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					               The ILC - Back to the Energy Frontier
                         W. Kozanecki (CEA-Saclay)




W. Kozanecki                              The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
                                               Introduction

         World-wide consensus: ICFA, ECFA, ACFA, HEPAP, OECD,…
                  “…noted the worldwide consensus of the scientific community, which has
                   chosen an e+ - e- linear collider as the next accelerator-based facility to
                   complement and expand on the discoveries that are likely to emerge from the
                   Large Hadron Collider currently being built at CERN.
                  […It was] agreed that the planning and implementation of such a large, multi-
                   year project should be carried out on a global basis, and should involve
                   consultations among not just scientists, but also representatives of science
                   funding agencies from interested countries....” [ICFA statement, 13 Feb 04]
         Remarkable progress toward the realization of an ILC
                  choice of the technology by the ITRP (Summer 2004)
                  start of the Global Design Effort
                  clearer understanding of the essential, mutually supportive relationship of
                   LHC and ILC physics (HEPAP report)
         Understatement: Many challenges !
                  detailed accelerator design, full detector concepts, ever sharper physics
                   arguments
                  approval & funding strategy - on a worldwide stage


W. Kozanecki                                               The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
                             Why a TeV Scale e+ e- Accelerator?


     Two parallel developments over the past few years (the science)

              The precision information from e+e- and n data at present energies have pointed
               to a low mass Higgs. Understanding electroweak symmetry breaking, whether
               supersymmetry or an alternative, will require precision measurements.

              There are strong arguments for needing both pp and e+e- collisions to fully
               exploit the exciting science expected at the 1 TeV energy scale.



     Two parallel developments over the past few years (the technology)

              Designs and technology demonstrations have matured on two technical
               approaches for a ~ 500 GeV e+e- collider that are well matched to our present
               understanding of the physics:
                    the TESLA design, based on a superconducting RF linac at 1.3 GHz
                    the NLC/GLC approach, based on warm RF technology at X-band (11.4 GHz).

              By 2002, both designs had come to the stage where the show-stoppers had been
               eliminated and the feasibility was well-established.

W. Kozanecki                                                 The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
                                        Why LHC and ILC ?




                  p                           p                    e+                                 e-



               p = composite particle:                 e = pointlike particle:
               unknown s ofi initial-state partons,   known and tunable s of IS particles,
               no polarization of IS partons,          polarization of IS particles possible,
               parasitic collisions                    kinematic contraints can be used
               p = strongly interacting:               e = electroweakly interacting
               large SM backgrounds,                   low SM backgrounds,
               highly selective trigger needed,        no trigger needed,
               radiation hard detectors needed         detector design driven by precision




W. Kozanecki                                           The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
               ILC can observe Higgs no matter how it decays!
 ILC simulation for e+e-  Z + Higgs
with Z  2 b‟s, and Higgs  invisible




                                        Number of Events / 1.5 GeV
                                                                                                             MHiggs = 120 GeV




                                                                          100                   120                    140                    160
                                                                                           Recoil Mass (GeV)

                                                                       Only possible at the ILC

W. Kozanecki                                                         The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
               Hadron colliders… are more demanding on the detectors

                                                                                        pp  HX with H
                                                                                            4
                                                                                      Simulated Higgs
                                                                                     production & decay
                                                                                         in the CMS
                                                                                       detector @ LHC



             K. Jakobs (ATLAS),
      2005 CERN Summer student lectures




W. Kozanecki                               The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
                                                 ILC experiments will have the unique ability
                                             to make model-independent tests of Higgs couplings
                                                 to other particles, at the % level of accuracy

                                                                                                     LEP e+e- collider
       Coupling Strength to Higgs Particle




                                                                                                  Coupling Strength
                                                   odel Coupling
                                              Standard Model Coupling
                                                  ∞ particle mass
                                                                                                     to Z boson

                                                                                                           e : 0.1%
                                                                                                           : 0.1%
                                                                                                           : 0.1%
                                                                                                           n : 0.2%
                                                                                                           q : 0.1%
                                                           Mass (GeV)                                    (PDG values)

       This sensitivity is sufficient to discover extra dimensions,
       SUSY, sources of CP violation, or other novel phenomena.
W. Kozanecki                                                            The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
                           LHC/ILC Physics: new particle



        LHC experiments find a new
         heavy particle, Z‟

        Able to show that Z‟
         mediates a new force of
         nature

        This is a great discovery




                                        Notice peak is ½ event per bin per fb-1



W. Kozanecki                                 The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
                            LHC/ILC Physics: new particle



      ILC measures couplings of Z‟ to find
       out what it means

      If here, related to origin of neutrino
       masses

      If here, related to origin of Higgs

      If here, Z‟ comes from an extra
       dimension of space

      These are great discoveries!




W. Kozanecki                                    The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
                         Which Technology to Choose?

        A major step toward a new international machine required uniting behind one
         technology, and then working toward a unified global design based on the
                                recommended technology.




W. Kozanecki                                     The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
                From a Matrix of Criteria to the Recommendation

       The ITRP analyzed the technology choice through studying a matrix
        having six general categories with specific items under each
              the scope and parameters specified by the ILCSC
              technical issues
              cost issues
              schedule issues
              physics operation issues
              and more general considerations that reflect the impact of the LC on science,
               technology and society

        Recommendation (announced at ICHEP, Aug „04)
        “that the linear collider be based on superconducting rf technology”

              “This recommendation is made with the understanding that we are
               recommending a technology, not a design. We expect the final design to be
               developed by a team drawn from the combined warm and cold linear collider
               communities, taking full advantage of the experience and expertise of both”
               (from the Executive Summary)

W. Kozanecki                                           The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
                                    Global Design Effort                                             B. Barrish,
                                                                                                    GDE Director


              The Mission of the GDE
                   Produce a design for the ILC that includes a detailed design concept,
                    performance assessments, reliable international costing, an
                    industrialization plan , siting analysis, as well as detector concepts
                    and scope.
                   Coordinate worldwide prioritized proposal driven R & D efforts (to
                    demonstrate and improve the performance, reduce the costs, attain
                    the required reliability, etc.)




              GDE structure [America: 16, Europe: 21, Asia: 12]
                   3 regional directors
                                                                              G. Dugan,               B. Foster             F. Takasaki
                   core accelerator physics experts                        (the Americas)            (Europe)                 (Asia)
                   3 Conventional Facilities Siting (CFS) experts (1 per region)
                   3 costing engineers (1 per region)
                   3 communicators (1 per region)
                   representatives from [LC detector] World Wide Study group

W. Kozanecki                                             The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
                                                    GDE Strategy

        Primary GDE Goal:
                  Reference Design Report including costs by the end of 2006


        Intermediate goal (follows from primary)
                  Definition of a Baseline Configuration by the end of 2005; this
                        will be designed to during 2006
                        will be the basis used for the cost estimate
                        will evolve into the machine that one will build



        Baseline & alternatives: some definitions
                  Baseline: a forward-looking configuration which one is reasonably confident
                   can achieve the required performance and can be used to give a reasonably
                   accurate cost estimate by mid-end 2006 (→ RDR)
                  Alternative: A technology or concept which may provide a significant cost
                   reduction, increase in performance (or both), but which will not be mature
                   enough to be considered baseline by mid-end 2006


W. Kozanecki                                                       The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
                     ILC Basic Building Blocks & Main Parameters
                        pre-accelerator
          few GeV                                        Superconducting RF Main Linac
                                                source
                                          KeV
          damping                                                                                                      extraction
          ring                few GeV                      250-500 GeV                                                 & dump
          few GeV                                                                           final focus


                     bunch                                                                                  IP
                                            main linac
                     compressor                                      collimation
                   Ecm adjustable from 200 – 500 GeV
                   Luminosity  ∫Ldt = 500 fb-1 in 4 years
                   Ability to scan Ecm between 200 and 500 GeV
                   Energy stability and precision below 0.1%
                   e- polarization of at least 80% (e+ polarization a serious option)
                   The machine must be upgradeable to Ecm = 1 TeV
W. Kozanecki                                             The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
                                                     Layout from US LC Technology Options Study (March 2004)
 Design issues




                                                                                LHC




  The total cost will be a key determining factor in our
       ability to get the ILC built. Therefore cost
  optimization of all systems is of primary importance



W. Kozanecki                                        The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
                              The Key Decisions




               Critical choices: luminosity parameters & gradient


W. Kozanecki                             The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
                        Making Choices – The Tradeoffs




               Many decisions are interrelated and require input
               from several WG/GG groups
W. Kozanecki                              The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
               Accelerating gradient: experimental status (single cell)




                                      Snowmass
                                      9-cell spec




W. Kozanecki                                        The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
                   Accelerating gradient: tentative baseline (Snowmass‟05)

          Cavity shape
                  baseline: standard TESLA 9-cell
                  alternatives: low-loss, re-entrant,
                   or superstructure




          Gradient specifications

                            Cavity       Qualified       Operational            1-Linac length                       Beam
                             type        gradient         gradient             (75% fill factor)                     energy
                                          [MV/m]           [MV/m]                    [km]                             [GeV]
      Initial               TESLA           35              31.5                          10.6                           250

      Upgrade                 LL            40              36.0                          +9.3                           500




W. Kozanecki                                                 The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
                                  Conventional Facilities & Siting

              The GDE ILC Design will be done to samples sites in the 3 regions

              Milestones
                   Snowmass 2005
                         Complete the Comparative Site-Assessment Matrix Format
                   Identify Regional Sample Sites for Inclusion into the BCD (Dec „05)
                         North American sample site will be near Fermilab
                         Japan and Europe are to determine sample sites by the end of 2005
                   Complete CFS Portion of the RDR (Dec „06)


              Outstanding Issues with Direct Impact on CFS Progress that will
               Require Further Discussion and Resolution
                   1 Tunnel vs. 2 Tunnels
                   Laser Straight vs. Curved or Segmented                       5 of the 10 most critical
                   Shape and Length of Damping Rings                             design questions may
                                                                                well be influenced by site
                   Shape and Configuration of Sources
                                                                                        constraints
                   1 vs. 2 Interaction Regions

W. Kozanecki                                                 The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
                              The GDE Plan and Schedule

               2005    2006     2007    2008    2009                2010
                                                                CLIC


                      Global Design Effort                                                     Project

                       Baseline configuration
                                                          LHC
                                 Reference Design        Physics
                                                    Technical Design


                                                                                              ILC R&D Program

                                                    Expression of Interest to Host
                                                                                         International Mgmt


W. Kozanecki                                        The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
            Some of the key topics I had no time to really discuss today ...

              Several key acc. issues - Damping Rings, e+ source, Beam Delivery...
              The 3 detector concepts (GLD, LCD, SiD)
              The growing accelerator R&D effort
                   in the US
                         national labs: SLAC, Fermilab, Jefferson Lab...
                         universities becoming active in specialized, well-chosen areas
                   in Europe (national F.A.‟s + growing EU component)
                         DESY, CERN, INFN,….
                         UK, France, …
                   in Japan
              The rapidly increasing involvement of the experimental community
                   impressive participation at Snowmass‟05 - many new faces !
                   Europe has been quite active for more than a decade (TESLA @ DESY)
                   pushing for detector R&D funding to ramp up - especially in the US
              The growing & supportive involvement of gov‟t agencies (FALC,...)
              The approval & funding strategy in the US

W. Kozanecki                                                    The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
                                   Conclusions
   Remarkable progress in the past two years toward realizing an
    international linear collider
                  important R&D on accelerator systems
                definition of parameters for physics
                choice of technology
                start the global design effort
                funding agencies are engaged


   Many major hurdles remain before the ILC becomes a reality
    (funding, site, international organization, and most importantly, a
    technical design and construction plan)


   The time scale for ILC technical project readiness is consistent
    with proposing a construction project before the end of this
    decade.
W. Kozanecki                                       The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
                              The material from this talk came from…

        Presentations at the Snowmass‟05 Workshop
               http://alcpg2005.colorado.edu:8080/alcpg2005/program/


        Presentations at the 8th ICFA Seminar (Daegu, Korea, 27 Sep -1 Oct „05)
         by
                  B. Barrish, GDE Director
                  R. Heuer, Research Director, DESY
                  Y. K. Kim, U. of Chicago
                  P. Oddone, Director, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
               http://chep.knu.ac.kr/ICFA-Seminar/


        “Discovering the Quantum Universe - the Role of Particle Colliders”
         (DOE / NSF HEPAP Report, 2005)

        What I learnt from many of my accelerator friends & colleagues while
         wandering, over the last 20 years, in, out & back into this exciting field!


W. Kozanecki                                                    The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
               Backup slides




W. Kozanecki            The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
      1. Are there undiscovered principles of nature:
         New symmetries, new physical laws?
      2. How can we solve the mystery of dark energy?
      3. Are there extra dimensions of space?
      4. Do all the forces become one?
      5. Why are there so many kinds of particles?
      6. What is dark matter?
         How can we make it in the laboratory?
      7. What are neutrinos telling us?
      8. How did the universe come to be?
      9. What happened to the antimatter?

               From “Quantum Universe”




W. Kozanecki                               The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
  HEPAP report to
the EPP 2010 Panel                    Three physics themes

              SOLVING THE MYSTERIES OF MATTER AT THE TeV SCALE
                   The LHC should discover the Higgs and other new particles.
                    Experiments at the linear collider would then zoom in on these
                    phenomena to discover their secrets. Properties of the Higgs may
                    signal extra dimensions of space or explain the dominance of matter
                    over antimatter. Particle interactions could unveil a universe shaped by
                    supersymmetry.
              DETERMINING WHAT DARK MATTER PARTICLES CAN BE
               PRODUCED IN THE LAB& DISCOVERING THEIR IDENTITY
                   Most theories contain, at the TeV scale, new massive particles with the
                    right properties to contribute to dark matter. Such particles would first
                    be produced at the LHC. Experiments at the linear collider, in
                    conjunction with dedicated dark matter searches, would then discover
                    whether they actually are dark matter.
              CONNECTING THE LAWS OF THE LARGE TO THE LAWS OF THE
               SMALL
                   From a vantage point at the TeV scale, the linear collider could
                    function as a telescope to probe far higher energies. This capability
                    offers the potential for discoveries beyond the direct reach of any
                    accelerator that could ever be built.
W. Kozanecki                                             The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
               e+ e-  Z  qq
                  jet + jet


               Event recorded
                in the ALEPH
               detector at LEP




W. Kozanecki                     The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
                   New forces of nature  new gauge boson
                 Tevatron           LHC                                                        ILC
Events/2GeV
 104
                 qq Z‟ e+e-                                                       Related to origin
 103        Tevatron sensitivity                                                       of nmasses
                  ~1 TeV




                                                                    Vector Coupling
 102
                 CDF Preliminary                                                                 Related to
  10
                                                                                               origin of Higgs

                                                                                         Related to
   1                                                                                  Extra dimensions

 10-1



                  Mee [GeV]        M [GeV]                                             Axial Coupling

               LHC has great discovery potential for multi TeV Z‟.
  Using polarized e+, e- beams, and measuring angular distribution of leptons,
ILC can measure Z‟ couplings to leptons and discriminate the origins of the new
                                    force.
  W. Kozanecki                             The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
                                                Large Extra Dimensions of Space

                                             LHC                                                        ILC
                                       102
                                                                                            e+                   
                                                                                                       
          Events / 50 GeV / 100 fb-1




                                                                                            e-              GN




                                                                          Production Rate
                                       10                                                   Graviton
                                                                                            disappears
                                                                                            into the ED
                                        1



                                10-1



                                10-2

                                             Mee [GeV]                                           Collision Energy [GeV]


    LHC can discover partner towers up to a given energy scale.
     ILC can identify the size, shape and # of extra dimensions.
W. Kozanecki                                                      The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
                                 Dark Matter in the Lab
    Underground experiments (CDMS) may detect Dark Matter candidates
  (WIMPS) from the galactic halo via impact of colliding DM particle on nuclei.

LHC may find DM particles (a SUSY particle) through missing energy analyses.
        (LHC is the best place to discover many of SUSY particles)

                Dark Matter Mass [GeV]
    10                   100             1000




                                                    Interaction Strengh [cm2]
                                            10-24
                                            1043
                                            10-44




 W. Kozanecki                                                                   The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
    The ILC can determine its properties with extreme detail,
                         allowing to compute
  which fraction of the total DM density of the universe it makes.

                                                 Dark Matter Mass from Supersymmetry (GeV)
               Fraction of Dark Matter Density




W. Kozanecki                                                           The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
    HEPAP
 LHC / ILC report   LHC-ILC synergy (I)




W. Kozanecki                     The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
               LHC-ILC synergy (II)




W. Kozanecki                The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
W. Kozanecki   The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
W. Kozanecki   The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
W. Kozanecki   The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
W. Kozanecki   The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
                 ILC Organization Chart

               ACFA         ICFA

               ALCSC       ILCSC                                         FALC


                            GDE


                  Asia     European                        American
                Regional   Regional                        Regional
                 Team        Team                           Team


W. Kozanecki                     The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
                  Organization following Technology Decision



               Birth of the GDE                WG1 LET beam dynamics
               & Preparation for               WG2 Main Linac
                Snowmass ‟05                   WG3a Sources
        WG1 Parms & layout                    WG3b Damping Rings
        WG2 Linac                             WG4 Beam Delivery
        WG3 Injectors                         WG5 SCRF Cavity Package
        WG4 Beam Delivery                     WG6 Communications
        WG5 High Grad. SCRF                   GG1 Parameters & Layout
        WG6 Communications                    GG2 Instrumentation
                                               GG3 Operations & Reliability
                                               GG4 Cost Engineering
   Introduction of Global Groups               GG5 Conventional Facilities
   transition workshop → project               GG6 Physics Options



W. Kozanecki                              The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
                  Layout from US LC Technology Options Study (March 2004)
 Design issues




                                             LHC




W. Kozanecki     The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
                            How Do Costs Scale with Gradient?


                                                                                                    35MV/m is
                                                         2                                          close to
                               alin         G
                            $       bcryo                                                         optimum
                               G            Q0
Relative Cost




                                                                                                    Japanese
                                                                                                    are still
                                                                                                    pushing
                                                                                                    for 40-
                                                                                                    45MV/m

                                                                                                    30 MV/m
                                                                                                    would give
                                                                                                    safety
                                                                                                    margin
                C. Adolphsen (SLAC)   Gradient MV/m

   W. Kozanecki                                   The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
               Gradient




W. Kozanecki              The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
               Configuration Parameter Space




W. Kozanecki                    The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
                 ILC beam parameter optimization(s)

                                                                                    2
                                                                                nbN e f
                                                                             L~         HD
                                                                                4 xy
                                                                                       nominally

                                                



                                                                                       N e2 Ecm
                                                                               E ~
                                                                                    z(x  y) 2
                                                                                      2  n 

                                                         
                      Pelectrical E
                L ~                  HD
                       ECM        n,y
W. Kozanecki                         The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
W. Kozanecki   The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
W. Kozanecki   The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
W. Kozanecki   The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
W. Kozanecki   The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
W. Kozanecki   The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
W. Kozanecki   The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
        Detector Concepts and Challenges

                             Three concepts under study:
                              GLD, LCD, SiD

                             Typically requires factors of two or
                              so improvements in granularity,
                              resolution, etc. from present
                              generation detectors

                             Focused R&D program required to
                              develop the detectors -- end of
                              2005

                             Detector Concepts will be used to
                              determine machine detector
                              interface, simulate performance of
                              reference design vs. physics goals
                              next year.




W. Kozanecki                 The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
               Detector concepts: 3 layouts




W. Kozanecki                    The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
W. Kozanecki   The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
W. Kozanecki   The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005
           “Transition Pathways for the ILC: Tunneling through the DC Barrier”
                                                       Remarks @ Snowmass’05
                        by John P. (Pat) Looney, former Assistant Director, Physical Sciences and Engineering,
                                Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President




              Not an easy path forward. Not impossible, either.
                   Always ask questions in a manner that does not force a „no.‟
              The path will have to be segmented.
                   R&D, EDA, Construction decisions will need to be considered individually.
              No single report will sell the ILC.
                   The case will need to be built up over several years.
                   Great progress on communications over past 3 years.
              Be realistic about timescale.
                   A construction decision will be strongly influenced by election cycles.
                   Results from LHC are needed for a construction decision.
              There will have to be sacrifice from the HEP program.
                   Not all activities can continue.
              For the US to host, there would need to be an international consensus.
              The ILC will have to be a Presidential Initiative.


W. Kozanecki                                                             The Golden Age of Particle Physics & its Legacy, Boston University, 21-22 Oct 2005

				
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