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					  Seizure Disorders
Lance McGowan
OBJECTIVE:

Identify the different types
of seizures and their
treatment
OVERVIEW
1. Definition of seizures
2. Causes of seizures
3. Classifications of seizures
4. Seizure management
A. Definition:
Seizure-Generalized
uncoordinated muscular activity
associated with loss of
consciousness. Varies from
severe convulsions, to simply
"blackening out" for a few
seconds.
Causes of Seizures:
Caused by an abnormal focus of
electrical activity in the brain that
produces severe motor activity
and/or changes the level of
consciousness.
Seizures are a caused by:
 a. Recent or old brain injury
 b. Brain tumor
 c. Cerebral embolus
 d. Infection
Seizures are a result of cont.:
 e. Fever
 f. Genetic predisposition
  (heredity)
 g. Alcohol or drug rehab
 h. Birth Injury
 i. Epilepsy
Classification of seizures
Seizures are classified according
to the degree and location
of abnormal electrical
activity in the brain
Classification of seizures
cont:
 Two categories:
  a. Generalized seizures
  b. Partial seizures
Generalized seizures:
Most of the brain is involved.
Convulsions are tonic - clonic
phases. Usually referred to as
a Grand Mal.
 Three Phases of a generalized
 seizure
  Aura
- Premonition
- Part of the seizure
- Not everyone has them
- Many forms such as sound, twitch,
  dizziness, anxiety, smell, or peculiar
  sensation.
Three Phases of a
generalized seizure cont:
  Convulsion phase
     may last several minutes
   (1). Loss of bowel/bladder.
   (2). Tonic (rigid) muscular
    contractions
   (3). Clonic (repetitive) muscular
    activity (spasm)
Three Phases of a
generalized seizure cont:
  Postictal phase
- Period of exhaustion and
  recovery following convulsive
  phase.
- Sleepiness/Unconsciousness.
  usually last 10 - 30 minutes
Three Phases of a
generalized seizure cont:
 During postictal phase...
  (1) Level of consciousness is
   depressed
  (2) Respiration's may be
   slowed
  (3) Patient may vomit - MOA
Status Epilepticus
- One seizure after the other
- No return to full consciousness.
- Patient does not have time to
recover from the stress of the
initial seizure.
Partial seizures
 Involve less extensive areas of
 the brain.
(1) Simple partial seizure
(2) Complex partial seizure
Simple partial seizure
 Seizure activity may be limited
 Patient is usually awake and
 aware. Sometimes referred to as
 a Jacksonian Seizure.
Complex partial seizure
 Consciousness may be clouded
 Originate in the temporal lobe
  (a) Chewing
  (b) Fumbling with clothes
  (c) Walking aimlessly
  (d) Muttering
  (e) Unresponsiveness
Management/Treatment of
seizures
Generalized seizures
 a. Protect from self injury.
  (move objects out of the way)
 b. Do not restrain the victim
  (more damage)
 c. Loosen clothing (restrictive)
Management/Treatment of
seizures cont:
d.  Do not force anything in the
 patients mouth
   NEVER PUT YOUR FINGERS
 IN THEIR MOUTH
e. During postictal phase
 reassess the airway (remove
 vomitus)
Management/Treatment of
seizures cont:
f. Place patient on their side
 (MOA)
g. Accomplish vital signs
h. Secondary survey - treat any
 injuries sustained during the
 tonic - clonic phase.
      Status epilepticus
       management

Give the patient supplemental
oxygen and transport
Management of partial
seizure
a. Partial Simple - basically the
 same as generalized.
b. Complex Partial -sometimes
 mistaken for intoxication, drug
 abuse or other medical condition.
Complex Partial cont:
(1)  Do not physically restrain
 (only for safety reasons)
(2) Give suggestions in a strong
 friendly manner
(3) Stay with the patient until
 abnormal behavior ends
Transport of a seizure
patient.
a. No previous history of seizure
 disorder
b. Airway difficulty or injury
c. Prolonged convulsions (10
 min or more)
d. Status epilepticus
ANY QUESTIONS   ?
Break Time…….
Be in your seat in 10
minutes...