

      Scale 4 - Individuality
      Scale 5 - Clothing Conformity
      Scale 6 - Clothing Economics
      Scale 7 - Shopping and Clothing Acquisition
      Scale 8 - Comparison Factors in Clothing Decisions
      The research subjects were to indicate a response on
a five-point scale from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly
Agree."    Each participant was asked to indicate demographic
information concerning age, level of education, employment
status, and level of income.    See Appendix A for reference
to General Clothing Interests Questionnaire.

Survey of Used-Clothing-Store
Managers
      A questionnaire was developed to survey used-clothing
store policies and shopping patterns of used-clothing-store
patrons.    It consisted of 17 questions.    The Survey of
Used-Clothing-Store Managers was printed in English and
Spanish to accommodate the high number of Spanish speaking
owners of businesses in the research area.

                      Analysis of Findings

General Clothing Interests
Questionnaire
      Of the 110 questionnaires distributed to used-clothing-
store patrons, 2 8 were returned (35 percent).     Eighty-three
questionnaires were returned from the 110 questionnaires
                       w



                                                            26

niailed to retail-clothing-store patrons (75 percent) .
Table 1 presents the distribution of used-clothing-store
patrons and retail-clothing-store patrons by demographic
variables.   The t-test was used to analyze clothing interests
scores in relation to type of store patron.   Analysis of
variance tests were used to determine the effect of the
selected demographic variables on the patrons' clothing
interests.   The level of significance was set at the ,05
probability level or greater.   Hypothesis acceptance or
rejection was based on the total clothing interests score.
However, significant relationships for the specific scales
were reported.

Survey of Used-Clothing-Store
Managers
      The Survey of Used-Clothing-Store Managers, concerning
the policies of used-clothing stores and shopping patterns
of used-clothing-store patrons, was distributed to 4 9
managers.    Twenty-five usable responses were obtained
(51 percent).    Frequency distributions and percentages were
calculated for each question.

                 Findings Related to Hypotheses
      Hypothesis 1. There is no significant difference
      in clothing interests of used-clothing-store
      patrons and retail-clothing-store patrons.
      Table 2 presents the results of the t-test comparing
the clothing interests of used-clothing-store patrons and
                           V




                                                                          27

                                 TABLE     1

          DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE BY DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES



Demographic               Used-Clothing-       Retail-Clothing-
 Variables                Store Patrons         Store Patrons     Total

Age
18-24                           1                    10             11
25-34                          14                    20             34
35-44                           7                    12             19
45-54                           5                    15             20
55-64                           5                    16             21
65 and over                     5                    10             15

Level of Education
Grammar School                  4                     2              6
1-3 yrs. High School            3                    11             14
Completed High School           8                    21             29
1-3 yrs. College                9                    23             32
College Degree (BS, BA)        11                    15             26
5 or more yrs. College          2                    11             13

Employment Status
Employed                       18                    35             53
Unemployed                     19                    48             67

Marital Status
Single                         15                    19             34
Married                        22                    64             86

Level of Income
Under $6000                     2                     3              5
$6000-$9999                     6                     8             14
$10000-$14999                   9                    13             22
$15000-$24999                  15                    20             35
$25000-$49999                   4                    31             35
$50000 & over                   1                     8              9
                             w




                                                                             28

                                   TABLE 2

             CLOTHING INTEREST SCALES, MEANS AND t - V A L U E S
              FOR USED- AND RETAIL-CLOTHING-STORE PATRONS


Clothing I n t e r e s t                       Mean     Mean
      Scale                                    Used    Retail    t-Value

Scale 1 -
Fashion Innovativeness                        9.211     8.639      1.2349

Scale 2 -
Fashion Interest                             13.368    13.819    -0.8763

Scale 3 -
Opinion Leadership                            8.526     8.747    -0.4709

Scale 4 -
Individuality                                 6.789     6.169      2.1782*

Scale 5 -
Clothing Conformity                          10.632    10.711    -0.2191

Scale 6 -
Clothing Economics                           15.895    15.530        .7143

Scale 7 -
Shopping and Clothing
Acquisition                                  24.605    23.482      1.6790*

Scale 8 -
Comparison Factors in
Clothing Decisions                            17.289   17.386      -0.1812

Total Interests Score                        110.053   108,253     0.8178


        *Differences significant at the .05 level,
                                                                  29

retail-clothing-store patrons.     A t-value of ,8178 was
calculated for total clothing interest.        It was not signifi-
cant at the .05 probability level.        This indicated there
were no significant differences in clothing interests of
used-clothing-store patrons and retail-clothing-store
patrons.     Therefore, Hypothesis 1 was accepted.    Significant
t-values were found, however, in two of the eight specific
clothing interest scales.     The research indicated that
used-clothing-store patrons selected clothing with more
consideration of individuality (Scale 4) than did patrons of
retail-clothing stores.     Significant differences between
used- and retail-clothing-store patrons were identified
concerning the method of obtaining clothing (Scale 7), This
was attributed to the highly significant patrons' responses
to the attitude statement concerning the purchase of used-
clothing.     Refer to Table 3,

                              TABLE 3
            STATEMENT 32, MEANS AND t-VALUE FOR USED-
                AND RETAIL-CLOTHING-STORE PATRONS


                                  Mean        Mean
Statement                         Used       Retail     t-Value

I would consider buying used
clothing at a retail" store if
it were available in this
area.                             4.081      2.807      6.055*

      •Difference significant at the .0001 level.
                                                               30

      Hypothesis 2. There is no significant relationship
      among clothing interests, type of store patrons, and
      selected demographic variables:
      a.    age
      b.    level of education
      c.    employment status
      d.    marital status
      e.    level of income
      The data collected from the General Clothing Interests
Questionnaire, obtained information from each respondent
regarding the following demographic variables:    age, level
of education, employment status, marital status, and level
of income.    Analysis of variance tests were used to
analyze the data which was considered significant at the
.05 level.    The findings will be discussed by demographic
variable.    Differences in used-clothing-store patrons and
retail-clothing-store patrons were discussed in regard to
Hypothesis 1.    Hypothesis acceptance or rejection was
based on the total clothing interests scores.    However,
significant relationships for the specific scales were
reported.

Age
      The total clothing interests scores of the respondents
were compared with the selected age bracket and type of
store patron.    The results of the analysis of variance
presented in Table 4 showed an F value of 1.04 for age and
1.55 for interaction of type of patrons and age in relation
with clothing interests scores.    These values were not
                                                                                      31



                                      TABLE 4
 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF CLOTHING INTEREST SCALES
            ACCORDING TO PATRON AND AGE

Source                                                     Analysis or
                                                      df   Variance SS      ? 7alue

Scale 1 - Faahion lanovatlveneas
    Age
                                                              25.117           .37
    Patron X Age
                                                              13.394           .55
Scala Z - "asnion Incerest
    Age
                                                                 ..361         .ao
           i
    Patron : Age

Scale 3 - Ooinicn laaaershij
    Age
                                                                             l.J-O
    Patron '.i Age                                              3   ;-, ^

S cale       Individuali:v
   Age                                                        10 . 13 "
   Patron 'i Age                                               5. ^2:         .30
Scale 5 - Clothing ConforTnic'^
   Age                                                        ' 3 . ^6 7     1.98
           •
   Patron '! Age                                              -^5•• - - -

icaj.5     - 'I'nrhi
              -othing :.ccnomxzs
   Age                                                              :--
                                                                             l.-O
   Patron '.i Age                                             19. J66         .?6

Scale " - Shopping and Clothing AcquisItz-on
   Age                                                       -^3. 575         ,35
   Patron Z Age                                              30.    - -c


Scale 3 - Comparison "actors in Clothing Deciaions
   Age                                                       59. 3 l 3       1.36
   Patron I Age                                              1 1
                                                                 343          .35

Total Interests Score
   .Age                                                     5 2 2 . 166      1.04
   Patron I Age                                             7 7 8 . 324


         ^Differences significant at the .01 level.
                                                               32

significant.    This indicates that age has no effect on the
clothing interests of women.    Therefore, Hypothesis 2a
was accepted.    This correlates with the findings of
Gurel (9), who found that women's ages were not signifi-
cantly related to their clothing interest.
      An examination of Scale 5 - Clothing Conformity,
however, indicates there was a significant relationship
between the interaction of type of store patrons and age.
Table 5 presents the mean scores for Scale 5 for the inter-
action of type of store patron and age.   Neither the used-
clothing-store patrons nor the retail-clothing-store patrons,
regardless of age, indicate consistently high or low scores
concerning clothing conformity.    Used-clothing-store patrons
under age 54 reported higher conformity scores than retail-
clothing- store patrons in the same age group.   However,
used-clothing-store patrons age 55 and over did not consider
clothing conformity as important as retail-clothing-store
patrons in the same age group.

Level of Education
      The total clothing interests scores of women with
regard to their level of education were examined by means
of an analysis of variance test.    Table 6 shows an F value
of 1.66 for level of education and an F value of .96 for
the interaction of type of patrons and level of education.
                    m\




                                                            33




                          TABLE 5
          TYPE OF STORE PATRON X AGE MEAN SCORES
                        FOR SCALE 5


 Age                  Used-Clothing-     Retail-Clothing-
Groups                Store Patrons       Store Patrons

18-24                     12.000              11.900
25-34                     11.500               9.900
35-44                     11.286              10.750
45-54                     11.000              10.733
55-64                      9.000              11.250
65 and over                9.200              10.200
                             «




                                                                                         34




                                      TABLE 6
 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF CLOTHING INTEREST SCALES
    ACCORDING TO PATRON AND LEVEL OF EDUCATION

                                                           Analysis of
Source                                                df   Variance 33      F Value


Scale 1 - "ashion Innovativeness
   Education                                           5      47. 400         1.73
   Patron X Education                                  5      40. 680         1.53

Scale 2 - Fashion Interest
   Education                                           5      38. 624         1. 14
   Patron '.i Education                                5      19. 355             J /



Scale 3 - Opinion Leadership
   Education                                           5      31. 590          _
                                                                              ;,11
                                                                              ;_
   Patron X Education                                  5              -41         . 4a


Scale 4 - Individuality
                                                              14.,344          _.^3
                                                                              T,
   Education
   Patron X Education                                         13..670          .37
                                                                              1.

Scale 5 - Clothing Conformity
   Education                                                  U.^ ,           3, 14*'
                                                                                .
   Patron X Education                                             .130        1 .38

Scale 1 - Clothing Economics
                                                                              t
   Education                                                  69, .381            .36*
   Patron X Education                                         T 1 .960              =
                                                                                   7;

Scale 7 - Shopping and Clothing Acquisition
   Education                                                  18,.076             ,36
   Patron X Education                                        105,.538

Scale 3 - Comparison Factors in Clothing Decisions
   Education                                                  17 .376          .51
   Patron X Education                                         10 .538         2.11

Total Interests Score
   Education                                                 832 .989         1.66
   Patron X Education                                        482 .267          .96


         *Difference3 significant at the .05 level.

     **Differences significant at the .01 level.
                         W|




                                                                  35

These values were not significant.       These results indicate
the level of education has no significant relationship with
women's clothing interests.        For this reason. Hypothesis 2b
was accepted.
      When the specific clothing interests scales were
examined, significant relationships with level of education
and clothing interests are found on Scales 5 and 6.       As
shown on Table 6, Scale 5 - Clothing Conformity, had an
F value of 3.14 which was significant at the .01 level.
A closer examination of Scale 5 means (Appendix C), shows
respondents in the lowest level of education and highest
level of education demonstrated a low score on the clothing
conformity scale.     This analysis contradicts the findings
of Sproles (20), who reported there were no differences in
attitudes toward conformity in clothing selection among
consumers of differing education levels.
         Referring to Table 6, Scale 6 - Clothing Economics,
shows an F value of 2.36 which is significant at the .05
level.    This indicates there were significant differences
in attitudes toward economics in clothing selection because
of level of education.        An examination of the scale means
(Appendix C)shows patrons in the highest level of education
reported the lowest scores concerning clothing economics.
This conclusion correlates with the study by Sproles (20),
who found consumers having lower education are more likely
                                                                  36

to perceive that it is expensive to keep up with changing
fashion than consumers with higher education.     He also
concluded consumers with lower education are more likely
to feel they are aware of how much they spend on clothing
than consumers with higher education.

Employment Status
      The clothing interests scores of the respondents were
examined using an analysis of variance test.    Clothing
interests scores were found to be significantly affected by
employment status at the .05 level as shown in Table 7.
However, no interaction between employment status and type
of patrons was indicated.   Therefore, Hypothesis 2c was
accepted.
      Scale 7 - Shopping and Clothing Acguisition, showed
highly significant differences in employed versus unemployed
respondents at the .0001 level.   This correlates with
Sproles (2 0) , who found employed consumers are more likely
than unemployed consumers to agree they do not have time
to sew at home.   He states unemployed consumers are also
more likely than employed consumers to agree that they
shop for clothing only when they intend to buy.

Marital Status
      The clothing interests total scores were analyzed in
relation to type of store patrons and marital status.       The

results of the study presented in Table 8 show there were
                                                                                                       37




                                          TABLE 7
ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF CLOTHING INTEREST SCALES
    ACCORDING TO PATRON AND EMPLOYMENT STATUS

                                                                       A n a l y s i s of
Source                                                        df       V a r i a n c e SS   F Value


Scale 1 - Fashion Innovativeness
   Employment                                                                 1.739            .32
   Patron X Employment                                                       LI.352           ;.02

Scale 2 - Fashion Interest
   Employment                                                                 1.939            .29
   Patron X Employment                                                        1.055            .16

Scale 3 - Opinion Leadership
   Employment                                                               13.540
   Patron X Employment                                                       4.208             .76

Scale 4 - Individuality
   Employment                                                                 7.286           3.56
   Patron X Imoloyment                                                         .000            .00

Scale 5 - Clothing Conformity
   Employment                                                                   ,707
   Patron X Employment                                                          ,000           .00

Scale 6 - Clothing Economics
   Employment                                                                1.648             . 27
   Patron X Employment                                                      10.422            1.69

Scale 7 - Shopping and Clothing Acquisition
   Employment                                                              155.189           17.19**
   Patron - Employment                                                        . -i66           .05

Scale 3 - Comparison Factors in Clothing Decisions
   Employment                                                      1          3.791            .58
   Patron X Employment                                             1           .740             11




Total Interests Score
   Employment                                                              500.920            4.99*
   Patron X Employment                                                        .000             .00


         *Differences   significant   at t h e .05   level.

     **Differences      significant   a t the .0001 l e v e l .
                                                                                    38



                                    TABLE 8
 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF CLOTHING INTEREST SCALES
      ACCORDING TO PATRON AND MARITAL STATUS

                                                          .Analysis of
Source                                               df   Variance SS    F Value

Scale 1 - Fashion Innovativenes s
   Marital                                            1      25.547        ^.64*
   Patron X Marital
                                                               .000         .00
Scale 2 - Fashion Interest
   Marital                                            1      22.376        3.-^9
   Patron X Marital                                   1      25.158        3. ?2*
Scale 3 - Opinion Leadership
   Marital                                           1       24.903       4.60*
   Patron X Marital                                  1        7.307        .**
                                                                          I:'
Scale 4 - Indivxdualitv
   Marital                                           1        5.377       l.Si^
   Patron X Marital                                  1         .000         .00
Scale 5 - Clothing Conformitv
   Marital                                           1        1.555          ~ -
                                                                               1

   Patron X Marital                                           2.383        .73
Scale 6 - Clothing Economics
   Marital                                           i.      9.o91        1.58
   Patron X Marital                                  1       5.063         .32

Scale 7 - Shopping and Clothing Acquisition
   Marital                                           1      20.105        1.96
   Patron X Marital                                  1
                                                              .000         .00

Scale 3 - Comparison Factors in Clothing Decisions
  Marital                                            1         .373        .06
  Patron X Marital                                   1         .252        .04

Total Interests Score
  Marital                                            1     382.172        3.75
  Patron X Marital                                   1        .000         .00

     *Differences significant at the .05 level.
                                                                39

no significant relationships at the .05 level or greater.
Therefore, Hypothesis 2d is accepted.      These results
correlate with those indicated by Gurel (9), who found
there was no relationship between clothing interest and
marital status.     However, in this study, marital status in
relation to clothing interests did approach significance
(.0551) .

         An examination of Scale 2 - Fashion Interests, indi-
cates there was a significant relationship between the
interaction of type of store patrons and marital status.
Table 9 presents the mean scores for Scale 2 for the inter-
action of type of store patrons and marital status.        Single
used-clothing-store patrons indicated a greater interest in
fashion than married used-clothing-store patrons, while
single retail-clothing-store patrons indicated less fashion
interest than married retail-clothing-store patrons.


                              TABLE 9

              TYPE OF STORE PATRON X MARITAL STATUS
                     MEAN SCORES FOR SCALE 2


Marital                   Used-Clothing-       Retail-Clothing-
Status                    Store Patrons         Store Patrons

Single                        14.867                  14.053

Married                       12.591                  13.750
                                                               40

      Results of the data from Scale 1 - Fashion Innova-
tiveness, and Scale 3 - Opinion Leadership, were found to be
related to marital status.    A study of the scale means by
marital status (Appendix C) show single respondents indi-
cated a higher degree of fashion innovativeness.    However,
the married respondents indicated they exercised a higher
level of opinion leadership (influence on friend's clothing
choices) than single respondents indicated.

Level of Income
      The total clothing interests scores of women with
regard to their level of income were examined by an analysis
of variance test.     Table 10 shows an F value of .73 for
level of income and an F value of 1.76 for the interaction
of type of store patrons and level of income.     These values
were not significant, therefore, indicate that the level of
income has no significant relationship with general clothing
interests.   Thus, Hypothesis 2e was accepted.    This correlates
with Gurel (9) , who found there were no relationships between
clothing interests and level of income.     However, Sproles
(20) found significant differences among fashion innovative-
ness, fashion interest, and clothing conformity in regard
to level of income.
      Scale 5 - Clothing Conformity, indicated there were
significant relationships at the .01 level between the
interaction of type of store patrons and level of income.
                                                                                   41




                                   TABLE 10
  ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF CLOTHING INTEREST SCALES
       ACCORDING TO PATRON AND LEVEL OF INCOME

                                                           Analysis of
Source
                                                      df   Variance SS   F Value

Scale 1 - Fashion Innovativeness
   Income                                              2      10.376       .38
   Patron X Income                                     5      37.248      1.31
Scale 2 - Fashion Interest
   Income                                             5      32.210         .55
   Patron X Income                                    5      26.150         .76
Scale 3 - Opinion Leadership
   Income
                                                      Ol


                                                             10.757        .39
   Patron X Income
                                                      Ol




                                                             48.372
Scale 4 - Individuality
   lacome                                             5      11.^24       1.36
   Patron X Income                                    5        .000        .00
Scale 3 - Clothing Conformity
   Income                                             5      23.706       1.53
   Patron X Income                                           46.197       3.13*
Scale 6 - Clothing Economics
   Income                                             5      48.150       1.59
   Patron X Income                                    5      25.260        .33
Scale 7 - Shopping and Clothing Acquisition
   Income                                             5     101.230       1.99
   Patron X Income                                    5       2.34^        .06

Scale 3 - Comparison Factors in Clothing Decisions
   Income                                             5      16.227        .51
   Patron X Income                                    5      55.812       1.75

Total Interests Score
  Income                                              5     368.350        .73
  Patron X Income                                     5     885.600       1.76

         •Differences significant at the .01 level.
                                                                42

Table 11 presents the mean scores for these relationships.
The used-clothing-store patron or retail-clothing-store
patron, regardless of level of income, do not consistently
indicate high or low scores concerning clothing conformity.
Conclusions are difficult to make because of small numbers
in some income levels and the similarity of means in some
income levels.     However, used-clothing-store patrons in the
$15000-$24999 and $25000-$49999 income levels indicated more
importance in regard to clothing conformity than retail-
clothing-store patrons in the same levels of income.


                             TABLE 11

              TYPE OF STORE PATRON X LEVEL OF INCOME
                      MEAN SCORES FOR SCALE 5


Level of                  Used-Clothing-     Retail-Clothing-
 Income                   Store Patrons       Store Patrons


Under $6000                  10.500               9.333
$6000-$9999                   9.500              10.125
$10000-$14999                10.667              10.846
$15000-$24999                11.600              10.400

$25000-$49999                11.250              11.070

$50000 & over                 5.000              10.875
                       m




                                                             43

             Findings Related to Survey Questions
      Question 1. What are the differences among
      used-clothing-store policies?
      Used-clothing-store managers reported differences in
various store policies in response to the Survey of Used-
Clothing-Store Managers.    Table 12 shows of the 25 businesses
surveyed, 20 percent have been in operation less than five
years, and over 76 percent of the sales of all stores were
used-clothing.
      Twelve of the 25 stores surveyed (48 percent) obtained
their merchandise by consignment.   Of these consignment stores
75 percent indicated the price of the garment was deter-
mined by the store management; whereas, only one store
allowed the garment owner to determine the price.   Two stores
indicated that under 25 percent of consignment-garment
price is kept by the store, seven reported 26 to 5 0 percent,
and three stores reported that over 51 percent of the price
is retained by the store.   Of the 25 used-clothing stores
surveyed, 12 stores (48 percent) were operated for charity
and 13 stores (52 percent) were operated for store-owner
profit.   It was reported that a high percentage of used-
clothing stores offered all categories of clothing:   men,
women, girls, boys, and infants.
                              1




                                                                        44




                               TABLE 12

            P O L I C I E S OF USED-CLOTHING STORES
               AS REPORTED BY STORE MANAGERS

Policv                                            Frequency   Percent

Years of store operation
   less than 1 year                                   1
   1 or 2 years                                       0          0
   3 or 4 years                                                 16
   5 or more vears                                              80

Years manager at store
   less than 1 year                                             28
   1 or 3 years                                       3         12
   3 or 4 years                                                 16
   5 or nore vears                                   11         44

Percent sales used clothing
   less than 15%
   26% to 50%                                                   _.4
   51% to 7 5J;                                                 12
   over 76%                                                     54

 90% Merchandise obtained by
    purchase for resale                                         10
    donation                                                    36
    consignment

*Price determined by
    owner of garment                                  1          3
    store manager                                     9         75
    mutually agreed                                             17

•Percent of price Icept by store
    under 10%                                         0          0
    11% to 25%                                        2         17
    26% to 50%                                        7         58
    over 51%                                          3         25

 Store protits go to
    charity                                          12         ^8
    store ovmer                                      13         52

Merchandise offered
   men                                               23         92
   women                                             24         96
   girls                                             23         92
   boys                                              23         92
   infants                                           23         92
   other                                             23         92


         a-25

         •Concerns consignment stores only n«12
                                                              45

      Question 2. What are the differences among the
      shopping patterns of used-clothing-store patrons?
      Table 13 presents the data concerning the shopping
patterns of used-clothing-store patrons as observed by the
store managers.   Sixty percent of the store managers surveyed
reported women's clothing to be the majority of sales,
while 2 8 percent reported men's clothing to be sold in the
majority of sales.   Only two stores (8 percent) reported
girl's clothing to be the majority of their sales.   This
contradicts the study by Peters (15), who reported that of
families purchasing used-clothing, children were more likely
to be the recipients of used-clothing.
      Clothing for streetwear (casual, church) was considered
in highest demand by 60 percent of the store managers.      Two
stores (8 percent) indicated that designer clothing was in
high demand.
      Used-clothing-store managers reported only 32 percent
of their patrons come into the store for a particular type
of clothing.   Forty-four percent (11 stores) indicated their
patrons shopped alone, while 4 8 percent (12 stores) reported
patrons shopped with a friend.   Eight percent of the managers
reported their patrons shop with their spouse.   Two-thirds
of the store managers surveyed reported their patrons
usually buy upon a first visit to the used-clothing store.
      Over 72 percent (18 store managers) agreed that all
income levels have accepted the purchase of used-clothing as
                          «l




                                                                46




                               TABLE 13
  SHOPPING PATTERNS OF USED-CLOTHING-STORE
    PATRONS AS OBSERVED BY STORE MANAGERS

Shopping Patterns                         Frequency   Percent

Majority of sales
   Men                                        7         23
   Women                                      .
                                             15         60
   Girls                                      2          3
   3oys                                       0
   Infants                                    0
   No response                                1

"yve zlothing highest demand
   Outerwear                                  7         28
    Streetwear                               15         60
   Other                                      2
   No response                                1

Looking for oarticu•lar
        I
tvoe of clothing
   i'es                                       3         J.:
   No                                        16         54
   No response                                ^

Shopping companion
   Shop alone                                11
   Shop with spouse
   Shop vith friend                          12         48

First visit to store
   Usually buy                               16         64
   Just look                                  3         32
   No response

Used clothing acceptance
   Low income                                 1
   Low i middle income                        6         24
   All income levels                         18         72

Increase interest in
used clothing
   Yes                                                  88
   No                                         1          4
   No opinion                                 2          3

If ves, why
   Inflation                                           100




n=25
                                                            47

a part of their wardrobe.   This contradicts the findings of
Peters (15) , who reported the purchase of used-clothing
drops off sharply above the lowest level of income.   Twenty-
two store managers (88 percent) indicated there has been an
increase in the interest in the purchase of used-clothing
in the last five years.   All managers that reported an
increase in used-clothing, agreed inflation was the major

reason.
                         H




                              CHAPTER V

          SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

      This research was undertaken to determine if there
were differences in the clothing interests of used-clothing-
store patrons and retail-clothing-store patrons.      The study
was also designed to determine if differences in clothing
interests existed among type of store patrons and selected
demographic variables:       age, level of education, employment
status, marital status, and level of income.      The research
included a secondary problem investigating:       (1) policies
of used-clothing stores and (2) shopping patterns of used-
clothing-store patrons.

                  Selection of Research Samples
Used-Clothing-Store Patrons
      One hundred ten General Clothing Interests Question-
naires were distributed to used-clothing-store patrons in
Lubbock, Texas.   Usable responses were obtained from 3 8
used-clothing store patrons (35 percent).

Retail-Clothing-Store Patrons
      The General Clothing Interests Questionnaire was
distributed to 110 retail-clothing-store patrons in Lubbock,

                                  48
                                                               49

Texas.     Eighty-three usable responses were obtained
(75 percent).

Used-Clothing-Store Managers
         Forty-nine managers of used-clothing stores from
West Texas were selected for the study.     Questionnaires con-
cerning policies of used-clothing stores and shopping
patterns of used-clothing store patrons were mailed to each
manager.     Twenty-five usable questionnaires were returned
(51 percent).

                   Selection and Development of
                         Test Instruments
General Clothing Interests
Questionnaire
         A questionnaire was used to obtain information con-
cerning women's clothing interests.      The questionnaire
selected was an adaptation of Sproles' Consumer Interest
and Priorities of Indiana Women (20). It consisted of
32 attitude statements which represented eight specific
clothing interest scales:
         Scale 1 - Fashion Innovativeness
         Scale 2 - Fashion Interest
         Scale 3 - Opinion Leadership
         Scale 4 - Individuality
         Scale 5 - Clothing Conformity
         Scale 6 - Clothing Economics
                       w




                                                                50

      Scale 7 - Shopping and Clothing Acquisition
      Scale 8 - Comparison Factors in Clothing Decisions
      The volunteer respondents were to indicate their
attitudes toward clothing interest on a five-point scale from
"Strongly Agree" to "Strongly Disagree."    The questionnaire
included a section to indicate demographic information
relating to age, level of education, employment status,
marital status, and level of income.    See Appendix A for
the General Clothing Interests Questionnaire.

Survey of Used-Clothing-Store
Managers

      The Survey of Used-Clothing-Store Managers consisted
of 17 questions.   It was developed to answer questions con-
cerning (1) policies of used-clothing stores and
(2) shopping patterns of used-clothing-store patrons.     See
Appendix B for the Survey of Used-Clothing Store Managers.

                     Analysis of Findings
General Clothing Interests
Questionnaire'
      The questionnaires were coded according to type of
store patrons.   The total clothing interests score and the
eight specific scale scores were compared for used-clothing-
store patrons and retail-clothing-store patrons.    The
statistical tool used was the t-test.   An analysis of vari-
ance test was used to determine if significant
                                                                51

relationships existed among type of store patrons and
selected demographic variables.    Levels of significance
were established at the .05 level or greater.      The
hypotheses for this research were accepted or rejected based
on the total clothing interests score.    However, signifi-
cant relationships for the specific scale scores were
reported.

Survey of Used-Clothing-Store
Managers
      The returned questionnaires were hand-scored to answer
questions concerning:     (1) the policies of used-clothing
stores and (2) the shopping patterns of used-clothing-store
patrons.    Frequency distributions and percentages were
calculated for each of the 17 questions.

                  Findings Related to Hypotheses
      The following findings resulted from the testing of
the hypotheses:
      Hypothesis 1.     A significant difference in clothing
interest of used-clothing-store patrons and retail-clothing-
store patrons was not found.     Therefore, Hypothesis 1 was
accepted.    However, differences were identified between
used-clothing-store patrons and retail-clothing-store patrons
on two specific scales.     Used-clothing-store patrons indi-
cated selection of clothing with more consideration of
                                                               52

individuality (Scale 4) than did retail-clothing-store
patrons.    Also a difference was noted between the type of
store patrons on the method of obtaining clothing
(Scale 7).
         Hypothesis 2a.   A significant relationship among
clothing interests, type of store patrons, and patrons' age
was not observed.     Therefore, Hypothesis 2a was accepted.
A significant relationship among Scale 5 - Clothing
Conformity, type of store patrons, and patrons' age was
found.
         Hypothesis 2b.   A significant relationship among
clothing interests, type of store patrons, and patrons'
level of education was not found.      Therefore, Hypothesis 2b
was accepted.     Significant relationships were identified
for the specific scales concerning clothing conformity
(Scale 5) and clothing economics (Scale 6) in regard to
level of education.
      Hypothesis 2c.      A significant relationship among
clothing interests and patrons' employment status was
recognized.     However, no interaction between employment
status and type of patrons was found.      Therefore,
Hypothesis 2c was accepted.      A highly significant relation-
ship for Scale 7 - Shopping and Clothing Acquisition, and
employment status was noted.
                                                               53

      Hypothesis 2d.   A significant relationship among
clothing interests, type of store patrons, and patrons'
marital status was not observed.     Therefore Hypothesis 2d
was accepted.   However, interaction of type of store
patrons and patrons' marital status was indicated for
Scale 2 - Fashion Interests.   There were significant rela-
tionships among Scale 1 - Fashion Innovativeness and
Scale 3 - Opinion Leadership to patrons' marital status.

      Hypothesis 2e.   A significant relationship among
clothing interests, type of store patrons, and patrons'
level of income was not indicated.    Therefore, Hypothesis 2e
was accepted.   However, interaction of type of store patrons
and patrons' level of income was significant for Scale 5 -
Clothing Conformity.

             Conclusions from Hypotheses Findings
      The following conclusions have been drawn from the
testing of the hypotheses:
      1.   Women who patronized used-clothing stores have
similar clothing interests as women who shopped only retail-
clothing stores.
      2.   Women who shopped used-clothing stores have a
tendency to be more individualistic in dress than retail-
clothing-store patrons.
                                                                54

      3.     Retail-clothing-store patrons have not recognized
the used-clothing store as an acceptable clothing outlet.
This is supported by Peters (15), who reported the used-
clothing store was accepted only by low economic classes of
consumers.
      4.   Women's age has no effect on their clothing
interests in general.     This correlates the findings of
Gurel (9) who found no significant relationship of age and
clothing interests.
      5.     Women, under age 54, who patronize used-clothing
stores place more importance on clothing conformity, than
women in the same age group, that shop only retail-
clothing stores.     Used-clothing-store patrons, age 55 and
over, do not consider clothing conformity as important, as
retail-clothing-store patrons in the same age group.
      6.     The level of education of women has no effect on
their clothing interests in general.     The researcher
speculates this may be a result due to mass media and travel.
Women are exposed to a variety of clothing values which can
affect their clothing interest.
      7.     Women in both high and low levels of education
are less likely than women in middle levels of education
to consider conformity or social appropriateness in dress to
be very important.     Sproles (20), however, reported no
                         1BI




                                                               55

difference in attitudes concerning clothing conformity and
level of education.
      8.   Women with the highest level of education con-
sider the amount of time, money, or energy expended during
the clothing selection process to be of little importance.
This was indicated by low clothing economic scores.
Sproles (20) discovered women with lower levels of education
have high clothing economic scores.
      9.   Women who are employed have a greater clothing
interest than those who are not employed outside the home.
This conclusion may be a result of employed women spending
more time in the business world, therefore, needing a more
varied wardrobe than the unemployed women.
     10.   Employed women are more likely than unemployed
women to find less pleasure in shopping and agree they do
not have time to sew at home.   The employed wom.en may find
shopping less pleasant because they do not feel they have
the time for shopping.
     11.   The marital status of women does not significantly
affect their clothing interests.   This correlates the
findings of Gurel (9).
     12.   Single used-clothing-store patrons are more likely
than married used-clothing-store patrons to have a greater
interest in fashion, while single retail-clothing-store
patrons indicate less fashion interest than married retail-
clothing-store patrons.
                                                                56

     13.     Women who are not married have a higher degree of
fashion innovativeness than married women.
     14.    Married women feel they have a higher level of
influence on their friend's clothing choices than single
women.     Single women may not feel they have this influence
over their single friends.     This may be because of the
earlier conclusion that single women were more fashion
innovative, therefore, possibly more independent, than
married women.

     15.    The level of income of women does not effect
their clothing interests.    This correlates the findings
of Gurel (9). However, Sproles (20) found significant
differences among fashion innovativeness, fashion interest,
and clothing conformity in regard to level of income.
     16.    Used-clothing-store patrons in middle levels of
income ($15000-$24999) , indicate more importance in regard
to clothing conformity, than retail-clothing-store patrons
in the same level of income.

              Findings Related to Survey Questions
      The findings which resulted from the survey of used-
clothing-store managers will be discussed in two areas:
(1) policies of used-clothing stores and (2) shopping
patterns of used-clothing-store patrons.
                                                              57

Policies of Used-Clothing
Stores

      1.   A 25 percent increase in the number of used-
clothing stores in West Texas in the past five years was
reported by the store managers.
      2.   Of the used-clothing stores in West Texas,
approximately one-half are consignment stores,
      3.   Seventy-five percent of the managers of consign-
ment used-clothing stores determine the price of garments.
      4.   The percentage of the garments' price retained
by consignment stores in the research population vary.
      5.   There are approximately the same number of used-
clothing stores in the research area, in which profits of
the store go to charity as those where the profits go to the
store manager.
      6.   The managers surveyed reported that most used-
clothing stores offer all categories of clothing.

Shopping Patterns of Used-Clothing-
Store Patrons
      1.   Women's clothing was reported to be the majority
of sales of 6 0 percent of the used-clothing stores surveyed.
      2.   The type of used-clothing reported to be in
highest demand was streetwear (casual, church).
      3.   Sixty-four percent of managers surveyed, report
patrons were not looking for a particular type of garment
when shopping the used-clothing store.
                                                               58

      4.    Managers reported very few used-clothing store
patrons shop with their spouse.    A large majority of the
patrons either shop alone or shop with a friend.
      5.    Sixty-six percent of used-clothing-store managers
report their patrons usually buy upon a first visit to the
used-clothing store.
      6.    Seventy-two percent of used-clothing-store mana-
gers feel all income levels find the purchase of used-
clothing acceptable.
      7.    Eighty-eight percent of used-clothing-store
managers report there has been increased interest in the
purchase of used-clothing because of inflation.

                Conclusions from Survey Findings
      The following conclusions have been drawn from the
findings reported by the used-clothing-store managers:
      1.    The number of used-clothing stores is on the
increase.    This is supported by census reports from 1972
and 1977 (21, 22).
      2.    Policies of used-clothing stores can be expected
to vary with (1) how the merchandise is obtained and
(2) where the store profits go.
      3.    The used-clothing store can be used as a profit-
able means of discarding used-clothing by consignment.
Garment owners can turn their "seldom worn" clothing into
dollars to purchase other clothing.
                                                                 59

         4.   The used-clothing store has become a more accept-
able clothing outlet than in past years.      The author specu-
lates this may be because of the economic situation con-
sumers are facing today.      Used-clothing stores may become
a more important part of our society.
         5.   Interest in used-clothing will expand to all
types of clothing.      While streetwear was considered in
highest demand by the majority of store managers surveyed,
designer clothing and men's work clothing was reported by
managers to be in high demand at their stores.         Peters (15)
found children were most likely to be the recipients of
used-clothing, while this researcher's survey found women's
clothing to be the majority of used-clothing sales.
         6.   The author concludes that additional study con-
cerning used-clothing-stores is worthwhile because it is a
growing part of the United States clothing sales market.

                Recommendations for Further Research
      The following areas are recommended for additional
study:
      1.      Clothing interests of used-clothing-store patrons
and retail-clothing-store patrons in relation to the size
of cities.
      2.      Retail-clothing-store patrons' reluctance to
shop in used-clothing stores in relation to voiced and
non-communicated reasons.
                                                               60

      3.    Used-clothing-store patrons' definitions of a
"good buy" at a used-clothing store.
      4.    A larger sample of used-clothing-store patrons'
clothing interests in relation to demographic variables.
      5.    Men's clothing interests in relation to type of
store patrons.
      6.    Used-clothing-store patrons' interest in relation
to type of used-clothing store shopped (distribution of
profits).
      7.    Percentage of profits retained by store in rela-
tion to type of used-clothing store (distribution of
profits).
                      LIST OF REFERENCES

1.   Aiken, Lewis R. "The Relation of Dress to Selected
          Measures of Personality in Undergraduate Women."
          The Journal of Social Psychology, 59 (1963):
          119-127.     ~~
2.   Allport, Gordon W.; Vernon, Philip E.; and Lindzey, G.
          Study of Values Manual. Boston: Houghton
          Mifflin Company, 1960.
3.   Barr, Estelle de Young. "A Psychological Analysis of
          Fashion Motivation." Archives of Psychology,
          116 (June 1934):5-99.                 "
4.   Cramer, Janis E. "Sale of Used Clothing by Businesses
          in Fort Collins." Unpublished Master's thesis,
          Colorado State University, 1973.
5.   Creekmore, Anna M. "Clothing Behaviors and Their
          Relation to General Values and to the Striving
          for Basic Needs." Unpublished Doctoral
          dissertation. The Pennsylvania State University,
          1963.
6.   Else, Janet J. "Clothing Sources of Sixteen Iowa
          Families from Two Socio-Economic Groups, with
          Emphasis on Home Production." Unpublished Master's
          thesis, Iowa State University, 196 5.
7.   Fortenberry, Rebecca A. "Fashion Preferences and
          Fashion Buying Practices of a Selected Group
          of Professional White Women." Unpublished
          Master's thesis, Louisiana State University, 1976.
8.   Francl, Janell R. "Fashion Choices Associated with
          Values of Homemakers." Unpublished Master's
          thesis, Iowa State University, 1970.
9.   Gurel, Lois M. "Dimensions of Clothing Interest Based
          on Factor Analysis of Creekmore's 196 8 Clothing
          Measure." Unpublished Doctoral dissertation.
          University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 1974.


                              61
                                                               62


10.   Harps, Doris Y. "Clothing Buying Practices of Single
           Black Women from Three Social Classes." Unpub-
           lished Master's thesis, Virginia Polytechnic
           Institute and State University, 1976.
11.   Horn, Marilyn J. The Second Skin.   Boston:   Houghton
           Mifflin Company, 19 75.
12.   Katona, George. "Psychology and Consumer Economics,"
           Consumer Research Journal, 1 (1974) :l-8,
13.   Lapitsky, Mary, ''Clothing Values and Their Relation
           to General Values and to Social Security and
           Insecurity." Unpublished Doctoral dissertation,
           The Pennsylvania State University, 1961,
14.   Ott, Lyman. An Introduction to Statistical Methods
           and Data Analysis. North Scituate, Massachusetts
           Duxbury Press, 1977.
15.   Peters, Catherine. "Clothing Acquired From Selected
           Supplementary Sources by Low-to-Moderate Income
           Families in a Midwestern City." Unpublished
           Master's thesis, Iowa State University, 1968.

16.   Roach, Mary E,, and Eicher, Joanne B. The Visible
           Self, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1973.
17.   Robertson, Corrine. "Clothing Practices of Selected
           Minnesota Farm Migrants." Unpublished Master's
           thesis, Iowa State University, 1968.
18.   Rosencranz, Mary L. "A Study of Women's Interest
           in Clothing," Journal of Home Economics, 41
           (August 1949):460-462.
19.   Ryan, Mary S. Clothing: A Study in Human Behavior.
           Nev7 York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, Inc. ,
           1966.
20.   Sproles, George B. "Clothing Orientations of Adult
           Indiana Women," Research Bulletin No. 944,
           Purdue University, June 1977.
21.   United States Department of Commerce. Bureau of the
           Census. Census of Retail Trade, 1972. Vol, 1
           Summary and Subject Statistics, Merchandise
           Line Sales. U.S, Government Printing Office,
           Washington, D . C , 1976.
                                                            63

22,   United States Department of Commerce. Bureau of the
           Census. 1977 Census of Retail Trade. Geographic
           Area Series RC-77-A-52. U.S. Government Printing
           Office, Washington, D . C , October 1979.
23,   United States Department of Commerce. Bureau of the
           Census. Population Estimates and Projects.
           Series P-25, No. 798, "Estimates of Population
           of Texas Counties and Metropolitan Areas:
           July 1, 1976 (Revised) and 1977 (Provisional).
           U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D . C ,
           March 1979,

24,   Winakor, Geitel. "The Process of Clothing Consumption,
           Journal of Home Economics, 61 (August 1969):
           629-634.
                   APPENDIX

A,   GENERAL CLOTHING INTERESTS QUESTIONNAIRE

B.   SURVEY OF USED-CLOTHING-STORE MANAGERS
C    SCALE MEANS BY DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES
               APPENDIX A

GENERAL CLOTHING INTERESTS QUESTIONNAIRE
                                    Texas Tech University
                                       Collet;eor Home Economics
                                    Oepartment ot Cloihing and Textiles


Dear Consumer,

     I am a graduate student at Texas Tech University pursuing a masters in
Home Economics. For my thesis I am doing research in the area of consumers'
clothing attitudes and interests. Please take a few minutes to complete the
following questionnaire and return it to me in the enclosed stamped envelope.
Your time and help is appreciated.
                                           Thank you,



                                                        Mrs. Carolyn Christie
                                                        5724 77th Street
                                                        Lubbock, Texas 79424

                           GENERAL CLOTHING INTERESTS QUESTIONNAIRE
'his Questionnaire contains statements on interests which some women have 1n -eaard
to clothing. For each statement, please indicate how much you DISAGREE or AGREE
with the statement as a description of you.
           1   -   You   STRONGLY DISAGREE with the statement
           2   -   You   MODERATELY DISAGREE with che statement
           3   -   You   \T^ IN-8ETT^EEN, or you EQUALLY DISAGREE and AGREE
           4   -   You   I^OOERATELY AGREE wi th the statement
           5   -   You   STRONGLY AGREE with the statement



                                                                          o>
                                                                           -                       3£

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                                                                                UJ      UJ         >-
READ EACH : T A T E M E N T , AND CIRCLE THE ONE                          >-
                                                                          —J    LU
                                                                                                   '3
                                                                                C£.
NUMBER THAT BEST DESCRIBES YOuft FEELINGS.                                SI            LU
                                                                                              uJ
PLEASE 3E SURE "0 ANSWER EVERY QUESTION.                                  o
                                                                          a£    JO
                                                                                        z     oi
                                                                          VI                  O    -O
               ,,,
                ...   —       _                                                 n
It is important to be well-dressed                                         1     T       3     4    5   (')
                                                                           1     "
                                                                                 ^             *
To Tie, shopping for clothes is a oleasure...                                            0          5   (2)
Friends often ask my advise on wnat to wear.                                1    c       3     I    5   (3)
Clotning sty-e is more important than orice.                               1     2       3     4    5   (4)
Sewing at home is a good way to save money..                               1    ^
                                                                                "        3     4    5 (5;
  like to dress differently than other people.                             <     2       T     4    5   (6)
Keeping up with changing fashions is too expensive                         "i     " ^
                                                                                         3     4    5   (7)
I usually have one or more outfits that are of the
very latest style                                                          1     2       3     4    5   (8)
I am very well informed about current clothing and
fashion trends                                                             1     2       3     4    5   (9)
Expressing my individuality in clothing is important
to me                                                •••                   1     2       .J    4    5 (10)
I keep my wardrobe up-to-date with the current fashions.                   1     2       3     4    5 (11)
Dressing well is important to social acceptance                            1     2       3     4    5 (12)
It is important to wear clothing that is socially
                                                                           1     2       -)    4
appropriate to the occasion                                                                         5 (13)
                                                                                         ^
I buy most ':ii my clothing in local stores, rather than                                 ^
out-of-town stores                                                         "I    •-            4    5 (14)
In general, the quality of clothing available in the
stores ^s lower than in the past                                           1     2       3     4    5 (15)

                   ! ,^L£ASE "URN PAGE OVER AND COMPLETE QUESTIONNAIRE

                                                   66
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I carefully watch how much I spend on clothes                        1       2             3           4          5 (16)
Clothing comfort is more important than style                        "
                                                                     1       2             3           4          5 (17)
I usually notice what other people wear                              1       2             3           4          5 (18)
I usually wear the new clothing fashions before my
friends and neighbors do                                                      2            3           4          5 (19)
Clothing quality is more important than price                        1        2            3           4          5 (20)
I often buy new clothing at the "spur of the moment",                1                     3           4          5 (21)
I buy most of my clothes at "sale" prices                            1        2            3           4          5 (22)
People are too concerned about their dress                           1        2            3           4          5 (23)
I shop for clothing only when I intend to buy                        1        2            3           4          5 (24)
I spend a lot of time shopping for clothing                          1        2            3           4          5 (25)
                                                                                                       1
My friends and I often dress in similar styles                       1        2            3           "-
                                                                                                        1         5 (26)
I often influence my friends' clothing choices                       1        2            1
                                                                                           • ^
                                                                                                       4          5 (27)
I do not have the time to sew at home                                1        2            •J          4          5 (23)
Buying clothes out of catalogs, without actually
seeina them is too risky                      •...                   1         2            3          I
                                                                                                       '          5 (29)
I fi-eouently talk with my friends ibout cjrrent
fashions                                                                                               4          5 (30)
Clothing quality is more important than style                                                          4          5 (31)
I would consider buying used clothing at a retail store
if it were available in this area                                                            3         ^          5 ;;32)

                         FOR QUESTIONS 3EL0W CHECK OR WRITE
                          IN THE ANSWER THAT APPLIES TO YOU
                                                                                                 18-24_              33)
In which age group are you?
                                                                                                 25-34              '31)
                                                                                                                    •^35)
                                                                               45-5-1"                              •;36)
                                                                               55-64"                               •;37)
                                                                         55 and over"                               j;38)

What is the highest level of schooling                       Grammar School_                                         (39)
                                                      1-3 years Hign School'                                        •:40)
that you nave completed?
                                                      Completed High School"                                        "(41)
                                                          1-3 years college"                                        "(42)
                                                     College Degree (BS,3A)"                                        ••43)
                                                 5 or more years of College_                                         ,44)
If you are currently employed outside the home.
                                                                                                                     ;-^5)
what is your occupation? Please w n t e in.
 About how many hours a weeK do you worte outside the home?                                      Hours               (46)

 If you are currently married, what is your
                                                                                                                    j47)
 husband's occupation? Please write in.
 Referring to the Income Categories listed,                        under 6,000                                       (48)
                                                                 6,000 - 9,399"                                      (49)
 which category descrioes your total ^amily
                                                               10,000 - 14,999"                                     .(50)
 income? Include all sources before tax of
 ALL family members currently living at home.                  15,000 - 24,999'                                     J 51)
                                                               25,000 - 49,999"                                      (52)
                                                               50.000 and over'                                     '(53)

            PLEASE BE SURE YOU HAVE COMPLETED ALL QUESTIONS ON EACH PAGE.
                           RETURN IN THE STAMPED ENVELOPE.
                           THANKS FOR YOUR PARTICIPATION.
              APPENDIX B

SURVEY OF USED-CLOTHING-STORE MANAGERS
                                                "^Mh
                                      Texas Tech University
                                         Coite^* or Horn* economics
                                      Oeoartmcm ot Cottim^ uid TesRitM


Dear Store Manager,
I am a graduate student at Texas Tech University pursuing a masters :n Home
Economics. For my thesis research I am doing a oroject in the area of ^sea
clothing distribution. Please take a few minutes to complete the following
questionnaire and return it in the enclosed stamped envelope, •'our time and
help is appreciated.

Thank you.


Mrs. Carolyn C h r i s t i e
5724 77th Street
Lubbock, "exas 79424

                               SURVEY OF USED CLOTHING STORE 'MANAGERS


                   I CIRE'CTIONS:    Check [^^) the nost acDrooriate answer^s) |
                   I                 to :3dcn 4ue5tton. 3e sure to answer poth |
                                     sides -^if tne questionnaire.            i

1.   How long has this store been in operation?                                less tMan '\ year_
                                                                                   1 or 2 y9ars_
                                                                                   3 tr 4 ypars_
                                                                                5 or more yeart_
2-   .^ow long lave you been manager of this store?                            'ess than " year_
                                                                                   ( or 2 /ears]
                                                                                   3 or - /ears]
                                                                                5 or -nore years_

3.   What percentage of total sales of this store                                 'ass t.han -52_
     are used tiothing?                                                      oetween 26 ara 50*/
                                                                             oetween 51 ana 75^_
                                                                                       over 76«]

4.   How i s the merchandise f o r t h i s store obtained;               purchased f o r ^ s a i e ^
     (Check a l l appropriate categories.)                                             qonation_
                                                                                  consignment^
                                                                other (speci-y)

     If you checkea more than one answer to Question 4.                   purcnasec '"or resaie_
     give the percent of merchandise of aacn category.                                 /ionaiiQn_
                                                                                   consignment^
                                                                                           oiner


                Questions 5 and 7 are concerned with Consignment 'Merchandise.
                Answer Questions 5 and ' ONLY if you checkea "consignment"
                       Q
                in Question 4

6.   If merchandise is obtainea by consignment,                   owner of garment detamines_
     how is the selling orica jeterminea?                         ^tore management determines^
                                                                      mutually agreed jpon oy
                                                                         owner of garment ind
                                                                             store manaaement
                                                                                              ' r,v
/
     What percent of the selling price of consignment                                   under '0
                                                                                                      .,qv
     sales IS <eot oy the store?                                                             •<<IH/   —   ,rf




                                                                                         :5 to 50%^
                                                                                          over 5 1 * '

                           ^LiASE "URN :^AGE AND CONTTNUE <ITH JUE^TlCN S :
                                                     69
  8.   Do the store's p r o f i t s from the sale of merchandise go to                  charity            '
                                                                                  store -lanager
                                                                                    store owner
                                                             other (specify)
  9.   Check the categories of merchandise t h i s store o f f e r s ,                     men's
                                                                                        women' s]
                                                                                          g i r ' 's]
                                                                                           boy' s]
                                                                                      infant's]
                                                                               other ( s p e c i f y ) '
10.    Of the categories i n Question 9 which are the
       m a j o r i t y of the store sales? Please l i s t below.




n.     What type of c l o t h i n g i s most often             outerwear (coats, jackets)
       purchased (highest demand)?                         streetwear (casual, to church)'
                                                 special occasion (formal, party dresses)"
                                                                          other (specify)]
12.    When a prospective customer comes into the s t o r e , are                                vos
       they usually looking f o r a p a r t i c u l a r type of clothing?                         No'

13.    Do most o f your customers                                                     s^^op ^ig^g
                                                                              shop with spouse]
                                                                            shop with a fr-!end]
U.     When people come into the store the f^:rst time                              j s u a l i v ^^uy
       <^° t"ey                                                                          just'loV

15.    Do you feel t h a t used c l o t h i n g is                only ^ower income levels
       accepted by                                          lower and mi dale income levels"
                                                                          a l l income levels]^
16.    Do you feel t h a t more people are interested in used                                /es
       c l o t h i n g today than tney were 5 years ago?                                      No"
                                                                                      no opinion"
17.    PLEASE explain your answer to Question 16.




                 PLEASE RETURN QUESTIONNAIRE IN THE ENCLOSED STAMPED ENVELOPE
                                THANK YOU FOR YOUR COOPERATION
                                                                                                   71
                                 Texas Tech University
                                     Collei^e ot Home Economics
                                  Oepanment oi Clothing and Textiles


Muy estimado gerente.
Soy una estudiante graduada en la Universidad de Texas Tech. Ahora me dedico al
estudio de mi maestri!!^ en Economicas del Hogar. Para mi tesis, hago un proyecto
tocante a la distribucion de ropa usada. Hagame el favor de tomar unos minutos para
completar el siguiente cuestionari(j». Favor de devolVermelo an el soore con estam-
pilla incluido agu"i. Le agradecena mucho su tiempo y su ayuda.
uracias.
iy^/t^.(2aAjL^(}MUj/U^
Mrs. Carolyn Christie
5724 77th Street
Lubbock, Texas 79424-
                                                             OA
                  ESTUDIO DE LOS GEROITES DE LAS TIENDAS DE R P USADA

            OIRECCIONES:   ><arque ( v ^ ) l a ( s ) contestacion(es) mas aoropriada(s)
                           a cada oregunta. Favor de contestar a ambos laaos
                           de este cuestionario.

     i P o r cuanto tiempo ha sido en operacion esta tienda?                menos que un ano_
                                                                                  1 0 2 inbs_
                                                                                  3 0-1 an'9s]
                                                                                5 anbs o mas]

2.   i P o r cuanto tiempo ha sido usted el gerente de asta                 menos oue jn ano_
      tienda?                                                                     1 0 2 ancs]
                                                                                  3 0 4 arios_
                                                                                5 amos o 'nas_

3.   iQue porcentaje de las ventas t o t a l e s de esta                       menos que    25%
      tienda es de ropa usada?                                               entre 26% y    50%]
                                                                             antra, 51* y   "5%]
                                                                                 mas que    75%

4.   iComo obtiene usted la mercencia para esta tienda?                comprada para reventa_
                                                                                    donaci 4n_
                                                                              consignamient3_
                                                              otro (especifique)

5. Si usted marco mas de una contestacion an al                        compraaa para "eventa^
   numero 4, favor de c^ar el porcentaje de mercan-                                 donacion_
   c-ia de caaa categona.                                                     consignamiento_
                                                                                         otro
            Las preguntas 6 y 7 tratan solamente de la mercancia
            de consignamiento. Conteste a las preguntas 6 ^ 7
            solamente si marco "consignamiento" an la pregunta 4.
   Si usted obtiene su mercancia por consignamiento,          al amo ae la ropa
   ;como determina usted el precio de venta?                        o detenmna_
   ^                                                  la junta de directores de
                                                         la tienda 1o determina_
                                                     acuerdo mutuo entre al amo
                                                       de la ropa y la junta de
                                                        airectores de la tienda
7. iQue porcentaje del precio de venta oor consignamiento           meno de 10%
    es guardado por la tienda?                                        11", a 25?"
                                                                      25% a 50%]
                                                                     nas de 51%'

                      AL DORSO POR FAVOR. CONTINUE CON EL NUMERO 3
                                                                                                              72
  8.   Las ganacias de asta tienda de la venta de                   a la caridad
       mercancia va                                     al geren;^e de la tienca^]]^
                                                          al duenb de la tienaa
                                                otro (especifique)
 9. Marque usted las categonas de mercancia que                      papa hombrp
    ofrece esta tienda.                                              ^'p^,, mujer
                                                                   para muchacha
                                                                   para muchacho
                                                                    para bambino
                                                otra (especifique)
10. De las categonas en la pregunta numero 9, icual representa
    la mayona de las ventas de esta tienda? Favor de apuntarlas
       aqui.




n.      Que tipo de ropa se compra con mas frecuencia?                           abrigo o jaquetas
                                                                      ropa casual, para la iglesia'
                                                                 ropa formal, vestidos para f i e s t a s '
                                                                     otro (especifique)                  ]
12.    Cuando entre un c l i e n t e an l a tienda, oor la mayor                                      SJ
       p a r t e , ibusca un t i p o de ropa en p a r t i c u l a r ? "                               l^o'
13.    La mayon'a de sus c l i e n t e s                                         ^a de compras solo'
                                                                                va con su esposo(a)]
                                                                              va con un(a) amigo(a)]
14.    Cuando entre gente por l a primera vez en su tienda,                                  compra"
       por l a major parte                                                   quiere mirar solamente]
15.    Piensa usted cue la ropa usada es aceptada per        solamente 1a clase baja
                                                     la clase baja y la clase,media"
                                                              todas clases economicas"
16.    6Piensa usted que mas personas tienen interes en l a ropa                   Si
       usada hoy dna que hace cinco alios?                                         ^o~
                                                                          Sin opinion"
17.    FAVOR de axplicar su contestacion a la pregunta numero 16.




       FAVOR DE OEVOLVER EL CUESTIONARIO EN EL SOBRE ESTAMPILLJ\DA AQUI INCLUIDO.^
                      MUCHAS GRACIAS POR SU C 0 0 P E R A C I 6 N .
            APPENDIX C

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                                                                  74
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DOCUMENT INFO
Description: Retail Clothing Store Questionnaire document sample