Rulers of Russia and Central Europe Main Idea The czars of Russia struggled with the westernization of their empire, while powerful families battled for control of Central Europe. Reading Focus • How did Ivan IV strengthen the Russian monarchy? • What reforms did Peter the Great make in Russia? • How did the rule of Catherine the Great affect Russia? Absolute Monarchy in Russia The ULTIMATE Absolutism! Russia • Romanov family united people • Descendants of Roman Empire – Ivan I married daughter of last Byzantine emperor – Caesar = Tsar • Ivan IV (the terrible) • Peter the Great Why was Russia different from the rest of Europe? • Feudalism and serfdom cont’d in Russia until the 1800s. • Russia was Eastern Orthodox and had been influenced by Constantinople not Rome – so no Reformation. Why was Russia different from the rest of Europe? • Mongol rule had shielded them from Renaissance and Exploration • Only one seaport due to location and weather – so no Exploration. • A series of Russian leaders called czars, including Ivan the Terrible, tried to strengthen Russia and weaken Russian boyars or nobles. • After an initial “good” period, Ivan creates a ruthless police state & persecutes or severely punishes anyone who opposed him. • After Ivan died, Russia entered a Time of Troubles with no strong leaders. This ended when Romanov rulers restored order. • 1696 Peter the Great becomes the ruler of Russia. Russia was still a land of nobles and serfs, and was isolated and backwards Ivan the Terrible: An Absolute Monarch Personality and Political Characteristics of Ivan IV • He grew unbalanced and violent over time. • He was independent and self-reliant. • He was an intellectual. He was considered to be one of the most literate of the Russian czars. • Devout Eastern Orthodox • Married between 5 to 7 times • Claimed to rule by divine right • Had been abused and threatened as a child by the boyars. This made him a violent child and he tortured animals. Personality Characteristics (cont) • Ivan grew up to be a deviant engaging in orgies, rape, and torture. • Examples of this are: a)used a peasant woman for target practice b)drowned several hundred beggars in a lake c)ripped out the ribs of men from their chests d)Massacre of Novgorod • The death (murder) of his wife Anastasia and his own murder of his son Ivan drove him mad with sorrow and guilt, which caused him to get crazy. Ivan Holding His Dying Son The Monarchy of Ivan IV • In the 1500s Russia far behind western Europe in technical advancement and centralized government • Russia run by church officials and boyars, or landowners • Had conservative viewpoints Rule Without Limits Reforms of Ivan IV • 1546, young prince claimed title of • During early years, Ivan IV made czar, put Russia on different course many reforms—created general council • Title was version of Latin word caesar, that included merchants, lower-level or emperor nobles • New czar, Ivan, intended to rule • Promoted military officers on merit; without limits on power drew up legal code • His own madness created chaos • Expanded Russia’s borders, trade As a result of such achievements, the years from 1547 to 1563 are known as Ivan’s ―good period.‖ Political Changes of Ivan IV • Revised the legal code • Created a standing army • Established the Zemsky Sobor---a council of nobles • 1564-formed the Oprichniki-placed a section of Russia under his direct control and used secret police to enforce his rule • Drafted men to fight in the war with Livonia • Oprichniki became murderous. They killed nobles, peasants, and destroyed entire cities. • In 1581, in a fit of rage, he accidentally killed his capable son Ivan and left Russia to be ruled by his unfit son, Feodor. • Created a new bureaucracy with departments and well-defined jobs • Passed a law requiring Duma approval of all major decisions Oprichinki Political Changes of Ivan IV • In 1550, he created a new law code that created a more uniform system. • He created a new military force with a concentration of firepower to support the cavalry. • The central administration grew more organized and distinct. • It was broken into: Foreign Office, Military Records, Land-holding, Anti-Brigandage, etc.. • Each division has a director, staff of clerks, and kept detailed records for the czar to use when making decisions. Ivan the Terrible • During 1560s, Ivan changed • Strict policies, violent actions sealed reputation as Ivan the Terrible • Suspicious of closest advisors; sent them away, killed supporters • Was convinced wife was murdered, people conspiring against him Private Police Force • Created private police force to investigate, punish opposition • Men dressed in black, rode black horses • Controlled almost half of Russia’s territory in Ivan’s name • Brutally punished anyone who spoke out against czar’s policies Wars and Foreign Policy Under Ivan IV • In the late 1500s, he annexed Kazan and Astrakan to the east and south of Moscow • For 22 years, he fought with the Swedes, Lithuanians, Poles, and Livonians • These wars damaged the Russian economy and military. • And these wars did not result in winning Russia any new lands. • 1558-He conquered the Baltic states of Narva and Polotsk. • He created a standing army • The Massacre of Novgorod in 1570--- War and Foreign Policy (Cont) • Created new military force that complemented noble cavalry in 1550 • This was the formation of six companies of musketeers who fought primarily in foot with the latest firearms. • These units amounted to a small standing army since the men served throughout the year and received a salary from the royal treasury. They helped greatly in besieging forces • Ivan’s government attempted to provide land near Moscow for one thousand military servitors. • Motive was to strengthen nobility service War and Foreign Policy (Cont) • Ivan launched a holy war against Russia’s traditional enemy – the Tartars, who were Muslim. • Ivan’s conquest of Kazan and later Astrakhan and Siberia gave birth to a sixteenth century personality cult glorifying him as the Orthodox crusader • Another more shady force was his bodyguard group described as Russia’s “secret police” – the Oprichniki • They basically were a religious brotherhood that swore to protect the God’s Tsar. But in reality, they were marauding thugs ready to commit any crime in the Tsar’s name. • With the Oprichniki, Ivan sentenced thousands to internal exile and others were condemned to death, using biblically inspired tortures to make them suffer Wars and Foreign Policy (cont) • In a dispute with the Novgorod Republic, Ivan ordered the Oprichniks to murder the residents of the city. • Between thirty and forty thousand were killed, yet the actual death toll claimed only 1500 nobles and about 1500 peasants were killed. Russia in the Late 1500s Economic Changes Under Ivan IV • Formed new trading connections by opening up the White Sea to English merchants • Created a government monopoly of all trade • State controlled the sale of liquor • Increased trade with Western Europe • But due to wars, at the end of his reign, Russia had gone from being one of the wealthiest countries to one of the poorest Social Changes Under Ivan IV • Instituted the first law restricting the mobility of peasants • This led to the development of serfdom. • Used the Oprichniki to take power away from the boyars. • Bitterly attacked the boyars and clergy • Supported the merchants, artists, and common people • Wanted to destroy the landed aristocracy, boyars, by forcing them to move to distant border regions, through torture, and execution • Made nobles completely subservient to the czar Russian Boyars=Nobles Social Changes (cont) • Made a set of regulations in 1550 called the Mestnichestivo system that governed the relationships among commanders in the field- all officers must recognize the commander in chief as their superior. • Attempted to assimilate all the ethnic groups in Russia Social Changes Continued • In 1550, he went after the nobles who would not fulfill their duties. • A set of regulations was created that spelled out their military responsibilities. • In 1556, he expanded on this with a Decree on Service. • Every land-owning boyar must provide Ivan with an officer and a fully equipped cavalryman. Cultural Changes Under Ivan IV • Introduced the first printing press to Russia • Put the government in charge of the Eastern Orthodox Church • Built St. Basil’s Cathedral in Moscow • In 1551, the Stoglav Church Council was created to bring order and discipline to the administration of the Eastern Orthodox Church and set limits on its land. St. Basil’s Cathedral in Red Square, Moscow Last Years of Ivan Descent into Mental Illness Time of Troubles • 1565, harshness continued; • Death of Ivan’s son may seized land from 12,000 have been accident, but left boyars Russia without heir to throne • Ordered killing of thousands • Uncertainty about of people in Novgorod; succession, economic suspected they wanted to problems, foreign invasions separate from Russia made chaotic period known • 1581, killed his own son, next as Time of Troubles in line to be czar • 1613, Michael, relative of • Descent into mental illness Ivan’s first wife, crowned seemed complete czar; first of Romanov dynasty Romanov Dynasty (1613-1917) Romanov Family Crest The Pendulum of Russian History Pro-West Anti-West For Progress & Change Isolationist Encourage New Ideas, Xenophobic Technologies, etc. Ultra-Conservative Intellectual elites Most Tsars Merchants/businessm Russian Orthodox en Church Young members of the Military middle class. Boyars A few Tsars peasants REFORM-MINDED DEMAGOGUE LEADER Peter the Great (r. 1682-1725) Peter the Great: An Absolute Monarch or Enlightened Despot? Peter the Great = Abs. Monarch • He imposed high taxes so that he... • Could force Russia to Westernize. Was Peter the Great an absolute monarch? • He reduced the power of the boyars (nobles). • He took control of the Russian Orthodox Church. • He built a huge army and trained them to be like an army from the West. • He built a new capital and forced people to relocate there. Peter the Great of Russia • Impact – Russia became a powerful European country – Advanced the role of women in Russia – Fought in expensive and costly wars – Destroyed many Russian traditions in order to modernize Russia BEFORE Peter the Great • Russia was still in the Middle Ages – with touches of the Muslim culture added in. • There was very, very little interaction with the rest of Europe or the world. Russian Life BEFORE Peter the Great • There were only three social classes. – The Boyars – The Church – The Serfs The Boyars • Russian nobles, most called themselves Princes. • 10th – 17th Centuries were the “real” rulers of Russia. • Positions in society were based on service your family did for the Czar and owning land. • Pretty much had no checks on their local power. – Could change your loyalty to different princes, depending on what they would give you in return. The Boyars • Dressed more like Arabs with beards that you were never supposed to trim. • Separate society from women. – Women weren’t often seen – let alone heard! – Covered hair and no shape to clothing. The Boyars • Lived on their feudal estates with their own armies and self- sufficient economies. • Little interest in the outside world. • Do you see Muslim influence? The Church = Russian Orthodox • One of the oldest Christian religions. • Does not recognize the Pope or Catholic Church. • They believe they practice the Christian religion of the Roman Emperor Constantine. Russian Orthodox Church • Ruled by the Patriarch. • Urged people to not be corrupted by outside influences. • Urged the serfs to remain loyal without questioning the Boyars. • Life is suffering, but heaven will be your reward. Russian Orthodox Church The Serfs • At the time of Peter the Great, they made up 95% of the population in Russia. • They were essentially slaves – bound to the land and bound to the noble. The Serfs • Had absolutely no say about anything in their lives. Over these three levels of society were the CZARS • Czar = Caesar / Emperor. • Sometimes in books as Tsar. • Technically had absolute power. – But few czars had been powerful enough to make the boyars and the church obey him. Before Peter: The Time of Troubles • The belief in “blue blood” was also with the Russian Czars. • 1600 – the last of the “Rurik” czars died with no children. – Family had ruled since 900 AD. – WHO SHOULD BE CZAR? The Time of Troubles • “Smutnoya Vremya”’ • No czar and wars broke out between the boyars. • Sensing weakness and the chance to take land – Poland and Lithuania invaded. • Russia was in chaos! The Romanovs become Czar • A distant relative of the last Rurik czar. • Started a dynasty in 1613 that would last until 1918. – This is NOT the Hapsburg double- headed eagle! – It is the Romanov symbol. Even though the Romanovs were on the throne • Power was still weak. – Just the way the boyars and the Church wanted it! Peter the Great’s story starts with his father: • Alexei – His first wife died. • 13 children • 5 boys – only one was surviving to adulthood. – Ivan was mentally retarded. – A new wife was needed. • He practiced “droit de seigneur.” • Most common way that boyars chose wives and mistresses. Czar Alexis I – Peter’s Father • Had started some reforms in Russia. – Shaved his beard – Could read Latin and spoke Polish as well as Russian. Peter the Great’s mother • Natalia Kirilovna Naryshkinov • Her grandmother was Scottish and had some contact with Western Europeans while growing up. ROAD TO POWER Youngest son of Tsar Alexis –he was a child from Alexis’ second wife Alexis had 3 children with his 1st wife 1. Feodor – an invalid 2. Sophia 3. Ivan – a semi imbecile Peter the Great 1672 - 1725 • Peter was the firstborn son to a second wife who did not come from a powerful family to protect her or her children. • 1682 – Alexis dies. • Who becomes Czar? 1676 – Alexis died and Feodor became Tsar 1682 – sickly Feodor died and Peter’s mother campaigns to have him made Tsar over Ivan Peter the Great • First born son of a second wife. • He was only ten when his father died. – Peter’s mother’s family was not the most powerful Boyar family and suspected of “western” leanings. Who should rule Russia • The eldest son? • Ivan • Mentally handicapped. • Should be easy for the Boyars and Church to manipulate. • But could he lead? Peter is made Tsar at 10 years old Ivan’s Family instigates a coup d’etat Peter watched as his supporters and family were thrown form the Red Stairs of the Faceted Palace in Moscow onto raised pikes Coup is successful and Peter is forced to share Tsarship with Ivan Sophia acts as the regent The Compromise: A double-Czar • Little Peter and his mentally handicapped brother were crowned co-czars and their sister Sophia sat behind them whispering instructions on what to say and do. EARLY TROUBLES Miserable Peter leaves Moscow and becomes interested in war games He becomes acquainted with Western strategies and tactics He establishes a military support base Problem-Solve this! • Why didn’t Peter’s half-sister Sophia just take her little half- brother on a walk along the cliffs, and get rid of him? • Why did she keep her brother Ivan alive? Sophia tries another coup, this time loosing to Peter Peter exiles Sophia to a convent 6 years later Ivan dies and Peter is left to rule alone 1st Tsar in 100 years to make contact with the West in peacetime Met with Western Monarchs such as William III of England to establish a mutually beneficial trading relationship Conducted diplomacy In England he stayed at a house in Deptford belonging to writer John Evelyn. During his stay he and his companions caused a great deal of damage. He had a party full of “nasty people” wrecked the house and garden, carpets were left filthy with grease and ink. Paintings looked like they were used as shooting targets. Locks and windows were broken. Every one of the 50 chairs in the house vanished – probably burned in fires. Traveled incognito (in Holland he worked as a ship’s carpenter) His trip created a desire to modernize Russian state and to Westernize its society Peter the Great Grows Up • 1696: Peter leaves Russia and comes to the West. – Didn’t just visit fellow Royals. – He visited factories and took jobs in shipyards to learn how to build ships. – Had a dentist teach him how to pull teeth. – Learned a lot about Western Europe art and culture. Peter the Great comes home to Russia • Brought with him technical experts, teachers, and soldiers to teach western methods. • Was ready to become a true Czar without his sister in 1698. Do you think Sophia accepted this new way? • Now she did try to assassinate her brother. • Sent her personal body guards the Streltsky to kill Peter. • They failed. Another Coup 1698 – Forced to return home when he hears of another rebellion by Sophia Responds with force – ordering a mass execution of the surviving rebels Next day he stared his program to recreate Russia in the image of the West Peter’s Response: • Forced his sister to become a nun and locked her away in a nunnery. • Hung the bodies of the Streltsky guards outside her window. – 1,000 corpses • Later he sent her to a sub- arctic nunnery. • She died in 1704 Peter hung the bodies of the rebels outside of Sophia’s convent window, and Sophia apparently went mad. Peter the Great About 70 years later, Peter I crowned czar. Became known as Peter the Great for his efforts to transform Russia into a modern state. Early Rule Building a Navy • 1682, Peter became czar while a • Attack disaster, but inspired child; sister ruled in his place Peter to build navy • Age 17, removed sister from • Labored side-by-side with throne, took power for himself thousands of carpenters – Tall, strong man – Had strong personality, • Built hundreds of ships boundless energy • New navy took up Azov • One of first acts, stormed Azov, campaign Black Sea port held by Turks • Turks surrendered Modernization and Reform Westernization • Peter realized country needed to modernize to catch up with rest of Europe • Wanted westernization; to bring elements of Western culture to Russia • 1697, journeyed to western Europe to see what Russia needed to modernize New Skills • Peter traveled in disguise, was sometimes recognized anyway • Learned hands-on skills, especially shipbuilding • Recruited European experts to bring skills to Russia Rebellion • Trip cut short by rebellion of streltsy, military corps with political influence • Thought streltsy wanted sister on throne; had members tortured, executed • Disbanded streltsy, organized more modern army Personality Traits of Peter I • He was 6 ft and 7 inches tall. • He was a vulgar man who enjoyed cruelty. • He would visit the state torture chambers, watch the executions, and even participate in them. • He was afraid of cockroaches. (They made him faint!) • He was an honest man with simple tastes. • He did not enjoy or allow elaborate rituals or ceremonies in his court. • He was a hard worker. His days started at 4AM. • He could not sit still. Personality Traits Cont: Political • He was an avid learner. For example, he studied algebra and geometry to apply it to military training. • His goal was to modernize Russia. • He suffered from convulsive fits. • As a teenager, he traveled Europe in incognito. On his travels, he learned how to be a seaman, a common soldier, a carpenter, a mechanic, a barber, and a dentist. • He had a hot temper. Personality Traits Continued • He was handsome and had unusual physical strength. • He was a simple man and enjoyed simple pleasures like a mug of beer and good conversation. • He did not like fancy clothes that limited his movement. • He often wore worn-out shoes and an old hat. • He was fond of merry-making and crude jokes. • He had a terrible temper and could be cruel. • His second wife, Catherine, was able to calm him down. • Sometimes Peter would beat his high officials with a stick. • His greatest gift was statesmanship: his ability to pick talented men for the highest positions in the government from all social classes. • He was an autocrat, but he also believed he was the servant of the state. • He was not above doing any job or duty if it needed to be done. • He was original, shrewd, bright, energetic, courageous, industrious, and iron-willed. Personality Continued • Peter the Great was extremely abusive and cruel to his son Alexis, heir to the throne. Peter believed he was an incompetent ruler. • He beat him about the head, dragged him by his hair across the floor, etc. • Peter had worked hard all his life to create a great Russia, and was damned well not going to let his “noodle of a son” muck it up. • “*I grow worried+ when I see you, the heir to the throne, who are so very useless for the conduct of state affairs.” 5 Peter the Great Peter the Great was committed to a policy of westernization in Russia. However, persuading Russians to change their way of life proved difficult. To impose his will, Peter became the most autocratic of Europe’s absolute monarchs. During his reign he: • used autocratic methods to push through social and economic reforms. • imposed policies which caused the spread of serfdom. • brought all Russian institutions under his control. • He stressed loyalty to the monarchy and to the state. • Initially, he and his brother Ivan jointly ruled the throne under the patronage of his sister Sofia, but then after a failed coup d’etat where she tried to murder him, Sofia was overthrown and was exiled to a covenant. Becoming the Absolute Monarch • Following another king’s model, he sought to make the boyars too weak to challenge him. – Took away walled fortresses. – Took away private armies. – Made the boyars become courtiers and serve in his government and military. How do you think Peter got compliance? • Humiliations • Imprisonment / Torture • Forced labor • Death • AND --- Political Changes of Peter I • He built up the Russian military. • The army grew to 200,000 soldiers. • The navy grew to 75,000 sailors. He is considered to be the father of the Russian navy. • He built St. Petersburg from scratch and made it the new capital of Russia. History of St.Petersburg • 1703, May 26 • Peter the Great • Northern War – Peter and Paul’s Fortress – the birthplace of St.Pete – An island in the delta of the Neva River 92 Irina McClellan Peter and Paul’s Fortress 93 Irina McClellan Political: St. Petersburg • First living quarter was a wooden cabin where Peter lived while the city was being built • It was only 60 sq. meters • First structure built was the Peter and Paul Fortress, which was designed to protect the city from the Swedish army and navy • Peter wanted the entire city to be built of stone, but could not afford it, and so had the walls painted to look like it was made of bricks St. Petersburg Peter also founded a new city • Early 1700s, fought Sweden to acquire warm-water port – Other ports choked by ice much of year – Port farther south on Baltic Sea to keep Russia open to western trade all year, connect Russia to west • On land won from Sweden, Peter built new capital, St. Petersburg – Russia’s government moved to new city – Featured Western-style architecture «Palace Square» St. Petersburg is called the cultural capital of Russia «The Winter Palace» The whole development of St. Petersburg is materialized in its palaces and temples, park ensembles and street labyrinths «Peter and Paul Fortress» It is a city of “White Nights” Scenes from St. Petersburg The Winter Palace The Winter Palace • Former residence of Russian Emperors • Built in 1760s • Located on the bank of the Neva River • Part of the State Hermitage museum Irina McClellan 103 Peter used forced peasant labor to build his palace. The Winter Palace JAV (just another view) The Winter Palace The Winter Palace and the Hermitage The Winter Palace of Russian Emperors, St. Petersburg Scenes from St. Petersburg Political, Social, and Cultural Changes Cont. • Social: He opened positions within the government to talented sons of common men. • He created a supervisory senate and a new system of central administration. • He tried to reform provincial and local governments. • Cultural: He created the Holy Synod and put the czar at the head of the Russian Orthodox Church. • He was unable to eradicate the traditional corruption of the government officials. • He was the first monarch to give unlimited power a moral and political definition. • “Remember that you are fighting not for Peter, but for the state.” Political Changes Continued • Local Government: – In 1699, towns were allowed to elect their own officials, collect revenue, and stimulate trade. – In 1702, towns were governed by an elective board so that towns could govern themselves. Emphasis on the local landlord and provincial governor. • Provincial Government: – In 1707, Russia was divided into 8 guberniia each led by a Gubnator who had full power. – Each guberniia was divided into districts called uzeda. – In 1718, there were 12 guberniia and each was divided into 40 provintsiia which were further divided into districts. A Gubernator was directly answerable to Peter the Great. • Central Government: – Peter was advised by a council and his orders were carried out by 40 departments in the Prikazy. – Some had specific functions while some had vague responsibilities in many departments. – In 1711, Peter appointed a 9 man senate which evolved into a chief executive and highest court of appeal. – It was supervised by army officers until 1715 when an Inspector-General was appointed and then further replaced by a Procurator-General, who was the most powerful man in Russia after Peter. Political Changes/Military Reforms • During Peter the Great’s reign, the military reforms greatly modernised Russia’s army and navy • Peter introduced a professional standing army in 1699. • All the soldiers received similar training so that the army had uniformity. The Streltsy was abolished. (The Streltsy were the previous army units officered by foreigners – Peter hated them). • Two elite guards regiments were created. By 1725, • Russia had 130,000 men in the army. • The navy was essentially Peter’s creation. It was based on the moth of the River Don and then expanded to the Baltic Sea. • Peter the Great brought in foreign experts and by 1725, Russia had 48 ships and 800 galleys. The officers of the navy were foreign, but the crews were Russian. • The Russian navy defeated Sweden’s navy and its success alarmed George I of Britain. Political/Military Changes • Established a regular army along modern lines. • He drafted peasants and townspeople to be the soldiers. Officers were nobles. • Standard uniforms were provided. • Regular drills were introduced. • Obsolete cannons were replaced with new mortars and guns designed by specialists and Peter. • Army Regulations of 1716: required officers to teach their men how to act in battle. • Had 52 battleships and hundreds of galleys built. 5 Expansion Under Peter Peter created the largest standing army in Europe and set out to extend Russian borders to the west and south. Peter unsuccessfully fought the Ottomans in an attempt to gain a warm- water port for Russia. Peter engaged in a long war with Sweden, and eventually won land along the Baltic Sea. On land won from Sweden, Peter built a magnificent new capital city, St. Petersburg. Peter signed a treaty with Qing China which recognized Russia’s right to lands north of Manchuria. Peter hired a navigator to explore what became known as the Bering Strait between Siberia and Alaska. Peter the Great Blazing to the Pacific • Made fur trading outposts all the way to Alaska. – FYI: Alaska was part of Russia until 1862. • The Bering Strait is named for the Danish navigator Vitus Bering that he sent to discover a way between Russia and Alaska. The Great Northern War • 1700 – Russia goes to war against Sweden to get control of the land needed for a warm water port. – Had 5x as many troops as Sweden did! • Got his royal butt kicked by the Swedes! Peter did not give up! • Went back and rebuilt his military and trained them better. • 1709 – defeated the Swedes and took the land that would become his new capitol. Wars and Foreign Policies of Peter I • He needed a warm water seaport, since the ones in the White Sea froze in winter. • He fought with Turkey from 1695 to 1711 over the port of Azov on the Black Sea. But he could not keep the port. • He fought with Sweden in the Great Northern War from 1700 to 1721. Russia won parts of Livonia and Estonia along the Black Sea. • The Treaty of Kyakhta of 1727 fixed the Russo-Chinese border. • His expensive wars inhibited the economic growth of Russia. Russia & Sweden After the Great Northern War Russian Empire (during Peter) Economic Changes of Peter I • Taxed the peasants and middle class, but not the nobles. • Introduced the potato, tobacco, and grapes to the Russian people. • Increased trade with Western Europe. • Built canals and roads to facilitate trade. • Made St. Petersburg a major trading port between Russia and Western Europe. • The heaviest taxes fell on the peasants. • There were taxes on land, clothing, tools, tobacco, food, giving birth, and getting married. • He passed the decree that land could not be split up among your children. The father had to leave it to a sole heir. • Set up farms to raise sheep. • Set up factories to make clothes. • Established state mines and factories. • Encourage and subsidized private industry. • Established trade with China. • Create the first poll tax in Russia. • He increased the government income 5 ½ times it original amount. • Military expenditure was met out of direct taxation. • Revenue was expanded three times to pay for the military and wars. 85% of royal income was taken up this way. Direct taxation through family, but many houses grouped together as “one” house and therefore paid as just one house Social Changes • At the beginning of his reign, there was already some degree of economic differentiation between the various regions of Russia • Artisans were establishing small businesses, small- scale production was expanding, and industrial plants and factories were expanding, where both serfs and workers were hired • Peter’s plans greatly aided these people – a decree in 1699 released townspeople from subjection to military governors and allowed to elect their own municipalities • The material position of the landed nobility was strengthened under Peter. They gained almost 100,000 acres of land and 175,000 serfs. Give the Boyars something they wanted in return. • Serfdom spread in Russia. – Slave = Serf • The boyars, now called nobles, got more control over the people of Russia. – It continued until 1861 in Russia. Social Changes of Peter I • Attempted to subordinate the nobility to the state. • Enlarged the service nobility. • Forced sons of nobility to attend technical schools. • Introduced the Table of Rank, which established a hierarchy in which nobles were promoted on merit. • They were classified by functions: military, naval, civilian etc and broken into 14 categories. • Factory owners and others who had risen to officer’s rank could move ahead of nobles. The predominance of the boyars came to an end. • Gave the nobles more power over land and serfs. • Organized the social life of his royal court along Western lines. • Introduced the practice of marrying royal Russian princes to Western princesses--- especially German princesses. • Modified the structure of serfdom into sub-categories. • Reorganized the entire social structure to serve the needs of the state. Social Organization • All townspeople were divided between “regulars” and “commons” (inferiors) • Regulars were divided between two guilds – 1) Rich merchants and members of liberal professions, like doctors, artists, and actors – 2) Artisans and small tradesmen – Commons were hired laborers, without the privileges of regulars – Was determined by amount of capital made by certain person – Those who were manufacturers had special privileges, coming under the jurisdiction of the College of Manufactures and being exempt from the billeting of troops, from elective rotas of duty, and from military service Modernization with Force • Serfs were forced labor for many improvements. • Worked until they died to create the modernization. Cultural Reforms • In addition to modernizing army, Peter made many other reforms • Brought church under state control • Built up Russian industry • Started first newspaper in Russia • Sponsored new schools • Modernized calendar, promoted officials on service, not social status Cues from West Modern Russia • Supported education; believed • Through these, other reforms Peter Russians needed to learn more about tried to impose will on Russians science from West • Goal was to make Russia more • Wanted Russians to adopt modern country European-style clothing, grooming • Not always successful, but • Cut off boyars’ traditional long considered founder of modern coats, beards to look European Russia for efforts Cultural Changes of Peter I, The Great • Founded a naval academy • Founded a school of navigation and maths in 1701 • Founded a school of medicine in 1707 • Founded a school of artillery • Founded a school of engineering in 1712 • Ordered his court to adopt Western clothing • Ordered men to shave their beards and instituted a beard tax • Peter would personally cut off the beards of his boyars and the skirts of their long coats • Only peasants and Orthodox clergy were allowed to remain bearded • Allowed women out in public without a veil • Adopted the Western Julian calendar • Secular schools were opened and children of soldiers, officials, and churchmen were admitted to them. • Compulsory education was required of all government workers. • Russians were permitted to go abroad to study, and this was paid for by the government. THE LAW FACULTY OF THE ST. PETERSBURG STATE UNIVERSITY St. Petersburg State University was founded in 1724 by a decree of Peter the Great. Law has been taught at the University since the first day of its foundation. Thus the Law Faculty of the St.Petersburg State University is the oldest law school in Russia. The Summer Garden • One of the Oldest Parks in St.Pete • Early 1700s • Summer palace of of Peter the Great • Statues of Greek Gods and goddesses Irina McClellan 131 How about the Church? • Peter replaced positions with western leaning patriarchs. • Built fabulous new churches in the western style. Cultural Changes (cont) • Opened up Western-style hospitals • Encouraged literacy – founded a newspaper in 1703 called the “Vedomosti” • Founded the Russian Academy of Science in 1724 • Hired foreign technicians to teach Russians how to build better ships and stronger fortresses • Started the first Russian newspaper • Set up 50 elementary schools • Introduced the letters for the Russian language and made it a written language • In 1721, Peter abolished the Patriarchate of Moscow and put the Orthodox Church under the control of the government through the Holy Synod. • The Holy Synod persecuted dissenters and conducted censorship of all publications. Cultural Changes Continued • Priests were obliged to give sermons to make the peasants listen to reason and to teach children to fear God and be in awe of the czar. • The regular clergy were forbidden to allow men under 30 years old or serfs to take vows as monks. • Peter closed many churches and monasteries for the land and revenue. Stipulations • Had to be WESTERN: – Dress like they did in the west. – Shave their beards. – Women were to dress western and not be segregated from men. – Dancing and mingling between men and women was ORDERED. Russia’s Peter the Great Decree of 1705: • “All court attendants, government officials of all ranks, military men…must shave their beards and mustaches.” • “If it happens that some of them do not wish to shave their beards and moustaches, let a year tax be collected from such persons…” Russia’s Peter the Great Decree of 1701: ―Western dress shall be worn by all the nobles, members of our councils…and government officials.‖ ―The upper dress shall be of French or Saxon cut and the lower dress and underwear shall be of the German type. They shall also ride German saddles.‖ • Peter ordered his subjects to adopt French or Saxon cut clothes and German waistcoats, boots and hats. Ladies were also forced to adopt western fashions including cumbersome petticoats. • The only problem with this enforced fashion is that it wasn't very suitable for the cold Russian weather. • Russian nobles were used to wearing warm sheepskin robes so Peter's fashion decrees left many nobles freezing their behinds off. *Peter also is never seen in any of his portraits wearing a beard. After a whirlwind trip to Amsterdam, Berlin, Vienna, Rome, Copenhagen, Venice, and London Peter noticed that no one was wearing beards. *He began to see beards as a thing of the past and ordered all his subject to go for a trim. *Peter hated beards so much that he would rip a beard out by the roots if he caught anyone wearing one. * He thought mustaches were much more civilized. Translation: Right Corner: “The barber went to cut off an Old Believer’s beard” Left Corner: “The Old Believer says:” “Listen, barber, I neither want to cut my beard nor shave watch out, or I will call the guards to teach you to behave.” Peter’s Modernization with Force • Improved education • Academies for mathematics, science, music, dance and engineering. • Improved travel with roads, waterways, and canals. • Developed mining and textiles for export. Revolts? • Peter’s first wife, Eudoxia: – Preferred the “old” ways and encouraged revolts. • Divorced and sent to a sub- arctic nunnery. • His son Tsarivitch Alexei: – Hated his father and was encouraged by his mother to revolt. – Was executed by his father. Conservative Clergy Nobility His son Alexis sentenced to death by Peter Died while being tortured Alexis renounced his right to succession and fled to Austria. Peter thought he fled to get foreign backing and had him arrested and tried for treason. He was sentenced to death. Died from the torture wich occurred before the execution could ever take place. Peter the Great had a problem close to his death • Despite having had 11 children with two wives, only two daughters had lived. – Too young. • His grandson was too young and Peter didn’t think he would be able to continue Russia’s transformation to a modern country. • WHO SHOULD COME AFTER HIM? Peter’s second wife • Catherine I • Born Martha Elena Scowronska – Lithuanian Peasant – A commoner, little better than a serf to the Russian nobles. • Had grown up a peasant, doing laundry, becoming other men’s mistresses. – Rumors that Peter had purchased her from one of her lovers. Peter and Catherine • Love at first sight. Secretly married in 1707. • As smart and daring as her husband. • Could deal with Peter’s temper and help him in epileptic seizures. • Never left his side. – Kept a 3 room cabin for them and their children while he was building St. Petersburg. Peter died in 1725 In November 1724 – he leapt into freezing water and worked throughout the night to assist in the rescue of 20 sailors whose ship had been grounded. The resulting fever helped lead to his death in early 1925 Peter and Catherine • Peter crowned her Czarina and they were co-rulers in 1724. • Ruled by herself from 1725 until her death in 1727. Catherine I coronation gown After Catherine I • Peter’s Grandson. – Became czar at 12 • Only ruled three years. • Died of smallpox on his wedding day in 1730. – Did bring back his Grandmother Eudoxia from exile. (Peter’s first wife.) After Peter II? • Remember Peter the Great’s “co-czar” brother? • His daughter Anna became Czarina. Czarina Anna • The Russian nobles put her on the throne. – She would be easy to control. • She should be “grateful” for the chance to become the Czarina. • She wasn’t known for a strong personality, she could be influenced. – Maybe even get a Constitutional Monarchy? Czarina Anna ruled until 1 740 • Kept company with foolish people. • Created a Secret Police to terrorize people to follow her. • Enjoyed humiliating the older nobles. – Ordering marriages between inappropriate people and having them spend the night naked in an “ice palace.” Anna HATED her Cousin • Elizabeth • The daughter of Peter the Great and his wife Catherine. • Every inch the daughter of her parents! The saddest story of a Czar • Ivan VI • A nephew of Anna, she adopted him when he was an infant and declared him her successor in 1740. • She died later that year. Would the daughter of Peter the Great let a baby rule? • Elizabeth took the throne. • Infant Ivan was imprisoned. – Never left his prison. – Not allowed contact except with guards. – No education. – Effort to “rescue” him and make him czar failed and he was killed by his guards in 1764. Empress Elizabeth aka Czarina • Continued her father’s westernization, but had censorship of ideas she did not agree with. • Waged years of war against Prussia. – Frederick the Great • Could be kind and generous. – Abolished the death penalty. • “Had to be the bride at every wedding, the corpse at every funeral.” – “It is all about ME.” Empress Elizabeth • Selected a nephew to become the next czar. – The future Peter III • Put some special thought into deciding who his wife should be. – Selected German Princess Sophia Augusta Frederika of Anhalt – Zerbst. • Known in history as ___ Catherine the Great Huh? • How does a German princess become the Czarina of Russia? • What happened to her husband? Her husband Peter - • Not very smart • Not good looking • Loved everything PRUSSIAN not Russian. – Cheered on Frederick the Great against his aunt. Peter and Catherine • Were NOT a good couple. • Peter preferred male- looking German women for mistresses rather than being with his wife. • Empress Elizabeth wanted a son from Peter and Catherine. – Blamed Catherine – What is a woman to do? 1762: Elizabeth dies • Peter ends the war with Frederick the Great at a great loss to Russia. • Peter puts his Prussian Guards above the Russian nobles. • Plans to divorce Catherine. – Monastery for her! – Marry a German mistress. Catherine’s current lover helps hatch a plan! • Gregori Orlov • Stage a Coup d’Etat. – A takeover of the government. – Imprison Peter. – Make Catherine the Czarina. It Worked! • Peter was so hated that people welcomed Catherine to the throne. – Peter ended up being murdered. • By Gregori Orlov – Paul always harbored a hatred of his mother for not making him czar and killing his “father.” Catherine the Great – what happened with Prince Orlov? • She never married again. • She kept many lovers. – Would enjoy, give them land, serfs, and money as a “pension”. – But expected the men to be loyal to her for life. – Some say 11 lovers, others say 300 lovers in her life. Catherine and Orlov • Had a son together. • He was raised by both his parents and made noble. • Alexsai did a great deal of traveling in the west. • Gregory Orlov, broken at not getting Catherine to marry him, went west for five years, came home a “broken” man. – Died after marrying his niece in retaliation against Catherine. Catherine the Great • Did not get along with her son at all. • Took her grandsons, Alexander and Nicholas and raised them, intending to make one of them the czar over their father. Catherine the Great • Set forth new efforts with an effective ruler to keep going with Peter the Great’s reforms. Catherine the Great • Died before she could make her choice law in 1796. – Ruled Russia for 34 years – Not bad for a non-Russian woman! • Paul took over and tried to undo everything his mother had done. – Made it law no woman could rule in Russia. – He was murdered five years later. Catherine the Great: An Enlightened Despot Catherine the Great An Enlightened Ruler Reorganized government, so she knew what was happening throughout Russia. Codified laws (wrote them down!) State-sponsored education for boys and girls. Enlightened Despots • Catherine the Great of Russia (r. 1762-1796) – German born wife of Czar Peter III – Controlled government after Peter III’s accidental(?) death – Increased European culture in Russia – Peasant Reforms – Territorial Expansion – Corresponded with Diderot Catherine the Great Russia • Catherine II became ruler, 1762 • Dreamed of establishing order, justice, supporting education, culture • Read works of, corresponded with Voltaire, Diderot Reforms • Drafted Russian constitution, code of laws • Considered too liberal, never put into practice Limitations • Intended to free serfs, but would lose support of wealthy landowners • Catherine had no intention of giving up power • Became tyrant, imposed serfdom on more Russians than ever before Catherine the Great of Russia • Modernized the Russian army and government • Studied in France during the Enlightenment • Tried to link Russia to the West through trade and diplomatic relations • Increased Russia’s territory, especially against the Ottomans (Turks) – sought to link Russia to its Slavic neighbors to the south ﺣCatherine II Catherine II ﻣGerman by birth, husband of Peter III; easily assimilated ﻣPractical sense and great energy (five in the morning); corresponded with Diderot ﺣTrained Alexander on the Western Model; Swiss La Harpe ﺣcontinued Westernization, modernization started by Peter I ﺣEstrangement of upper class from their own people ﺣSummoned a Legislative Commission from which obtained valuable information ﺣLegal codification, restrictions on the use of torture, religious toleration except Old Believers ﺣUnscrupulous foreign policy but accepted practice of the day, main builder of modern Russia ﻣEastern Question ﻣGreek Project ﻣDefeated the Turks but checked by balance of power ﻣThree Partitions of Poland ﻣBlack Sea, Odessa ﻣPotemkin villages “ ﺣYou write only on paper but I have to write on human skin” 1762 – 8 ﺣ Catherine II efforts Failure to reform serfdom; peasant rebellion discouraged further ﺣPugachev’s rebellion (1773) ﺣWorked upon by Old Believers ﺣRecalled Stephen Razin ﺣClass antagonism profound ﺣEmelian Pugachev, dubbed Peter III, headed an insurrection in the Urals ﺣImperial manifesto proclaimed end of serfdom, taxes, and military consription ﺣFamine dispersed rebels ﺣBetrayed, body drawn and quartered ﺣCatherine responded with repression ﺣConceded more powers to the landlords; shook off Peter I’s compulsory state service ﺣCulmination of serfdom,; Moscow Gazette “For sale, two plump coachmen” ﺣRussian Empire with the consent of the serf-owning gentry 1762 – 8 Personality Traits of Catherine II • Spent hours alone reading French romances, Roman literature, and the works of philosophers like Voltaire and Diderot • She was generous, considerate, and humane. • She was a German princess. When she married, she changed her name, religion, and learned Russian to truly be a Russian czarina. • She was known as the “Little Mother” to her people. • She spoke freely with her advisers. • She was open about her lovers. There were at least 12 of them over her lifetime. When she tired of them, she would send the off with money, gems, and thousands of serfs. • Most likely had to suppress her longings for her homeland, but was a great queen for her adoptive country Personality Traits (cont.) • She rose at 6 AM. She would rub her face with ice to wake up and would drink 5 cups of black coffee. She also worked 15 hour days. • She wanted to know everything. She was an avid learner. • She was passionate, energetic, curious, and had a desire to create and control. • She had a profound understanding of human nature and the impact of public opinion. • She found her husband to be inept ruler. When she learned that he was going to divorce her she planned to overthrow him. On June 28, 1762 the army sided with Catherine and Peter was arrested and murdered four days later and she took the throne in 1762 and she ruled until 1796. • Her lovers included: Serge Saltuikov, a court chamberlain; Stanislav Poniatowski, a member of one of Poland’s grand families – would love Catherine his entire life; Simon Zorich, a major in the Hussars; Ivan Rimsky-Korsakov, a talented musician with an amazing voice; Alexander Lanskoy, the youngest of Catherine’s favorites, almost loved him like a mother, but then died of diphtheria Catherine the Great Russia’s next important ruler was actually a German princess who came to Russia to marry a grandson of Peter the Great. She became known as Catherine the Great. Takes Power Honoring Peter I Early Reforms • Husband became Czar • Catherine saw self as • Influenced by European Peter III true successor of Peter thinkers—believed the Great strong, wise ruler could • Catherine and many improve life for nobles grew angry at • Worked to build on his subjects his incompetent, weak westernization efforts rule • Reformed legal, • To emphasize education systems • Catherine seized power, legitimacy of her claim, was declared czarina of built statue honoring • Removed restrictions Russia Peter on trade; promoted science, the arts Catherine Looking At Peter The Great’s Legacy She was born a Germany, yet married Elizabeth’s nephew Peter, who was heir to the throne. As a young girl and the rest of her life, she devoured books. Learning helped her to escape the palace intrigues of the Peter’s aunt, Tsarina Elizabeth. When Elizabeth died, Peter made peace with whom? Yes, Frederick the Great. Peter was assassinated within six months, and in a military coup, Catherine took the throne. Challenges to Catherine’s Rule Conflicts • Catherine tried to reform Russia, was distracted by conflict • Faced war in Poland, where people wanted freedom from Russian influence • 1768, Ottoman Empire joined Polish cause War and Rebellion • Eventually won war, took over half of Poland, territory on Black Sea • While war raging, Catherine faced popular rebellion inside Russia • Man claiming to be Peter III traveled countryside, leading ragtag army Strengthening the Monarchy • In the end, man captured, beheaded, rebellion put down • Rebellion convinced Catherine she needed to strengthen monarchy in rural areas; put local governments in hands of landowners, nobles Political Aspects of Catherine II • Many believed Catherine’s reign would not last long. She was not the least bit Russian, and the rightful heir, the grandson of Peter the Great, had been murdered. • Catherine knew her position was fragile, but handled the situation well. • She kept the statesmen who served under Empress Elizabeth and Peter. • She kept Chancellor Nikita Panin in charge of foreign affairs. Political Aspects of Catherine II • When Catherine met with the Senate for the first time she was shocked by the realities of Russia economic and social situation. • The majority of the army was abroad and hadn’t been paid for eight months. • The budget showed a deficit of 17 million rubles, in a country of only 100 million people. No one knew what the revenues of the treasury were. • People complained of corruption, extortion and injustice. • No one knew how many towns there were in Russia, nor did they have a map to check, so Catherine had the clerk go out and purchase one. Political Changes of Catherine II • Overthrew her incompetent and unstable husband, arrested him, and he was assassinated in jail • She reduced the Russian clergy to a group of state-paid government workers. • Believed that people were innocent until proven guilty • She reorganized the 29 provinces under a central administration focused on reform. • She introduced the legal philosophy of innocent until proven guilty. • She had laws written in simple vernacular language for all to understand, were printed up in small books for all to have. • Local governments and courts were remodeled in 1775 with elected government officials by nobles, merchants, and peasants. • She separated the courts from the nobility. • Worked to reunite all the Russian classes – this included decentralization, the distribution of functions and power, and the gentry’s participation As a builder of Russia’s borders, Catherine was more successful. She gained an important port on the Black sea, which became Odessa. Political Changes of Catherine (Cont) • She set up jury courts, and separated the courts from the nobility • She had to put down the Pugachev Uprising in a brutal manner to maintain political stability. • She eliminated the use of torture. • In 1767, she convened a convention of delegates from all social classes, except serfs, to write a constitution. However, they could not agree on anything. She grew frustrated with their lack of progress. She disbanded the convention and wrote the constitution herself. • She saw herself as the first servant to the state. • She created a stable government where people were free to express their opinions. Political Changes Continued • She doubled the number of civil servants in the provinces. • She set up a commission for the building of towns to reduce the risks of fires. • To reduce the risk of fire, all side streets had to be 75 feet wide. She also participate d in the partition of Poland. Wars and Foreign Policies of Catherine II • Political: • She wanted the empire to grow. • She split Poland with Austria and Prussia. • She gained more land in the Ukraine and Lithuania. • She seized a small portion of land along the Baltic Sea from the Swedes in 1787 and 1788. • She battled the Ottoman Turks for fertile land along the north coast of the Black Sea from 1768 – 1774 and 1787 -1791. And eventually won the land from them. • In 1783, she annexed Crimea. • Social: With her newly conquered lands, she expanded Russia’s population by 20% or by 7 million people. • Social: She welcomed European immigrants to Russia to use their technical skills. About 40,000 Germans settled along the Volga River. Political: Pugachev , a Cossack, proclaimed himself the true tsar. He said he was really Peter III, Catherine’s deceased husband. This imposter promised that he would free the serfs, abolish taxes, and forced military conscription (draft) Tens of thousands joined his forces… . They were at first successful, but eventually Pugachev was captured. He was brought to Moscow in an iron cage. He was drawn and quartered, though Catherine ordered that he not be tortured during the trial. Pugachev’s rebellion was the most violent peasant uprising in Russian history. Catherine responded by enforcing serfdom. Economic Changes of Catherine II • In an effort to better the state of agriculture she sought to improve farming techniques. She sent experts to study the soil and propose suitable crops. • Made grants to landowners to learn the methods being devised in England and to buy English machines. • Encouraged introduction of modern methods to sheep and cattle breeding. • The populated areas needed more workers so Catherine appealed to Europe, mostly Germany, inviting settlers and offering attractive terms. • She then turned to mining and sent geologists to access the ores from Russia’s seemingly barren lands. • She paid special attention to the mining of silver. Economic Changes of Catherine II (cont) • The fur industry was still large and she encouraged the existing trade in Siberia. • In 1762 she decreed that anyone could start a new factory so long as it wasn’t in the two capitals. Soon state peasants were running large textile plants. • A whole range of industries began to immerge: linen, pottery, leather goods, and furniture. • Catherine turned to English experts to set up more sophisticated ventures. • Admiral Knowles came over to construct warships and dockyards. Economic Changes of Catherine II (cont) • Hundreds of factories were built. Some were so large that they employed over 1000 workers. • They produced clothes, shoes, rope, muskets, and ammunition. • She had 100 towns built. She renovated and expanded the older towns. • She expanded trade. • She increased communication systems. • She taxed the nobles. Then the nobles taxed the peasants and made the whole village responsible. • She confiscated the property of the clergy. The Russian Orthodox Church owned 1/3 of all the lands and serfs in Russia. • She founded the first School of Mines in St. Petersburg with a complete underground mine to train miners. • She focused special attention on the mining of silver. • She expanded the fur trade in Siberia. • She had state textile factories run by peasants. • She encouraged the development of new industries: linen, pottery, leather goods, and furniture. Economic Changes Continued • She brought in experts from around the world to help her set up and train Russians to work in the new industries. • She increased the number of factories from 984 to 3161. • She abolished export duties. • She increased trade between Russia and China through Manchuria: Russian furs, leather, and linens for Chinese cottons, silks, tobaccos, silver, and tea.. • By 1765, she had repaid ¾ of Russia’s debt and had turned a budget deficit into a budget surplus • She had an accurate census taken and updated maps to address needs in agriculture and trade. • She built more roads and repaired existing roads and bridges. Social Changes of Catherine II • She practiced religious toleration for Jews, Muslims, Protestants, and Catholics. She even allowed Jews to hold elected local government positions. • She gave her support and power to the nobility, because she needed their support to reform Russia. • Though she opposed serfdom, she ended up extending serfdom to win the favor of the Russian nobles. • She imposed serfdom in the Ukraine. • However, she criticized nobles who overworked their serfs. • She was the first Russian monarch to ask advisers to research and find ways to improve the lives of the Russian peasants. • She wrote the 1767 Great Instruction that defined the function of each social class, so they served the state. • http://artsci.shu.edu/reesp/documents/nakaz.htm - Great Instruction • In 1785 the Charter of Nobility was passed, which recognized the gentry of each province as a group with an elected leader that could directly petition Catherine. It also restored previous rights and privileges of the gentry • She had the Russian nobility adopt French practices and gave them a common identity. Cultural Changes of Catherine II • Established schools, hospitals, and poorhouses. • Promoted the education for women and founded the Smolny Institute to educate the daughters of nobles. • Was a patron of the arts and sciences. • Introduced the use of smallpox vaccinations to Russia, and she was the first to be vaccinated. • Opened Russia to teachers, professors, scientists, actors, painters, and writers from all over Europe. • Collected European art that was housed in the Hermitage Palace. • Built English-style parks. • Catherine’s court was very luxurious and she was the first to move into the newly built Winter Palace, where she was loved by the elite of the country and started a royal art collection which would later become the world-famous Hermitage • The most prominent embankments on the left bank of the Neva River were upgraded to their present red granite look and the marvelous wrought iron fence of the summer gardens Cultural Changes Cont. • Made French a popular language among Russian nobles. • Started orphanages. • Published a literary journal. • Promoted Russian culture. • The first professor of Russian law was appointed by her. • Created a national network of primary and secondary schools that were free and open to men and women from all social classes. • Loved the theater. • Wrote plays and fairytales. • She brought Dr. Thomas Dindale, a specialist on smallpox, to Russia to vaccinate herself and the Russian people. • To facilitate this, she bought houses in Moscow and St. Petersburg that were converted into vaccination hospitals. • Founded hospitals for civilians. • She required that every county with a population between 20,000 and 30,000 have a hospital, doctor, surgeon, an assistant surgeon, and a student doctor. Cultural Changes Continued • She built up the Imperial Art Collection to 3926 pieces of work. • She commissioned the building of palaces and the Hermitage Palace/Museum. • The Hermitage held her private apartments, a conference chamber, and theater, besides being an art museum. • The Hermitage was made of jasper, malachite, marble, and gold. • The Hermitage held 4,000 paintings, 38,000 books, 10,000 drawing, and a natural history collection. • The Hermitage also held all her jewels, porcelain, and her favored cameo collection of over 10,000 pieces. • She had a theatre built for operas and plays performed by artists invited to Russia. • She wrote several operas herself. • In 1783, she appointed Princess Dashkova as the first Director of the Academy of Science and then president of the Russian Academy. It was the first time a female held such positions Catherine the Great’s Palace Living quarters of the Russian Emperors Irina McClellan 222 The Hermitage Museum • Catherine the Great • The largest Art Gallery in Russia – 3 million works of art – 1.000 rooms • Collection – Western European, – Ancient Egyptian – Oriental Art Irina McClellan 224 The Hermitage The Hermitage The Bronze Horseman • Peter the Great • 1784, Catherine the Great • Symbol – Form of a wave-symbol of sea – Horse-Russia – Snake-symbol of enemy Irina McClellan 230 Cultural Changes Continued • She was penpals with Voltaire, Diderot, and Baron von Grimm. • She bought the first set of the French Encyclopedia by Diderot. • She commissioned a French artist, Etienne Falconet, to sculpt a statute of Peter the Great. • She was tolerant of religions. • She turned a blind eye to the traditional practices of the Eastern Orthodox Church. • She allowed reputable religions to build churches, run their own schools, and practice their religion freely. • In 1786, she issued the Statutes for Schools which required every district town to have a minor school with two teachers. And every provincial town had to have a major school with six teachers. • She increased the number of grants to study abroad And there were all sorts of nasty rumors about her sexual appetites, passed about by her enemies, of course. Catherine’s Death? • Catherine the Great actually died when she suffered a stroke at the age of 67, while using the bathroom • She was found with her eyes closed and face congested, with foam at her mouth, and though the doctors tried to bleed her, they knew it was the end, for she died several hours later without regaining consciousness • There was a big inquiry about the “horse story” about Catherine’s death. The popular rumor was that Catherine died having sex with a horse in her bathroom. This was completely untrue, but was spread by both wrong translations in Russian text, and also the false rumors spread by her French enemies. – The French were her enemies because of Catherine’s outrage that the French King and Queen Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were executed during the French Revolution. She was completely against the revolution and was anxious not to transport the seeds of revolution to her own country. She even welcomed French refugees to St. Petersburg She began as an enlightened ruler…but had to put away those ideas when faced with revolts by different groups in her vast empire.