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Chapters 10-18

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					Chapters 10-18
Study Questions & Applied
Knowledge
Chapter 10
Question #1
    A 30 year-old female client is an avid 5-
     kilometer runner but she would like to
     improve her time. Which of the following
     tests is most appropriate to estimate the
     client’s VO2max?
A.    Astrand-Ryhming cycle ergometer test
B.    YMCA cycle ergometer test
C.    Rockport walking test
D.    1.5-mile (2.4 kilometer run)
The answer is D

D. A 1.5 mile (2.4-kilometer run)
Because this is a Maximal aerobic
  capacity test. It is of a higher intensity
  and tests the clients VO2 max.
She is an avid runner so this would best
  test her oxygen maxes.
      Question #2
  A personal trainer performs a skinfold body
   composition test on a client. If the same test
   is performed two days later with the same
   body fat percentage result, this test and the
   result are said to be
A. Valid.

B. Reliable.

C. Normative.

D. Criterion-referenced.
The answer is B

B. Reliable
Reliability is an expression of the
  repeatability of a test or the
  consistency of repeated observations.
  If a measurement of the same trait
  under the same conditions yields the
  same results from one trial to another,
  the test is reliable.
Question #3

 All of the following may increase the
  standard error of measurement of a
  push-up test to assess muscular
  strength EXCEPT:
A. An inexperienced personal trainer
B. An injured client
C. Testing a trained client
D. Testing a female client
The answer is C

 Testing a trained client would not
  increase the standard error of
  measurement.
 However, an inexperience personal
  trainer could make mistakes on the
  test data, an injured client couldn’t
  perform their best, and female clients
  perform differently then male clients.
Question #4
4. Which of the following is a recommended sequence
    of tests that promotes the most accurate results
    when assessing general fitness?
    I. Rockport walking test
    II. Sit and reach test
    III. Push-up test
    IV. Skinfold measurements

A.   I, II, IIl, IV
B.   IV, III, II, I
C.   I, III, II, IV
D.   IV, II, III, I
The answer is D

 You want to start with the slowest test
  first. The fat test is the easiest so you
  would start with that. You would then
  do the Sit and reach test because that
  is also simple
 You would then do the pushup and
  Rockport test because they are more
  difficult
          Applied Knowledge
Client        Description      Fitness        Test one         Test two
                               component
                               to be tested
27 year old   Has been         Cardio         1.5 mile (2.5    12 minute run
male          participating    endurance      kilometer run)
              in 5 kilometer
              runs for 3
              years
33 year old   Has been         Muscular       1Rm bench        3 rm power
female        resistance       strength       press            clean
              training
              consistently
              for 10 years
41 year old   Obese            Body           Body fat skin    BMI
female                         composition    fold test        measurement
11 year old   No exercise      Muscular       1 minute sit     Max pushup
male          experience or    endurance      up test          test
              training
        Chapter 11
        Question #1
   A 52-year-old male client’s resting blood pressure was
    130/82 during the initial assessment. When measuring
    his blood pressure one month later, to what level of
    mercury (Hg) should the bladder be inflated?
      A.) 130mm
      B.) 150mm
      C.) 170mm
      D.) 200mm
The answer is B

 When setting the bladder you should
  inflate it to 20 mmHg more than the
  estimated systolic blood pressure
 So, since the clients blood pressure
  was 130/82, you would add 20 mmHg
  to the 130 (SBP) to get 150 mmHg
Question #2
   Which of the following skinfold sites should a personal
    trainer select when applying a three-site SKF equation to
    a 45-year-old female client?
       I.) Triceps
       II.) Subscapula
       III.) Suprailium
       IV.) Thigh
          • A.) I, II, and III only
          • B.) I, III and IV only
          • C.) II, III and IV only
          • D.) I, II, and IV only
The answer is B

 When using a 3-site Skinfold equation
  you need to make sure that you are
  using the correct sites depending on
  age and gender.
 So, for a 45-year-old female the
  standard sites are triceps, Suprailium,
  and thigh.
Question #3
   A 39-year-old female client performed a Submaximal
    bicycle Ergometer test and had her VO2 max estimated
    as 30.2 ml * kg^-1 * min^-1. She weighs 136 pounds (62
    Kilograms) and is 66 inches (168 centimeters) tall. Her
    body fat is 24% and resting blood pressure is 124/84
    mmHg. Which of the following should be her primary
    exercise goal?
      A.) Lowering body fat
      B.) Increasing aerobic endurance
      C.) Increasing lean body fat
      D.) Lowering BMI
The answer is B

   The 39-year-old client had a VO2 max of 30.2
    (ml*kg^-1*min^-1). Therefore she placed in the
    30 percentile for women her age which is
    considered to be below average maximal
    aerobic power.
   This means that she will need to increase her
    aerobic endurance since she is considered to
    be below average.
Question #4
   A 21-year-old male client had the following results during
    his initial assessment:
      Height: 72 inches (183 centimeters)
      1RM bench press: 200 pounds (91 kilograms)
      1RM leg press: 400 pounds (192 kilograms)
      Sit-ups (1 minute): 50
      Sit and reach: 15inches (38 centimeters)
   Which of the following should be his primary exercise
    goal?
          • A.) Upper body strength
          • B.) Lower body strength
          • C.) Muscular Endurance
          • D.) Hip/low back flexibility
The answer is A

   To determine the clients relative strength you
    would divide the 1RM value by the client’s
    weight.
   The 21-year-old male scored .95 on the 1RM
    bench press which is in the 35 percentile range.
    This means that the client is considered to be
    borderline below average
   Since the client did so poorly on this test he
    would need to work on his upper body strength
Applied Knowledge

   A personal trainer assessed the aerobic
    endurance of a male client using the YMCA
    Cycle Ergometer test with these results:
      Body weight: 167 pounds (76 kilograms)
      Age: 36
      Resting BP: 122/76
      Test data:
Stage   Work   Elapsed   HR          Average BP        RPE
        Rate   Time      (beats/min) HR       (mmHG)
                                     (beats/m
                                     inute)
1       150    2:00      80

1       150    3:00      84        82       134/78     8

2       600    5:00      128

2       600    6:00      132       130      148/78     13

3       750    8:00      156

3       750    9:00      160       158      152/74     16
Answer

 The clients VO2 Max is ~34 ml*kg^-
  1*min^-1.
 This would put the client close to the
  10 percentile range. Compared to
  everyone else, the 36-year-old male
  would be well below average.
Explanation
   Age Predicted Maximal Heart Rate
      220-age (36)=184
   Maximal Work Rate in Watts =
      Graph
      W= maximal work rate (1180)/ 6.12
      ~193


   VO2 Max
      (10.8 X W) / BW) +7
      (10.8 X 193) / 76(kg)) +7
      ~34
Continued

  Since he had the VO2 Max of ~34
   ml*kg^-1*min^-1 this would mean he
   is in the 10 percentile range
  The 10 percentile range is classified
   as below average
Chapter 12
Question #1
   After completing a warm-up, a client
    should immediately perform flexibility
    exercises before which of the
    following activities?
     A. singles tennis
     B. rowing machine
     C. stationary bike
     D. stair climber
The answer is A

   Sitting on a stationary bike, using a
    rowing machine, or stepping on a stair
    climber are not high activity exercises,
    therefore do not need flexibility exercises
    before the workout.
   Playing singles tennis is a cardio
    workout, exercising many muscle
    groups, therefore a flexibility exercise
    would be necessary to reduce injury
Question #2

   Which of the following is a benefit of
    performing warm-up activities?
     A. muscle blood flow increases
     B. muscle viscosity increases
     C. nerve impulse velocity decreases
     D. nerve receptor sensitivity
      decreases
The answer is A

 Increase in flexibility is a result of
  warming up and depends on blood
  flow to the target muscle
 Cold muscles with low blood flow are
  more susceptible to injury or damage
  than muscles at higher temperature
  and associated blood saturation
Question #3

   Compared to static stretching, which of the
    following is a disadvantage of ballistic
    stretching?
      A. decreased danger of overstretching the
        target tissues
      B. increased amount of energy is needed to
        perform the exercise
      C. decreased likelihood of becoming sore
        after stretching
      D. increased passivity of the stretch reflex
The answer is B

   It’s not A because there is an increased danger
    in overstretching because of the rapid jerky
    movements.
   Also why the answer is not C because you
    would be sore from the fast movements.
   Not D because static stretching would help with
    increased passivity not ballistic stretching
Question #4
   A 6-foot, 9-inch,230 pound male client has been preparing for the
    upcoming basketball season and has been performing traditional
    resistance training for the past six months. His personal trainer decides
    to introduce stability ball exercises into the client’s program. Which of
    the following guidelines apply to this client?
       A. due to the client’s weight, the personal trainer should slightly
         under inflate the ball
       B. when determining correct ball size, the client’s thighs should be
         parallel to the ground when sitting on the ball with the feet flat on
         the floor
       C. because the ball is unstable and the client is so tall, slight
         deviations from correct technique are acceptable
       D. since the client had been performing resistance training
         exercises for so long, the personal trainer should direct the client to
         stop resistance training and perform only stability ball exercises.
The answer is B

   Under inflating the exercise ball would be
    dangerous to the client since it is not properly
    inflated
   Slight deviations should never be acceptable no
    matter what the clients height is
   Just because the client is doing a different
    training program doesn’t mean he should stop
    his other workouts
Applied Knowledge
   The personal trainer determines that a client needs to
    emphasize the flexibility and muscular fitness of the hip
    extensors so the client can become better conditioned to
    play tennis.
   A. What static flexibility exercises focus on the hip
    extensors?
   B. What dynamic flexibility exercises involve the hip
    extensors?
   C. What body-weight exercises strengthen the hip
    extensors?
   D. What stability ball exercises actively train the hip
    extensors?
Answers
A)   Forward Lunge: gluteus maximus and hamstrings.
     Lying knee to chest: gluteus maximus, hamstrings and erector spinae
     Semistraddle: hamstrings, erector spinae and gastrocnemius

B)   Lunge walk: gluteus maximus, hamstrings
     Reverse lunge walk: gluteus maximus, hamstrings
     Walking side lunge: gluteus maximus, hamstrings

C)   Squat, Forward Lunge, etc.

D)   Supine leg curl: gluteus maximus, hamstrings, erector spinae.
     Reverse back hyperextension: gluteus maximus, hamstrings, erector spinae
Chapter 13
Question #1
    Which of the following phases of the
     power clean involves hip and knee
     extension and plantar flexion?

A.    First Pull
B.    Transition
C.    Second Pull
D.    Catch
The answer is B

   The first step of the transition phase:

        As the bar rises just above the
    knees, thrust the hips forward and
    slightly re-flex then knees to move the
    thighs against and the knees under
    the bar.
Question #2

    Which of the following are conditions that must
     be met before a personal trainer should
     recommend a client to use the valsalva
     maneuver during a resistance training
     exercise?
I.     The client will perform the bench press
       exercise
II.    The client has exercise technique experience
III.   The client does not have hypertension
IV. The client is resistance-trained

Answer - C
The answer is C

 1. The valsalva maneuver is used in
  many other exercises other than
  bench press.
 2. Only experienced people should do
  the maneuver because it involves
  holding your breath.
 3. Clients with diseases should not
  participate in this maneuver.
Question #3
      Which of the following are conditions (or examples of
       conditions) that must be met before a personal trainer should
       recommend a client to use a weight belt during a resistance
       training exercise?
I.        The client will be performing 3 reps with a 3RM load
II.       The client will be performing an exercise that places stress on
          the lower back.
III.      The client will be performing an exercise that directly loads
          the trunk.
IV.       The client will be performing 5 repetitions with a 15RM load.

Answer -A
The answer is A

   A weightlifting belt is recommended
    for ground based structural exercises
    that load the trunk and place stress on
    the lower back AND involve lifting
    maximal or near-max loads.
Question #4

   Which of the following exercises
    should be spotted?
I.   Power Clean
II. Lateral Raise

III. Seated shoulder press

IV. Forward Lunge

Answer - B
The answer is B

   The power clean involves too much range of
    motion for the trainer to handle.
   The dumbbells (for a lateral raise) are raised up
    at the sides. The weights are away from the
    body and therefore do not pose much risk to the
    client. Also high range of motion.
   Seated shoulder press: The bar is raised of the
    clients head and therefore may cause serious
    injury without correct spotting.
   Forward Lunge: Spot the client at the waist or
    the arms as they are brought up while lunging
    forward.
Applied Knowledge

   Describe two or more common
    technique mistakes inexperienced
    clients make when they perform these
    exercises: 1) bench press, 2) back
    squat, 3) front squat, 4) shoulder
    press, 5) power clean.
Answers
   1) Bouncing the bar on the chest during the upward
    movement phase to help raise the bar past the sticking
    point.
   2) Allowing the heels to lift off the floor, the torso to flex
    further forward or the upper back to round during the
    upward movement phase.
   3) allowing the knees to move in during the movement.
   4) Pushing with the legs or rising off the seat to help raise
    the bar upward.
   5) Allowing the upper back to round, especially during the
    first pull.
Chapter 14
Question #1
         While watching a client’s running gait, the personal
    trainer notices that the client’s feet and ankles roll in
    excessively as they strike the ground. Which of the
    following combinations of the foot strike classifications
    and shoe lasts apply to this client?

Foot strike classification            Shoe Last
A. supinator                          straight
B. pronator                           straight
C. supinator                          curved
D. pronator                           curved
The answer is B

   If the client’s feet are excessively rolling in
    when they strike the ground, it means they are
    overpronators or simply pronators.
   A pronator may benefit from straight lasts and
    high motion control
  Question #2
Which of the following is the first action to perform when
    using the treadmill?

        A.   Set the treadmill incline to 0 degrees
        B.   Hold on to the handrails while straddling the belt
        C.   Walk/run toward the front of the treadmill deck
        D.   Turn on the machine to a speed of no more than
             1 mph (0.6 kph)
The answer is B

   Before even starting the machine, the
    client should be instructed to hold
    onto the handrails while straddling the
    belt for initial support and balance.
Question #3

  Which of the following instructions should be given to a client
  for using a stair climber?

     A.   “Place your entire foot on the pedal to start but allow
          the heels to lift off as each pedal rides”
     B.   “Lean forward slightly, especially as the workout
          becomes harder”
     C.   “Lock out the knees at the bottom of each step”
     D.   “Hold the handrails for balance, if necessary”
The answer is D
   A is incorrect: the whole foot should remain on
    the pedal throughout the exercise
   B is incorrect: Forward leaning ca create stress
    on the lower back and should be discouraged
   C is incorrect: The extending knee should never
    be locked as it can increase stress and lead to
    injury
   D is correct: Handrails should be used for
    clients that require extra support or help with
    balance
Question #4
Which of the following describes correct body position on a
    stationary bicycle?

        A. With the ball of the foot on the upward pedal, the
           knee is above the height of the hips
        B. With the heel of the foot on the downward pedal,
           the leg is straight
        C. With the heel of the foot on the upward pedal,
           the knee is even with the height of the hips
        D. With the ball of the foot on the downward pedal,
           the leg is straight
The answer is B

   This is the only correct position given.
   With the heel on the downward pedal, the leg
    should be straight. This way, when the ball of
    the foot is on the pedal, there will be a slight
    bend in the knee.
   This produces maximum leg extension without
    locking the knee
Applied Knowledge

   Explain the similarities and differences
    between walking and running.
  Answers
                walking                 running
Body Position   The head should be      Same as walking
                held upright with the
                eyes looking straight
                ahead.
                The shoulders
                should be relaxed.
Foot strike     Heel strikes the        Same as walking
                ground and then the     Different from
                weight is               walking: bouncing
                immediately spread      with each step
                over the foot.          should be avoided
Arm action      The left arm swings     Same as walking
                forward when the        Different from
                right foot strides      walking: only some
                forward. The arms       arm action occurs
                are held bent at the    from the shoulders
                elbow at 90 degrees.    Much of the arm
                                        movement comes
                                        from the lower arm.
Chapter 15
Question #1
   When a client progresses to follow a split routine, all of
    the following describe the changes in the program
    EXCEPT:
     A.   Increased weekly training frequency
     B.   Decreased overall training volume
     C.   Decreased training frequency of each muscle
          group’s workout
     D.   Increased number of rest days between each
          muscle group’s workout
The answer is B

   A split routine schedules four or more workouts
    evenly spread out in one week but with each
    workout including exercises that train only a
    part of the body or certain muscle areas. It does
    nothing to the volume of training but does
    change resting periods, muscle groups worked,
    and training frequency
Question #2

   Which describes the arrangement of exercises
    performed in this order: bench press, bent-over
    row, lying triceps extension, biceps curl, and
    shoulder press?
     A. Multi-joint exercises first and then single-
         joint exercises
     B. Exercises that train large muscle groups
         first and then exercises that train small
         muscle groups
     C. Core exercises then assistance exercises
     D. Alternate push and pull exercises
The answer is D

   A bench press is not a multi-joint
    exercise which excludes answers A
    and C. The order of the exercises
    first is push, then pull, push, pull
    then push, which makes the answer
    D.
Question #3

   A personal trainer wants to include the lateral
    shoulder raise exercise in a client’s program.
    Which of the following is an appropriate testing
    method that will produce a test result that
    allows the most accurate assigned training load
    for a repetition goal of 10 per set?
     A. Directly testing the 1RM
     B. Estimating the 1RM from a 15RM
     C. Percent of body-weight testing
     D. 10RM testing
The answer is D

   All of the other answers deal with
    calculations and this question is too
    simplistic for that. 10RM testing
    would be the answer because if the
    number of sets is 10 then the load
    with be 10 without any other
    information.
Question #4

   What is the load for the bench press
    exercise on a “light” day of a strength
    training program if the client’s 1RM is
    200 pounds (91 kg) and the number of
    goal repetitions is 6 per set?
    A.   170 lbs (77 kg)
    B.   160 lbs (73 kg)
    C.   135 lbs (61 kg)
    D.   130 lbs (59 kg)
The answer is C

   The 200 lbs is with 2 repetitions per
    set. So, you have to subtract 15 twice,
    according to this chart, and then
    multiple by 0.80 because a light day is
    80% of a heavy day (which Is 100%).
    The answer comes out to 135 lbs.
Applied Knowledge

 Based on the following initial
  consultation and fitness testing
  information, fill in the empty spaces to
  determine the client’s training loads
  for selected exercises
 Initial resistance training status and
  exercise technique experience:
  intermediate
 Fitness evaluation: 10Rm testing to
  estimate a 1RM
          Answer
          Assessing Load Capabilities

 Exercise (all are cam   10RM (pounds)   Estimated 1RM
      machines)                             (pounds)

Vertical chest press          60              80

Seated row                    50              65

Shoulder press                45              60

Biceps curl                   35              45

Triceps extension             30              40

Leg (knee) extension          70              95
Leg (knee) curl               60              80
Assigning Loads

 Repetition range to match training
  goal: 6 to 12 per set
 Goal repetitions: 8

 Loading (%1RM) range to match the
  training goal: 67% to 85% 1RM
 %1RM associated with 8 goal
  repetitions: 80% 1RM
              Calculate Training Loads
              from the Estimated 1RM
                                 % 1RM
                              associated                     Assigned
Exercise      Estimated   X   with 8 goal   =   Calculated    training
 (all are       1RM           repetitions       Trial Load       load
  cam         (pounds)        (in decimal                      (round
machines)                        dorm)                        down, if
                                                             needed)
  Vertical       80       X      0.80       =      64           60
chest press
Seated row       65       X      0.80       =      52           50
 Shoulder        60       X      0.80       =      48           45
  press
Biceps curl      45       X      0.80       =      36           35

 Triceps         40       X      0.80       =      32           30
extension
Leg (knee)      100       X      0.80       =      80           80
extension
Leg(knee)        80       X      0.80       =      64           60
   curl
Chapter 16
Question #1
   A client is preparing for her first marathon, and she wants
    to complete the 26.2 mile distance in four hours. Which of
    the following sample workouts will be the most effective
    to reach her goal?
      A. Cycling 26.2 miles
      B. Stair climbing for four hours
      C. Running 20 miles
      D. Freestyle swimming for four hours
The answer is C

   C. Running 20 miles
       This is the correct answer because
        her goal is to run 26.2 miles. While
        cycling, stair climbing, and swimming
        are good forms of exercise, running
        will help her reach her goal faster.
        This is the correct exercise mode for
        this client.
Question #2
   The personal trainer is designing an aerobic
    exercise program for a 50-year-old client who
    has a RHR of 70 beats/min. What is the THRR
    if the personal trainer assigns an intensity of
    60%- 70% of the client’s HRR?
       A. 102 to 119 beats/min
       B. 110 to 120 beats/min
       C. 130 to 140 beats/min
       D. 132 to 154 beats/min
The answer is C
   C. 130 to 140 beats/min
      Formula: APMHR= 220 - age
         • HRR= APMHR – RHR
         • THR= (HRR * Exercise Intensity) + RHR
         • Do calculations twice for the lower and upper
           limits to determine THRR.
      APMHR: 220 – 50= 170
      HRR: 170 – 70= 100 beats/min
         • THR (60%): (100* 0.60) + 70= 130
         • THR (70%): (100* 0.70) + 70= 140
         • THHR: 130 to 140 beats/min
Question #3

   The personal trainer is designing an aerobic
    exercise program for a 30-year-old client who
    has a RHR of 50 beats/min. What is the THRR
    if the personal trainer assigns an intensity of
    75% to 85% of the client’s APMHR?
       A. 155 to 169 beats/min
       B. 143 to 162 beats/min
       C. 135 to 149 beats/min
       D. 105 to 119 beats/min
The answer is B

   B. 143 to 162 beats/min
      Formula: APMHR= 220- Age
        • THR= (APMHR * exercise intensity)
        • Do calculation twice for the lower and
          upper limits to determine the THRR
      APMHR: 220 – 30= 190
        • THR (75%): 190* 0.75= 143
        • THR (85%): 190* 0.85= 162
        • THRR: 143 to 162 beats/min
Question #4

   A sedentary 35-year-old client is morbidly
    obese and would like to lose weight. The
    personal trainer selected treadmill walking as
    the exercise mode. Which of the following is an
    appropriate exercise duration for the first
    exercise session?
      A. 10 minutes
      B. 20 minutes
      C. 25 minutes
      D. 30 minutes
The answer is A

   A. 10 minutes
       A client who is morbidly obese is very
        out of shape. To start them on any
        more than 10 minutes could be
        harmful to their health. The trainer
        needs to start small and gradually
        increase as the client becomes
        stronger and healthier.
Applied Knowledge

   Fill in the chart to describe the types
    of aerobic training programs.
Answer
   Type            Intensity             Duration          Frequency            Goals

LSD          Maximum intensity        Thirty minutes    No more than       Improvements in
             can continue as long     to two hours      twice a week       anaerobic
             as client is able to                                          threshold,
             maintain their heart                                          development of
             rate. Should be                                               endurance in
             performed at a lower                                          supporting
             intensity then normal                                         musculature and
             to increase duration.                                         fat utilization.
Pace/Tem     High intensity, only     Three to five     One to two times   Improve VO2 max
po           for clients who are      minutes with      a week
intermitte   capable of working at    rest periods of
nt           the highest              30 to 90
             percentages of their     seconds
             heart rate range
Pace/Tem     High intensity, only     One session of    One to two times   Improve VO2 max
po steady    for clients who are      20 to 30          a week
             capable of working at    minutes
             the highest
             percentages of their
             heart rate range
Interval     Alternating between      High Intensity-   One to two times   Accomplish more
             high and low intensity   Three to five     a week             work than
                                      minutes                              normally possible
                                                                           due to changes in
                                      Low Intensity-                       intensity.
                                      20 to 30
                                      minutes
Chapter 17
Question #1
        Which of the following exercises is best
         able to benefit from the advantages
         offered by the SSC?
    A.    Push Press
    B.    Deadlift
    C.    Back Squat
    D.    Front Squat
The answer is A

   The correct answer to this question is
    the Push Press because the Push Press
    utilizes the stretch-shortening cycle in
    the body the most. The Push Press has
    three distinct phases, the eccentric
    phase, amortization phase, and
    concentric phase.
Question #2

        Which of the following should be
         considered a requirement to participate
         in a plyometric training program?
    A.    At least 18 years of age
    B.    More than one year performing power
          exercises
    C.    At least three months of general
          resistance training exercises
    D.    Less than 50 years of age
The answer is C

   The correct answer to this question is
    letter C because it is important that the
    client has a level of strength from
    resistance training before starting
    plyometric training. Plyometric training
    requires significant strength and muscle
    control. The other three letters are false.
Question #3

   If a client is having difficulty performing a
    depth jump correctly-the amortization
    phase is too long-which of the following
    adjustments would be appropriate?
    A.   Discontinue the depth jump
    B.   Have the client try the jump using just
         one leg
    C.   Focus on “giving” with the landing
    D.   Decrease the height of the box
The answer is D

   The correct answer to this question is
    letter D because decreasing the height
    of the box will be the best way to help
    the client perform the depth jump
    correctly.
Question #4
   The personal trainer notices that a client takes short,
    choppy steps when sprinting. Which of the following
    types of training will help this client improve stride length?
    I.     Resisted sprinting
    II.    Assisted sprinting
    III.   Technique training
    IV. Plyometric training
         A. I and III only
         B. II and IV only
         C. I, III, and IV only
         D. I, II, and II only
The answer is C

   The correct answer to this question
    is letter C because assisted training
    is the only training type that does
    not assist the client in improving
    their stride. It improves the client’s
    stride frequency.
Applied Knowledge
   Fill in the chart to describe a sample plyometric training
    program based on the description and goals of the client
      A healthy, 35-year old female
      Part time aerobics instructor, wants to compete in an
         aerobic fitness event.
      She has been resistance training since college and is
         familiar with how to perform plyometric drills.
      Five feet, five inches tall, weighs 130 pounds, and has
         a 195-pound 1RM back squat.
      During on of the weekly classes she teaches, she
         performs depth jumps and pushups off an aerobic
         step.
          Answer
                                                           Activity-
   Mode        Intensity     Frequency      Volume
                                                         specific drills
Since her     She can       She should 60-100           •Double-leg tuck
squat is      participate   continue to contacts with   jump
                            train        the ground     •Skip
1.5 times     in a pretty                               •Standing Long
her weight,   intensive     plyometrics
                                                        Jump
                            one to three
she can       training                                  •Double Leg
                            times per                   Vertical Jump
perform       program       week, with                  •Double-leg Hop
lower body    because of    days of rest                •Jump to Box
plyometric    her prior     in between.                 •Jump from box
s             experience                                •Chest Pass
              and fitness                               •Overhand
              level                                     Throw
Chapter 18
Question #1
 Which of the following exercises
  would be used as a substitute for the
  bench press exercise for a pregnant
  woman who reached the end of her
  first trimester?
 A. Close-grip bench press

 B. Supine machine bench press

 C. dumbbell pullover

 D. vertical chest press
The answer is D

   Because pregnant women can use
    the vertical chest press machine or
    perform wall push-ups or rubber cord
    exercises in the seated position to
    strengthen the same muscle groups
Question #2

   Which of the following describes how resistance
    raining lowers the risk of cardiovascular disease
    in older adults?
   I. Decreased diastolic blood pressure
   II. Decreased serum LDL levels
   III. Decreased gastrointestinal transit time
   IV. Decreased glycogen utilization
   A.I and II        B. III and IV
   C. I, II, and III         D, II, III, and IV
The answer is A

   Because Two ways in resistance
    training lowers the risk of
    cardiovascular disease;
     Resistance training decreases resting
      blood pressure
     Significantly decreased low-density
      lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-
      cholesterol) in 40 to 55 ear old men
Question #3

   Which of the following describes how the
    intensity of an aerobic exercise workout should
    be modified when a healthy senior exerciser
    reports an RPE of “10” on the original RPE
    scale but has an exercise heart rate of 80% of
    age-predicted heart rate max?
   A. Maintain the same exercise intensity
   B. decrease the exercise intensity
   C. increase the exercise intensity
   D. Stop the exercise session
The answer is A

   Because seniors whose heart rate is
    above 75% of age-perdicted exertion
    should not be advised to reduce the
    training intensity, but seniors with
    below 75% should definitely be
    advised to reduce the training
    intensity
Question #4
   Which of the following are appropriate recommendations
    for an 8-year-old female who wants to begin a resistance
    training program for the first time?
   A. start with three sets of 20 repetitions using light
    weights
   B. avoid multijoint exercises as they place excessive
    strain on immature joints
   C. Schedule at least one day of rest between exercises
    sessions
   D. tell her and her parents that she needs o wait two
    more years before beginning a resistance training
    program.
The anser is B

   Avoid multijoint exercises as they
    place excessive strain on immature
    joints, because this will lead to more
    injuries and cause more complications
    with joints as they continue to grow.
          Applied Knowledge
                                Minimum Exercise            Optimal exercise
                                program                     program
Number of activity              3                           3
sessions/day
Intensity of the activity       Moderate, alternated with   Moderate to vigorous,
sessions (words)                rest                        alternated with rest

Intensity of the activity       3-4                         6-8
sessions (number of kcal *
kg-1 * day-1)



Intensity by kilocalories per   90kcal                      210 kcal
day
Approximate total duration      30 mins per day             60 minutes
of activity sessions

Examples of the activity        recess                      Circuit exercises
session

				
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