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Let's try the Purple Loosestrife Power Point Presentation

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Let's try the Purple Loosestrife Power Point Presentation Powered By Docstoc
					       Scientific Classification
 Kingdom: Plantae
 Division: Magnoliophyta
 Class: Magnoliopsida
 Order: Myrtales
 Family: Lythraceae
 Genus: Lythrum
 Species: Lythrum salicaria
                      Description
 Erect perennial herb of the loosestrife family, with a square,
    woody stem and opposite or whorled leaves
   Leaves are lance-shaped, stalkless, and heart-shaped or rounded
    at the base
   Loosestrife plants grow from two to seven feet high, depending
    upon conditions, and produce a showy display of magenta-
    colored flower spikes throughout much of the summer
   Flowers have five to seven petals.
   Mature plants can have from 30 to 50 stems arising from a single
    rootstock
             Preferred Habitat
 Purple loosestrife is capable of invading many wetland
  types, including freshwater wet meadows, tidal and non-
  tidal marshes, river and stream banks, pond edges,
  reservoirs, and ditches.
Purple loosestrife is found in every state except Florida, but is not reported invasive everywhere.
           Cultivation and Uses
 Purple loosestrife has been used as
  a medicinal herb to treat diarrhea
  and dysentery; it is considered safe
  to use for all ages, including babies.

 It is also cultivated as an
  ornamental plant in gardens. The
  flowers are showy and bright, and a
  number of cultivars have been
  selected for variation in flower
  color
           A Beautiful Disaster
 Around 1800, purple loosestrife
  was transported to North America
  on soil ballast from Europe,
  arriving in New Jersey, New York,
  and New England
 Between 1800 and 1850, the weed
  established itself over a limited
  coastal area in the Eastern U.S.
 The spread was slow at first,
  moving with water currents and
  floods
 Gardeners also spread purple
  loosestrife, but to a lesser extent
 By 1900, purple loosestrife had
  reached Chicago, and a few
  decades later the Mississippi River



 By 1940, most of the northeastern
  and north-central U.S. was
  infested, and long-distance
  transport established purple
  loosestrife in Washington State
 In the 1950s and 1960s, it became
  increasingly more apparent that purple
  loosestrife was hindering wetland
  production and wildlife

 By the 1970s, several projects began
  working towards identifying the plant as
  an invasive

 A 1987 report by Dan Thompson brought
  purple loosestrife’s negative impacts to
  light by quantifying the amounts of
  cattail habitat loss and muskrat decline
  in areas of infestation
           Biology and Spread
 Purple loosestrife’s flowering
  season is from June until
  September
 It is rich in nectar content, and
  many insects pollinate the plant
 One mature plant can have as
  many as thirty flowering stems
  capable of producing two-three
  million seeds
 Spreading at a rate of 115,000 ha/yr
 Purple loosestrife is capable of
  reproducing at one foot per
  year with underground stems

 Even purple loosestrife
  cultivated as “guaranteed
  sterile” is still capable of
  reproducing with other purple
  loosestrife (in some cases other
  plants in the genera Lythrum)
                  Ecological Threats
 Being an invasive, purple loosestrife
  adapts easily to natural and disturbed
  wetlands.
 As it establishes and expands, it
  outcompetes and replaces native grasses,
  sedges, and other flowering plants that
  provide a higher quality source of
  nutrition for wildlife.           eastern prarie fringed orchid, Platanthera leucophaea

 The highly invasive nature of purple
  loosestrife allows it to form dense,
  homogeneous stands that restrict native
  wetland plant species, including some
  federally endangered orchids, and reduce
  habitat for waterfowl.
Herbicides and Human Control
 Small patches of purple loosestrife can be pulled physically by
  hand, preferably before its seeding stage
 Older plants can be spot treated with herbicides (Rodeo® for
  wetlands, Roundup® for uplands)
 Multiple treatments are preferred, in late season when the
  plant prepares for dormancy, as well as mid-summer
            Biological Controls
 Competition and natural enemies ideally are the best ways
  to combat purple loosestrife, and other invasives

 Currently, four host specific insect species are being used to
  try to control purple loosestrife

 The goal is long-term control and not complete eradication
Hylobius transversovittatus, a root-boring weevil      Galerucella calmariensis, a leaf-eating beetle




      Galerucella pusilla, a leaf-eating beetle     Nanophyes marmoratus, a flower-feeding weevil
            Economic Damage
 Purple loosestrife does not cause direct economic damage,
  though has some indirect effects
 Purple loosestrife causes reduced palatability (a measure of
  taste) in hay, as well as being responsible for reduced water
  flow in irrigation systems out West
 Reductions in waterfowl viewing and hunting
  opportunities can occur
 Costs approximately 45 million/yr in control costs and
  forage losses (Pimentel 2005)

				
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