Scott

Document Sample
Scott Powered By Docstoc
					 A Clash of Professional Cultures:
      the David Kelly affair

                                Dr Biljana Scott
                              University of Oxford



                          Second International Conference on
                      Intercultural Communication and Diplomacy
13-15 February 2004                     Dr Bi Scott
                                  Malta - Feb ICC-04
                                  DiploFoundation 2004            1
A Clash of Professional Cultures


                     The David Kelly Affair
                     Professional Cultures & Diplomacy
                     Language
                     Transgressions
                     Truth & Trust
13-15 February 2004                Dr Bi Scott
                             DiploFoundation ICC-04       2
A Clash of Professional Cultures


           The David Kelly Affair
                     Professional Cultures & Diplomacy
                     Language
                     Transgressions
                     Truth & Trust
13-15 February 2004                Dr Bi Scott
                             DiploFoundation ICC-04       3
                      Key players




13-15 February 2004          Dr Bi Scott
                       DiploFoundation ICC-04   4
A Clash of Professional Cultures


           The David Kelly Affair
           Professional Cultures & Diplomacy
           Language
           Transgressions
           Truth & Trust
13-15 February 2004         Dr Bi Scott
                      DiploFoundation ICC-04   5
                        Professional cultures

 Distinctive features emerge:
  – ACROSS cultures
     Journalists; Scientists; Government; Intelligence…


  – WITHIN cultures
     especially in the case of incompetence / transgression



  13-15 February 2004              Dr Bi Scott
                             DiploFoundation ICC-04     6
                        Professional cultures

 Scylla & Charibdes:
  –    BBC: breaking news vs accuracy;
            independence vs over-protectionism
  – Government:
                  advocacy vs honesty;
                  protection of civil servant vs skin-saving
  – WMD experts:
                  Official secrets act vs professional/personal integrity
  – Intelligence:
                  Reliability of sources vs protection of the country

  13-15 February 2004                 Dr Bi Scott
                                DiploFoundation ICC-04                  7
                      Relevance to Diplomacy




13-15 February 2004               Dr Bi Scott
                            DiploFoundation ICC-04   8
            Relevance to Diplomacy




13-15 February 2004         Dr Bi Scott
                      DiploFoundation ICC-04   9
13-15 February 2004         Dr Bi Scott
                      DiploFoundation ICC-04   10
A Clash of Professional Cultures


           The David Kelly Affair
           Professional Cultures & Diplomacy
           Language
           Transgressions
           Truth & Trust
13-15 February 2004         Dr Bi Scott
                      DiploFoundation ICC-04    11
             Gilligan & Kelly reconstruction

„A Fight to the Death‟ Panorama 21 Jan 2004
GILLIGAN:   So, back to the dossier. What happened to it?
            When we last met you were saying it wasn‟t very
            exciting.
KELLY:      Yes, that‟s right. Until the last week it was just as I
            told you. It was transformed in the week before
            publication.
GILLIGAN:    To make it sexier?
KELLY:      Yes. To make it sexier.
GILLIGAN:   What do you mean? Can you give me some
            examples?
   13-15 February 2004             Dr Bi Scott
                             DiploFoundation ICC-04              12
             Gilligan & Kelly reconstruction
KELLY:           The classic was the 45 minutes. The statement
                 that WMD could be ready in 45 minutes was
                 single source and most things in the dossier were
                 double source.
GILLIGAN: How did this transformation happen?

KELLY:           Campbell.

GILLIGAN: What, you know that Campbell made it up?
          They made it up?

KELLY:           No it was real information but it was unreliable
                 and it was in the dossier against our wishes.”
   13-15 February 2004              Dr Bi Scott
                              DiploFoundation ICC-04                13
           Language of journalists: Gilligan

 Today Programme, 29 May 2003, 06.07 hrs:
   “What we‟ve been told by one of the senior
   officials in charge of drawing up that dossier was
   that actually the government probably knew that
   the forty-five minute figure was wrong even
   before it decided to put it in…
   Downing Street, our source says, ordered a week
   before publication, ordered it to be sexed up, to
   be made more exciting and ordered more facts to
   be, to be discovered.”
  13-15 February 2004         Dr Bi Scott
                        DiploFoundation ICC-04   14
           Language of journalists: Gilligan

 Today Programme, 29 May 2003, 06.07 hrs:
  “What we‟ve been told by one of the senior
  officials in charge of drawing up that dossier
  was that actually the government probably knew
  that that forty-five minute figure was wrong even
  before it decided to put it in…
  Downing Street, our source says, ordered a week
  before publication, ordered it to be sexed up, to
  be made more exciting and ordered more facts to
  be, to be discovered.”
  13-15 February 2004         Dr Bi Scott
                        DiploFoundation ICC-04   15
           Language of journalists: Gilligan

 Today Programme, 29 May 2003, 06.07 hrs:
   “What we‟ve been told by one of the senior
   officials in charge of drawing up that dossier was
   that actually the government probably knew
   that that forty-five minute figure was wrong
   even before it decided to put it in…
   Downing Street, our source says, ordered a week
   before publication, ordered it to be sexed up, to
   be made more exciting and ordered more facts to
   be, to be discovered.”
  13-15 February 2004         Dr Bi Scott
                        DiploFoundation ICC-04   16
           Language of journalists: Gilligan

 Today Programme, 29 May 2003, 06.07 hrs:
   “What we‟ve been told by one of the senior
   officials in charge of drawing up that dossier was
   that actually the government probably knew that
   that forty-five minute figure was wrong even
   before it decided to put it in…
   Downing Street, our source says, ordered a week
   before publication, ordered it to be sexed up, to
   be made more exciting and ordered more facts to
   be, to be discovered.”
  13-15 February 2004         Dr Bi Scott
                        DiploFoundation ICC-04   17
           Language of journalists: Gilligan

 Today Programme, 29 May 2003, 06.07 hrs:
 “What we‟ve been told by one of the senior officials
 in charge of drawing up that dossier was that
 actually the government probably knew that that
 forty-five minute figure was wrong even before it
 decided to put it in…
 Downing Street, our source says, ordered a week
 before publication, ordered it to be sexed up, to
 be made more exciting and ordered more facts to
 be, to be discovered.”
  13-15 February 2004         Dr Bi Scott
                        DiploFoundation ICC-04   18
           Language of journalists: Gilligan

 Today Programme, 29 May 2003, 06.07 hrs:
 “What we‟ve been told by one of the senior officials
 in charge of drawing up that dossier was that
 actually the government probably knew that that
 forty-five minute figure was wrong even before it
 decided to put it in…
 Downing Street, our source says, ordered a week
 before publication, ordered it to be sexed up, to be
 made more exciting and ordered more facts to be,
 to be discovered.”
  13-15 February 2004         Dr Bi Scott
                        DiploFoundation ICC-04   19
           Language of journalists: Gilligan

 Subsequent rephrasing
  [my source] “told me the dossier was transformed
   at the behest of Downing Street.”
  “It could have been an honest mistake, but what
  I have been told is that the government knew that
  claim was questionable, even before the war,
  even before they wrote it in their dossier.”

Chinese whispers:
 Downing Street itself had „inserted‟
 the 45-minute claim into the dossier
  13-15 February 2004         Dr Bi Scott
                        DiploFoundation ICC-04   20
           Language of journalists: Gilligan

 False attribution
  – That Downing St had „ordered it to be sexed up‟
  – That Downing St had inserted intelligence which it
    “probably knew to be wrong.”
  – That “the reason [the 45 min claim] hadn’t been in
     the original draft …was that it only came from one
     source”.
 False Inference
  – 45 minutes claim wasn‟t included because it was
    fresh intelligence.
  13-15 February 2004         Dr Bi Scott
                        DiploFoundation ICC-04        21
             Language of journalists: Context

   The „two-way‟
    – unscripted, lacks rigor
    – invitation to make the news, not report it
    – risk of „collusive auction‟: unreliable claims outbid each other

       “Now our defence correspondent Andrew Gilligan has
       found evidence that the government‟s dossier on Iraq
       that was produced last September was cobbled
       together at the last minute with some unconfirmed
       material that had not been approved by the security
       services.”
                                         John Humphrys

    13-15 February 2004           Dr Bi Scott
                            DiploFoundation ICC-04               22
           Language of journalists: Context

The „dodgy dossier‟
  – February 2003 government dossier on Iraq:


   Iraqi intelligence was:
   „aiding opposition groups in hostile regimes‟
  „supporting terrorist groups in hostile
   regimes’



  13-15 February 2004         Dr Bi Scott
                        DiploFoundation ICC-04     23
                 Language of scientists: Kelly

"I talked to him [Gilligan] about factual stuff.
 The rest is bullshit." (Kelly to Nick Rufford)


Susan Watts transcript
  “It was a statement that was made and just got out
  of all proportion. They were desperate for
  information. They were pushing hard for
  information that could be released.”

   13-15 February 2004          Dr Bi Scott
                          DiploFoundation ICC-04    24
             Gilligan & Kelly reconstruction
KELLY:           The classic was the 45 minutes. The statement
                 that WMD could be ready in 45 minutes was
                 single source and most things in the dossier were
                 double source.
GILLIGAN: How did this transformation happen?

KELLY:           Campbell.

GILLIGAN: What, you know that Campbell made it up?
          They made it up?

KELLY:           No it was real information but it was unreliable
                 and it was in the dossier against our wishes.”
   13-15 February 2004              Dr Bi Scott
                              DiploFoundation ICC-04                25
              Language of scientists: Kelly

Ottaway:
„There are many people who think that you
were the source of that quotation. What is
your reaction to that suggestion?‟

Kelly:
„I find it very difficult. It does not sound like
my expression of words.
It does not sound like a quote from me.‟
13-15 February 2004          Dr Bi Scott
                       DiploFoundation ICC-04   26
                Language of scientists: Kelly

 Ottoway: „You deny that those are your words?‟
  Kelly:           „Yes.‟


Context:
  – Pressure to falsify BBC‟s reporting
    but NOT to undermine the Iraq Dossier
  – Scientific community‟s unanimous conclusion
    that there are no WMDs in Iraq.

  13-15 February 2004             Dr Bi Scott
                            DiploFoundation ICC-04   27
            Language of politics: the Dossier
 “The dossier had to be „revelatory‟, we needed to show
 that it was new and informative, and part of a bigger
 case.” Campbell‟s evidence to Hutton

 “..much of the evidence is circumstantial so we need to
 convince our readers that the cumulation of these facts
 demonstrates an intent on Saddam‟s part..” No. 10 Press
  Officer‟s email to Campbell


 Recommendations for „strengthening‟ language
  16 point memo from Campbell
   13-15 February 2004                Dr Bi Scott
                                DiploFoundation ICC-04   28
           Language of politics: the Dossier

 Sins of commission
  – 45 minute claim (made four times)
       • Saddam “has existing and active military plans for the use
         of chemical and biological weapons, which could be
         activated within 45 minutes.” (Blair‟s preface)
  – Expression of certainty:
       • modals (may/can)
       • “intelligence has established beyond doubt”
       • „We must ensure that he does not get to use
         the weapons he has.‟ (Blair‟s Preface)

  13-15 February 2004            Dr Bi Scott
                           DiploFoundation ICC-04               29
           Language of politics: the Dossier

Defensive vs offensive stance
  • Earlier draft:         Iraq‟s Programme for WMD
 „Saddam is prepared to use chemical and biological
 weapons if he believes his regime is under threat.‟


  • Final draft:           Iraq‟s WMD
 „Saddam is willing to use chemical and biological
 weapons, including against his own Shia population.‟

  13-15 February 2004         Dr Bi Scott
                        DiploFoundation ICC-04         30
           Language of politics: the Dossier

Sins of omission
  – “The case I make is not that Saddam could launch a
    nuclear attack on London or another part of the UK
    (he could not).”
        Deleted from Blair‟s preface.
  – “We need to make it clear in launching the document
    that we do not claim we have evidence that [Saddam]
    is an imminent threat.”
     Jonathan Powell, NO. 10 Chief of Staff, 17 Sept 2002
       Not heeded
  13-15 February 2004           Dr Bi Scott
                          DiploFoundation ICC-04            31
           Language of politics: the Dossier




Context
 Tony Blair‟s determination to go to war




  13-15 February 2004         Dr Bi Scott
                        DiploFoundation ICC-04   32
A Clash of Professional Cultures


           The David Kelly Affair
           Professional Cultures & Diplomacy
           Language
           Transgressions
           Truth & Trust
13-15 February 2004         Dr Bi Scott
                      DiploFoundation ICC-04    33
                      Transgressions




13-15 February 2004           Dr Bi Scott
                        DiploFoundation ICC-04   34
                      Transgressions




13-15 February 2004           Dr Bi Scott
                        DiploFoundation ICC-04   35
                      Transgressions




13-15 February 2004           Dr Bi Scott
                        DiploFoundation ICC-04   36
                      Transgressions




13-15 February 2004           Dr Bi Scott
                        DiploFoundation ICC-04   37
                      Transgressions




13-15 February 2004           Dr Bi Scott
                        DiploFoundation ICC-04   38
                      Transgressions




13-15 February 2004           Dr Bi Scott
                        DiploFoundation ICC-04   39
                      Transgressions




13-15 February 2004           Dr Bi Scott
                        DiploFoundation ICC-04   40
A Clash of Professional Cultures


                     The David Kelly Affair
                     Professional Cultures & Diplomacy
                     Language
                     Transgressions
           Truth & Trust
13-15 February 2004                Dr Bi Scott
                             DiploFoundation ICC-04       41
                    Truth & trust: falsehoods


Outright lies: Kelly, Gilligan, Hoon
Deception: Government on Iraq WMD capability
Duplicity:     Naming strategy
 Libel:        Campbell against the BBC
Fudge:         Definition of WMD in 45 min claim
Decoy:         War on BBC deflected from war on Iraq
Omission:      Hutton‟s judgment (though not inquiry)

  13-15 February 2004            Dr Bi Scott
                           DiploFoundation ICC-04   42
                 Truth & trust: consequences


Consequences of transgressions & falsehoods
  – Suicide, Resignations, Loss of public trust
  – Change of policies
  – End of Spin?! Finessing?

Truth as a basic value


  13-15 February 2004           Dr Bi Scott
                          DiploFoundation ICC-04   43
               Truth & trust: consequences


   'So your government's marketing campaign
   turned out to be a fraud: I would have thought
   the "west" would be very sceptical of marketing
   campaigns in general, and government-funded
   ones especially, but that doesn't seem to be the
   case.'

   Salam Pax, aka the Baghdad Blogger
   (The Guardian, 18 September 2003)

13-15 February 2004           Dr Bi Scott
                        DiploFoundation ICC-04   44
                     Truth & trust: basic value

 “The allegation that I lied is itself the real lie”
                                                             (Tony Blair)


 “The PM told the truth, the Government told the
  truth, I told the truth. The BBC … did not”
                                                      (Alastair Campbell)


“Hutton is the truth” (Senior official)

   13-15 February 2004             Dr Bi Scott
                             DiploFoundation ICC-04                     45
                         Truth & Trust


“The issue is not whether Campbell lied;
 it is whether he and Blair got it wrong and
 skewed the process of government to forge
 the dossier that took us to war.”
                 (Henry Porter, The Observer, 1st Feb 2004)




13-15 February 2004                Dr Bi Scott
                             DiploFoundation ICC-04           46
                         Truth & Trust


“The issue is not whether Campbell lied;
 it is whether he and Blair got it wrong and
 skewed the process of government to forge
 the dossier that took us to war.”
                 (Henry Porter, The Observer, 1st Feb 2004)


Forge: to create vs to counterfeit

13-15 February 2004                Dr Bi Scott
                             DiploFoundation ICC-04           47
 A Clash of Professional Cultures:
      the David Kelly affair

                                Dr Biljana Scott
                              University of Oxford



                          Second International Conference on
                      Intercultural Communication and Diplomacy
13-15 February 2004                     Dr Bi Scott
                                  Malta - Feb ICC-04
                                  DiploFoundation 2004            48
                          Key events
 Iraq Dossier                           September 2002
 War on Iraq                            March 2003
 Kelly & Gilligan meet                  May 22
 Today Programme                        May 29
 Campbell named                         June 1st
 War on BBC                             June / July
 Kelly admits                           July 1st
 Outing strategy                        July 8
 FAC                                    July 15
 Suicide                                July 17
 Hutton Inquiry                         August 1st
 Publication                            January 28 2004
   13-15 February 2004          Dr Bi Scott
                          DiploFoundation ICC-04           49
                       Transgressions


BBC
 –   Andrew Gilligan‟s bad records & „loose language‟
 –   False accusation against the government
 –   Slack editing
 –   Governors‟ failure to investigate Gilligan‟s report
 –   Gilligan‟s failure to protect his source


 13-15 February 2004           Dr Bi Scott
                         DiploFoundation ICC-04        50
                        Transgressions


Weapons Inspector: David Kelly
  –   Unauthorised conversations with the press
  –   Broke his terms of contract: Official Secrets Act
  –   Broke his moral code of conduct: trustworthiness
  –   Lied to parliament.




  13-15 February 2004           Dr Bi Scott
                          DiploFoundation ICC-04          51
                        Transgressions


Government
  –   Exaggeration of Iraq threat: spin vs intelligence
  –   Misled parliament and the public?
  –   Failure to specify range of WMD
  –   Failure to correct alarmist headlines
  –   Failure to identify Kelly as source (FAC)
  –   Failure to protect Kelly‟s (a) identity (b) well-being
  –   Failure to keep minutes of meetings

  13-15 February 2004           Dr Bi Scott
                          DiploFoundation ICC-04         52
                        Transgressions


Campbell
  – Trespassed on intelligence: content vs presentation
  – Waged war on the BBC: anger (mis)management?
  – Spin doctor who became the story itself (intended?)




  13-15 February 2004           Dr Bi Scott
                          DiploFoundation ICC-04     53
                        Transgressions


Intelligence
  – Inclusion of Spin doctors in drafting team
  – Failure to heed reservations of eminent experts
  – Agreeing to sign the dossier: advocates vs analysts




  13-15 February 2004           Dr Bi Scott
                          DiploFoundation ICC-04      54
                        Transgressions


Legal: Lord Hutton
  –   A Whitewash?
  –   Narrow remit eschewed key questions
  –   „Wrong in law‟:
  –   Failure of Inquiry system: one-person judgment
  –   Failure of Hutton to register dishonesty


  13-15 February 2004           Dr Bi Scott
                          DiploFoundation ICC-04       55

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
views:17
posted:7/14/2011
language:English
pages:55