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Energy Efficiency of Motors and Appliances

VIEWS: 10 PAGES: 22

									  ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF
  MOTORS AND APPLIANCES
  By: Jennifer Hitchcock and Meredith Greene




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ENERGY EFFICIENCY PURPOSE
   The purpose of energy efficient appliances and
    motors is to be able to supply the same level of
    energy service only using less energy.

   Efficient energy use is achieved primarily by
    means of a more efficient technology or process
    rather than by changes in individual behavior.

   Energy conservation reduces the energy
    consumption and energy demand per capita and
    thus offsets some of the growth in energy supply
    needed to keep up with population growth
 MAKING A DIFFERENCE
 Along with saving money, energy efficient
  appliances and motors save the plant
 The energy used to run a product can be cut up to
  80%
 There is a large potential to make a difference
  because all appliances energy usage can be cut
     Fridges, washers, dryers, cars
     Light bulbs, anything that plugs
        Into an outlet.




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OPERATION
   You can apply new ways to your old appliances to
    make them more energy efficient
       Keep air filters clean, vents clean, and baseboards
        clean
       Get a furnace tune up
       Defrost your refrigerator so ice doesn’t build up on
        the coils
       Turn off appliance when they are not being used
       Un-plug appliances
OPERATION




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   Motor-driven equipment accounts for 64 percent
    of the electricity consumed in the U.S. industrial
    sector. Within the nation's most energy-intensive
    industries motor systems consume approximately
    290 billion kWh per year.




        http://www.srpnet.com/electric/business/manufacturing.aspx
Motor Efficiency: Converting Electricity
into Mechanical Motion
   The energy efficiency of motors depends on the
    type of motor. Some are built to be more energy
    efficient while others are not. It may be wise to
    invest in motors with higher efficiencies than
    what is required, even if they are a bit more
    expensive. Energy efficient motors reduce the
    amount of lost energy going into heat rather than
    power by using steel with better magnetic
    qualities, bigger diameter wire, and better
    bearings. Since less heat is generated, less
    energy is needed to cool the motor with a fan—
    further improving energy efficiency.
How Much Energy They Consume as
Compared to Purchase Price
  Over a typical ten-year operating life, a motor
  operating most of the time can easily consume
  electricity valued at more than 50 times the
  motor’s initial purchase price. This means that
  when you spend $1,600 to purchase a motor that
  operates continually, you may be obligating
  yourself to spend more than $80,000 on
  electricity.
 Another example is that even at the relatively
  low energy rate of $0.04/kWh, a typical 20-
  horsepower (hp) continuously running motor uses
  almost $6,000 worth of electricity annually, about
  six times its initial purchase price.
Savings by Use of Efficient Motors
 Over half of all electrical energy consumed in the
  United States is used by electric motors.
  Improving the efficiency of electric motors and
  the equipment they drive can save energy, reduce
  operating costs, and improve our nation’s
  productivity.
 The potential savings in system improvement
  opportunities are very large - over 100 billion
  kwh/year energy savings and $3 billion (U.S.)
  annual energy cost savings opportunity with
  existing and new technology by 2010.
Saving Con.

           Annual Value of a One-Point Efficiency Gain
     (Based on $0.04/kWh, 8000 Hours of Use, Full Load)
     Horsepower                  Annual Savings
     5                           $17
     10                          $32
     20                          $61
     50                          $142
     100                         $278
     200                         $537
Savings Con.




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Technological Obstacles
 There is an impending shortage of many rare raw
  materials used in the manufacture of hybrid and
  electric cars.
 For example, the rare earth element dysprosium
  is required to make many of the advanced electric
  motors used in hybrid cars.
 However, over 95% of the world's rare earth
  elements are mined in China, and domestic
  Chinese consumption is expected to consume
  China's entire supply by 2012.
Political/Economic Obstacles
   Motors must meet certain federal laws for them to be
    produced. Most general-purpose motors sold after October
    1997 must meet the NEMA (National Electrical
    Manufacturers Association) definition, according to federal
    law.
    The following are major design and manufacturing
    standards covering electric motors:
    International Electrotechnical Commission: IEC 60034
    Rotating Electrical Machines
   National Electrical Manufacturers Association (USA):
    NEMA MG 1 Motors and Generators
   Underwriters Labratories (USA): UL 1004 - Standard for
    Electric Motors
Political/Economic Obstacles Con.
   On December 19, 2007, President George W. Bush signed
    into law the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.
   Similar to its predecessors, the Energy Policy Act of 1992,
    and the Energy Policy Act of 2005, and related pieces of
    legislation dating back to the 1970s, the 2007 Act aims to
    restructure and reduce, or at least slow the rate of growth
    in America’s energy consumption.
   Perhaps more importantly for motor users the 2007 version
    increases the mandated efficiency of electric motors in
    commercial and industrial applications, and expands the
    range of motors that in question. The 2007 Act takes effect
    on December 19, 2010.
   NEMA Premium® will become the minimum efficiency
    standard for many motors in 2010, making the U.S.
    standards the highest in the world.
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Negative Environmental Impacts
   Appliances have to get energy from somewhere, and the
    energy comes from power plants. These power plants are
    one main source of air and water pollution. They also
    release radioactive materials into the atmosphere.
   Used appliances also produce electronic waste, which are
    discarded, surplus, obsolete, or broken electrical or
    electronic devices.
   The processing of electronic waste in developing countries
    causes serious health and pollution problems because
    electronic equipment contains some very serious
    contaminants such as lead, cadmium, beryllium, mercury,
    and brominated flame retardants.
   Even in developed countries recycling and disposal of e-
    waste involves significant risk to workers and communities
    and great care must be taken to avoid unsafe exposure in
    recycling operations and leaching of material such as heavy
    metals from landfills and incinerator ashes.
Phantom Loads
 The phantom load is the electricity consumed by
  a device when it is turned off.
 For example, your television consumes electricity
  as it waits for you to hit the “on” button on your
  remote. Your clock uses up energy 24/7 to keep
  track of time.
 Devices that have a phantom load are sometimes
  called “vampires.” These devices have a hidden
  energy cost that most people are never even
  aware of.
 Nationally, phantom loads make up about six
  percent of our energy consumption. This
  translates into billions of dollars spent and
  countless amounts of pollution emitted into our
  air.
How to Deal with Phantom Loads
 Unplug all devices when not in use.
 Alternatively, plug your devices into a power
  strip and turn the strip off when you go to sleep.
 Be careful when using cube shaped transformers
  that plug into the wall. They are 60-80%
  inefficient when plugged in, so it is especially
  important that these are on power strips.


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Improvements
  Increasing the thickness of the copper wires
  wound around the core of the motor. This reduces
  both the electrical resistance losses in the wires
  and the temperature at which the motor
  operates.
 Using more and thinner high-quality steel sheets
  for the main fixed and rotating parts of the
  motor. This also minimizes electrical losses.
 Narrowing the air gap between the spinning and
  stationary motor components, increasing the
  strength of its magnetic field. This lets the motor
  deliver the same output using less power.

								
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