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Lift and Escalators Basic Principles and Design

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					                        g
    MECH3005 – Building Services
   http://www.hku.hk/bse/mech3005/




    Lift and Escalators:
Basic Principles and Design
              Dr. Sam C M Hui
      Department of Mechanical Engineering
          The University of Hong Kong
             E mail: cmhui@hku hk
             E-mail: cmhui@hku.hk
                                             Sep 2010
Contents

• Basic Principles

• Planning & Design Factors

• System Types
          Tall buildings are not possible without lifts and escalators


                                                                            (    )
                                                                      484 m (2010)
                                    374 m (1992)    415 m (2003)
                    367 m (1990)
 296 m (1993)




Landmark Tower,
L d      kT         Bank of China    C t l Plaza,
                                     Central Pl       International
                                                      I t    ti l       International
                                                                        I t    ti l
Yokohama, Japan       Building,       Hong Kong      Finance Centre   Commerce Centre
 (max. lift speed    Hong Kong                        Two (IFC-2),          (ICC),
  750 m/min or                                         Hong Kong         Hong Kong
    12.5 m/s)
Basic Principles

• Terminology
  • Lifts [UK] = Elevators [US]
  • Escalators (= moving staircases)
  • Conveyors (or moving walkways)
Hoists (early form of lift system)
Power elevator (steam)
 Basic Principles

     Escalator     Elevator     Scala
  • “Escalator” = “Elevator” + “Scala” (steps)
      • First escalator: designed by Jesse Reno in 1892




                                                      Central-Mid-Levels
Ocean Park (longest outdoor escalator, total 220 m)   Escalator, total 790 m
Basic Principles

• Principles of operation
  • How Elevators Work
    http://www.howstuffworks.com/elevator.htm
    h //       h     ff   k     / l       h
  • How Escalators Work
    http://www.howstuffworks.com/escalator.htm


    * Please find out how they work from these websites.
     Power flow through a typical elevator




               [Source: How an elevator works
http://web.mit.edu/2.972/www/reports/elevator/elevator.html]
[Source: http://www.howstuffworks.com/]
Planning & Design Factors

                          p p              g
• Circulation/Movement of people in buildings
  • Mode (horizontal or vertical)
    Movement type (natural or mechanically assisted)
  • M       tt     ( t l          h i ll      i t d)
  • Human behaviour (complex, unpredictable)
• Design objectives
  •   Free flow of people & goods
  •   Safe operation, comfort & service
  •   Occupy minimum space & require less costs
  •   Aesthetics, disabled access, etc.
Planning & Design Factors

• Circulation elements in buildings include:
  •   Corridors
                                                   Physical or
  •   Portals (e.g. entrance, door, gate)          architectural
  •   Stairways                                    elements
  •   Ramps
  •   Lifts
                                                   Mechanical or
  •   Escalators                                   engineering
  •   Moving walkways                              elements

            * Try to identify them in a building
                     G/F plan of a commercial building
Can you find
out all the
circulation
elements?




[Source: Hongkong Land]
Planning & Design Factors

• Human factors
  • Physical dimensions
     • Occupancy ellipse 600 mm by 450 mm (0.21 m2)
                                          (0 21
  • Personal space (buffer zone)
     • Female: 0.5 m2 (0 8 m diameter circle)
               05     (0.8
     • Male: 0.8 m2 (1.0 m diameter circle)
  • Density of occupation
     •   Desirable: 0.4 person/m2
     •   Comfortable: 1.0 person/m2
                       10
     •   Dense: 2.0 person/m2
     •   ‘Crowding’: 3.0 person/m2
          Crowding : 3 0
     •   Crowded: 4.0 person/m2
Typical occupancy ellipse (male subject)
          [Source: CIBSE Guide D]
Planning & Design Factors

• Human factors
  • Interpersonal distances
     •   Public distance: > 7.5 m (far); 3.6-7.5 m (near)
     •   Social distance: 2.1-3.6 m (far); 1.2-2.1 m (near)
     •   Personal distance: 0.75-1.2 m (far); 0.45-0.75 m (near)
     •                        0.45
         Intimate distance: < 0 45 m
[Source: CIBSE Guide D]
[Source:
Strakosch,
G. R., 1998.
G R 1998
The Vertical
Transportat-
ion
Handbook]
Planning & Design Factors

• Major design concerns
  • Circulation efficiency
     • Location & arrangement (prevent bottlenecks)
     • Coordination with lobby, stairway & corridor
  • Fire & safety regulations
    Handling        it (     tit f
  • H dli capacity (quantity of service) i )
                      g      (q     y           )
  • Interval or waiting time (quality of service)
• Consideration by lift functions
  • Passenger, goods, firemen, shuttle, observation
              Typical design of “protected” lift lobby
                                                         Fire door (one
                                                         hour rated)




                    (shall be free of smoke)




                                                         Staircase
                                                         (escape route)
[Source: CIBSE Guide D]
Planning & Design Factors

• Escalator – typical design
  • Speed: 0.5 and 0.65 m/s, up to 0.9-1.0 m/s on deep
             like b
    systems lik subway
        p            ,                 ;        p
  • Step widths: 600, 800 & 1000 mm; min. step or
    tread length = 400 mm
  • Inclination: usually at angle 30o
     • 35o if rise < 6 m & speed < 0.5 m/s
  • Boarding and alighting areas
            boarding 1 33 2.33
     • Safe boarding, 1.33 – 2 33 flat steps
                           Typical escalator design




[Source: Building Services Handbook]
Planning & Design Factors

• Escalator – typical applications
  • Low- to medium-rise buildings
  • Large no. of people e.g. airports, subway stations,
      p              ,    pp g
    department stores, shopping malls
• Escalator arrangements
  •   Parallel
  •   Multiple parallel
  •   Cross-over or criss-cross
  •   Walkaround
Planning & Design Factors

                    g p y
• Escalator: handling capacity
  • N = (3600 x P x V x cos θ) / L
     •        no.
         N = no of persons moved per hour
     •   P = no. of persons per step
     •            l t       d( / )
         V = escalator speed (m/s)
     •   L = length of step (m)
     •           l f i li
         θ = angle of incline
  • Ce = 60 V k s            (persons/minutes)
     • V = speed along the incline (m/s)
                g        y p p (p p             p)
     • k = average density of people (people/step)
     • s = number of escalator steps per metre
System Types

• Passenger lifts
  • Different requirements in various building types
     • Like commercial, hotels, hospitals, residential
        p g p         g
  • Grouping of passenger lifts
     • Position & layout
    Machine  /
  • M hi room/space
     • Hydraulic lifts: ideally at the lowest level
     • Electric traction lifts: directly above the lift well
     • Machine room-less lifts
System Types

• Observation lifts
  • Glazed or partially glazed lift car within a glazed
       open-sided
    or open sided lift well
  • Also called wallclimber, scenic, glass, panoramic
       bubble lift
    or b bbl lifts
  • Within an atrium or external to the building
  • Design considerations
     • Visual impact (attracting sightseers)
     • Lift speed & handling capacity
     • Space requirements & maintenance
System Types

• Lifts for the aged & disabled
    • Provision for wheelchair
• Good lifts & service lifts
          sizes payloads
    • Car sizes, payloads, well dimensions
•                  ( g             )
    Dumbwaiter (e.g. in restaurants)
•   Stair lifts
•   Inclined lifts
•   Scissor lifts
[Source: CIBSE Guide D]   Scissor lifts
System Types

        g        y
• Passenger conveyors
  • Other names: travelators, autowalks, moving
    walkway moving pavement
    walkway,
     • Practical limit about 300 m distance
       Useful i l        i   tt   i l
     • U f l in large airport terminals
  • Design factors
     • May be inclined up to about 15o
     • Speed between 0.6 to 1.3 m/s (combined with walking,
       the overall pace is 2.5 m/s)
     • Materials must be flexible or elastic (e.g. reinforced
         bb      interlaced steel plates)
       rubber or i    l d       l l     )
                                  Moving walkway
[Source: Mitsubishi Elevator and Escalator, http://www.mitsubishi-elevator.com/]

				
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