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Russian Monarchs

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					         Rulers of Russia and Central Europe
                            Main Idea
The czars of Russia struggled with the westernization of their empire,
   while powerful families battled for control of Central Europe.


                          Reading Focus
       • How did Ivan IV strengthen the Russian monarchy?
        • What reforms did Peter the Great make in Russia?
      • How did the rule of Catherine the Great affect Russia?
Absolute Monarchy in Russia

    The ULTIMATE Absolutism!
                 Russia
• Romanov family
  united people
• Descendants of
  Roman Empire
  – Ivan I married
    daughter of last
    Byzantine
    emperor
  – Caesar = Tsar
• Ivan IV (the
  terrible)
• Peter the Great
Why was Russia different from the rest
            of Europe?


      • Feudalism and serfdom cont’d in
        Russia until the 1800s.
      • Russia was Eastern Orthodox and
        had been influenced by
        Constantinople not Rome – so no
        Reformation.
Why was Russia different from the
        rest of Europe?
• Mongol rule had shielded them from
  Renaissance and Exploration
• Only one seaport due to location and weather
  – so no Exploration.
• A series of Russian
  leaders called czars,
  including Ivan the
  Terrible, tried to
  strengthen Russia and
  weaken Russian boyars
  or nobles.
• After an initial “good”
  period, Ivan creates a
  ruthless police state &
  persecutes or severely
  punishes anyone who
  opposed him.
• After Ivan died, Russia
  entered a Time of
  Troubles with no strong
  leaders. This ended
  when Romanov rulers
  restored order.
• 1696 Peter the Great
  becomes the ruler of
  Russia. Russia was still a
  land of nobles and serfs,
  and was isolated and
  backwards
Ivan the Terrible: An Absolute
           Monarch
 Personality and Political Characteristics of
                  Ivan IV
• He grew unbalanced and violent over time.
• He was independent and self-reliant.
• He was an intellectual. He was considered to be one
  of the most literate of the Russian czars.
• Devout Eastern Orthodox
• Married between 5 to 7 times
• Claimed to rule by divine right
• Had been abused and threatened as a child by the
  boyars. This made him a violent child and he
  tortured animals.
  Personality Characteristics (cont)
• Ivan grew up to be a deviant engaging in orgies, rape,
  and torture.
• Examples of this are:
      a)used a peasant woman for target practice
      b)drowned several hundred beggars in a lake
      c)ripped out the ribs of men from their chests
      d)Massacre of Novgorod
• The death (murder) of his wife Anastasia and his own
  murder of his son Ivan drove him mad with sorrow
  and guilt, which caused him to get crazy.
Ivan Holding His Dying Son
                      The Monarchy of Ivan IV
 •   In the 1500s Russia far behind western Europe in technical advancement
                           and centralized government
          • Russia run by church officials and boyars, or landowners
                       • Had conservative viewpoints

      Rule Without Limits                        Reforms of Ivan IV
  • 1546, young prince claimed title of      • During early years, Ivan IV made
    czar, put Russia on different course     many reforms—created general council
• Title was version of Latin word caesar,     that included merchants, lower-level
                or emperor                                   nobles
   • New czar, Ivan, intended to rule       • Promoted military officers on merit;
          without limits on power                       drew up legal code
   • His own madness created chaos           • Expanded Russia’s borders, trade

As a result of such achievements, the years from 1547 to 1563 are
                  known as Ivan’s ―good period.‖
             Political Changes of Ivan IV
•   Revised the legal code
•   Created a standing army
•   Established the Zemsky Sobor---a council of nobles
•   1564-formed the Oprichniki-placed a section of Russia
    under his direct control and used secret police to
    enforce his rule
•   Drafted men to fight in the war with Livonia
•   Oprichniki became murderous. They killed nobles,
    peasants, and destroyed entire cities.
•   In 1581, in a fit of rage, he accidentally killed his
    capable son Ivan and left Russia to be ruled by his unfit
    son, Feodor.
•   Created a new bureaucracy with departments and
    well-defined jobs
•   Passed a law requiring Duma approval of all major
    decisions
Oprichinki
       Political Changes of Ivan IV
• In 1550, he created a new law code that created a
  more uniform system.
• He created a new military force with a concentration
  of firepower to support the cavalry.
• The central administration grew more organized and
  distinct.
• It was broken into: Foreign Office, Military Records,
  Land-holding, Anti-Brigandage, etc..
• Each division has a director, staff of clerks, and kept
  detailed records for the czar to use when making
  decisions.
                           Ivan the Terrible
                    • During 1560s, Ivan changed
• Strict policies, violent actions sealed reputation as Ivan the Terrible
 • Suspicious of closest advisors; sent them away, killed supporters
• Was convinced wife was murdered, people conspiring against him

                          Private Police Force
    • Created private police force to investigate, punish opposition
               • Men dressed in black, rode black horses
     • Controlled almost half of Russia’s territory in Ivan’s name
   • Brutally punished anyone who spoke out against czar’s policies
Wars and Foreign Policy Under Ivan IV
• In the late 1500s, he annexed Kazan and Astrakan to
  the east and south of Moscow
• For 22 years, he fought with the Swedes, Lithuanians,
  Poles, and Livonians
• These wars damaged the Russian economy and
  military.
• And these wars did not result in winning Russia any
  new lands.
• 1558-He conquered the Baltic states of Narva and
  Polotsk.
• He created a standing army
• The Massacre of Novgorod in 1570---
        War and Foreign Policy (Cont)
•   Created new military force that
    complemented noble cavalry in 1550
•   This was the formation of six companies of
    musketeers who fought primarily in foot
    with the latest firearms.
•   These units amounted to a small standing
    army since the men served throughout the
    year and received a salary from the royal
    treasury. They helped greatly in besieging
    forces
•   Ivan’s government attempted to provide
    land near Moscow for one thousand
    military servitors.
•    Motive was to strengthen nobility service
  War and Foreign Policy (Cont)
• Ivan launched a holy war against Russia’s traditional enemy –
  the Tartars, who were Muslim.
• Ivan’s conquest of Kazan and later Astrakhan and Siberia gave
  birth to a sixteenth century personality cult glorifying him as
  the Orthodox crusader
• Another more shady force was his bodyguard group
  described as Russia’s “secret police” – the Oprichniki
• They basically were a religious brotherhood that swore to
  protect the God’s Tsar. But in reality, they were marauding
  thugs ready to commit any crime in the Tsar’s name.
• With the Oprichniki, Ivan sentenced thousands to internal
  exile and others were condemned to death, using biblically
  inspired tortures to make them suffer
    Wars and Foreign Policy (cont)
•   In a dispute with the Novgorod Republic, Ivan ordered the Oprichniks to murder
    the residents of the city.
•   Between thirty and forty thousand were killed, yet the actual death toll claimed
    only 1500 nobles and about 1500 peasants were killed.
Russia in the Late 1500s
    Economic Changes Under Ivan IV
• Formed new trading connections by opening up the White
  Sea to English merchants
• Created a government monopoly of all trade
• State controlled the sale of liquor
• Increased trade with Western Europe
• But due to wars, at the end of his reign, Russia had gone
  from being one of the wealthiest countries to one of the
  poorest
           Social Changes Under Ivan IV
• Instituted the first law restricting the mobility of peasants
• This led to the development of serfdom.
• Used the Oprichniki to take power away from the boyars.
• Bitterly attacked the boyars and clergy
• Supported the merchants, artists, and common people
• Wanted to destroy the landed aristocracy, boyars, by forcing them to move to
  distant border regions, through torture, and execution
• Made nobles completely subservient to the czar
Russian Boyars=Nobles
         Social Changes (cont)
• Made a set of regulations in 1550 called the
  Mestnichestivo system that governed the
  relationships among commanders in the field-
  all officers must recognize the commander in
  chief as their superior.
• Attempted to assimilate all the ethnic groups
  in Russia
          Social Changes Continued

• In 1550, he went after the nobles who would not
  fulfill their duties.
• A set of regulations was created that spelled out
  their military responsibilities.
• In 1556, he expanded on this with a Decree on
  Service.
• Every land-owning boyar must provide Ivan with an
  officer and a fully equipped cavalryman.
     Cultural Changes Under Ivan IV
•   Introduced the first printing press to Russia
•   Put the government in charge of the Eastern Orthodox Church
•   Built St. Basil’s Cathedral in Moscow
•   In 1551, the Stoglav Church Council was created to bring order
    and discipline to the administration of the Eastern Orthodox
    Church and set limits on its land.
St. Basil’s Cathedral in Red Square,
               Moscow
                     Last Years of Ivan

 Descent into Mental Illness            Time of Troubles
 • 1565, harshness continued;      • Death of Ivan’s son may
    seized land from 12,000        have been accident, but left
             boyars                Russia without heir to throne
• Ordered killing of thousands        • Uncertainty about
    of people in Novgorod;            succession, economic
   suspected they wanted to        problems, foreign invasions
     separate from Russia          made chaotic period known
• 1581, killed his own son, next       as Time of Troubles
        in line to be czar         • 1613, Michael, relative of
 • Descent into mental illness       Ivan’s first wife, crowned
       seemed complete                 czar; first of Romanov
                                               dynasty
Romanov Dynasty
   (1613-1917)




   Romanov Family
       Crest
             The Pendulum
           of Russian History
      Pro-West                   Anti-West
For Progress & Change            Isolationist
Encourage New Ideas,             Xenophobic
  Technologies, etc.         Ultra-Conservative


    Intellectual elites      Most Tsars
  Merchants/businessm      Russian Orthodox
           en                     Church
 Young members of the          Military
      middle class.
                                Boyars
       A few Tsars
                                peasants

     REFORM-MINDED
                               DEMAGOGUE
         LEADER
Peter the Great (r. 1682-1725)
Peter the Great: An Absolute Monarch
        or Enlightened Despot?
  Peter the Great = Abs. Monarch
• He imposed high taxes so that he...
• Could force Russia to Westernize.
         Was Peter the Great an
          absolute monarch?
• He reduced the power of the boyars (nobles).
• He took control of the Russian Orthodox
  Church.
• He built a huge army and trained them to be
  like an army from the West.
• He built a new capital and forced people
  to relocate there.
Peter the Great of Russia
             • Impact
               – Russia became a powerful
                 European country
               – Advanced the role of
                 women in Russia
               – Fought in expensive and
                 costly wars
               – Destroyed many Russian
                 traditions in order to
                 modernize
Russia BEFORE Peter the Great
               • Russia was still in the
                 Middle Ages – with
                 touches of the Muslim
                 culture added in.
               • There was very, very
                 little interaction with
                 the rest of Europe or
                 the world.
  Russian Life BEFORE Peter the
               Great
• There were only three
  social classes.
  – The Boyars
  – The Church
  – The Serfs
The Boyars
     • Russian nobles, most called
       themselves Princes.
     • 10th – 17th Centuries were the
       “real” rulers of Russia.
     • Positions in society were based
       on service your family did for
       the Czar and owning land.
     • Pretty much had no checks on
       their local power.
        – Could change your loyalty
           to different princes,
           depending on what they
           would give you in return.
                   The Boyars
• Dressed more like
  Arabs with beards that
  you were never
  supposed to trim.
• Separate society from
  women.
   – Women weren’t often
     seen – let alone heard!
   – Covered hair and no
     shape to clothing.
                 The Boyars
• Lived on their feudal
  estates with their own
  armies and self-
  sufficient economies.
• Little interest in the
  outside world.
• Do you see
Muslim influence?
The Church = Russian Orthodox
               • One of the oldest
                 Christian religions.
               • Does not recognize
                 the Pope or Catholic
                 Church.
               • They believe they
                 practice the Christian
                 religion of the Roman
                 Emperor Constantine.
       Russian Orthodox Church
• Ruled by the Patriarch.
• Urged people to not be
  corrupted by outside
  influences.
• Urged the serfs to remain
  loyal without questioning
  the Boyars.
• Life is suffering, but
  heaven will be your
  reward.
Russian Orthodox Church
                 The Serfs
• At the time of Peter
  the Great, they made
  up 95% of the
  population in Russia.
• They were essentially
  slaves – bound to the
  land and bound to the
  noble.
The Serfs
     • Had absolutely no say
       about anything in
       their lives.
Over these three levels of society
        were the CZARS
• Czar = Caesar /
  Emperor.
• Sometimes in books
  as Tsar.
• Technically had
  absolute power.
  – But few czars had been
    powerful enough to
    make the boyars and
    the church obey him.
Before Peter: The Time of
        Troubles
             • The belief in “blue
               blood” was also with
               the Russian Czars.
             • 1600 – the last of the
               “Rurik” czars died with
               no children.
                – Family had ruled since
                  900 AD.
                – WHO SHOULD BE
                  CZAR?
        The Time of Troubles
• “Smutnoya Vremya”’
• No czar and wars
  broke out between
  the boyars.
• Sensing weakness and
  the chance to take
  land – Poland and
  Lithuania invaded.
• Russia was in chaos!
The Romanovs become Czar
            • A distant relative of
              the last Rurik czar.
            • Started a dynasty in
              1613 that would last
              until 1918.
               – This is NOT the
                 Hapsburg double-
                 headed eagle!
               – It is the Romanov
                 symbol.
Even though the Romanovs were
         on the throne
• Power was still weak.
   – Just the way the
     boyars and the Church
     wanted it!
Peter the Great’s story starts
       with his father:
               • Alexei
                  – His first wife died.
                      • 13 children
                      • 5 boys – only one was
                        surviving to adulthood.
                           – Ivan was mentally
                             retarded.
                  – A new wife was needed.
                      • He practiced “droit de
                        seigneur.”
                      • Most common way that
                        boyars chose wives and
                        mistresses.
    Czar Alexis I – Peter’s Father
• Had started some
  reforms in Russia.
   – Shaved his beard
   – Could read Latin and
     spoke Polish as well as
     Russian.
Peter the Great’s mother
            • Natalia Kirilovna
              Naryshkinov
            • Her grandmother was
              Scottish and had some
              contact with Western
              Europeans while
              growing up.
         ROAD TO POWER
  Youngest son of Tsar Alexis –he was
     a child from Alexis’ second wife
 Alexis had 3 children with his 1st wife
          1. Feodor – an invalid
                 2. Sophia
         3. Ivan – a semi imbecile
             Peter the Great
              1672 - 1725
• Peter was the
  firstborn son to a
  second wife who did
  not come from a
  powerful family to
  protect her or her
  children.
• 1682 – Alexis dies.
• Who becomes Czar?
 1676 – Alexis died and Feodor became
                   Tsar
 1682 – sickly Feodor died and Peter’s
  mother campaigns to have him made
              Tsar over Ivan
              Peter the Great
• First born son of a
  second wife.
• He was only ten when
  his father died.
  – Peter’s mother’s family
    was not the most
    powerful Boyar family
    and suspected of
    “western” leanings.
       Who should rule Russia
• The eldest son?
• Ivan
• Mentally
  handicapped.
• Should be easy for the
  Boyars and Church to
  manipulate.
• But could he lead?
  Peter is made Tsar at 10 years old
 Ivan’s Family instigates a coup d’etat
    Peter watched as his supporters and
   family were thrown form the Red Stairs of
   the Faceted Palace in Moscow onto raised
                    pikes
   Coup is successful and Peter is forced to
            share Tsarship with Ivan
          Sophia acts as the regent
The Compromise: A double-Czar
• Little Peter and his
  mentally handicapped
  brother were crowned
  co-czars and their
  sister Sophia sat
  behind them
  whispering
  instructions on what
  to say and do.
  EARLY TROUBLES
 Miserable Peter leaves Moscow and
  becomes interested in war games
He becomes acquainted with Western
       strategies and tactics
He establishes a military support base
Problem-Solve this!
          • Why didn’t Peter’s
            half-sister Sophia just
            take her little half-
            brother on a walk
            along the cliffs, and
            get rid of him?
          • Why did she keep her
            brother Ivan alive?
 Sophia tries another
coup, this time loosing to
          Peter
Peter exiles Sophia to a
        convent
6 years later Ivan dies
and Peter is left to rule
        alone
1st Tsar in 100 years to make contact
      with the West in peacetime
Met with Western Monarchs such as
 William III of England to establish a
mutually beneficial trading relationship
        Conducted diplomacy
In England he stayed at a house
   in Deptford belonging to writer
  John Evelyn. During his stay he
    and his companions caused a
 great deal of damage. He had a
     party full of “nasty people”
  wrecked the house and garden,
     carpets were left filthy with
 grease and ink. Paintings looked
  like they were used as shooting
targets. Locks and windows were
broken. Every one of the 50 chairs
 in the house vanished – probably
           burned in fires.
 Traveled incognito
(in Holland he worked
as a ship’s carpenter)
 His trip created a
 desire to modernize
Russian state and to
Westernize its society
Peter the Great Grows Up
            • 1696: Peter leaves Russia
              and comes to the West.
               – Didn’t just visit fellow
                 Royals.
               – He visited factories and
                 took jobs in shipyards to
                 learn how to build ships.
               – Had a dentist teach him
                 how to pull teeth.
               – Learned a lot about
                 Western Europe art and
                 culture.
 Peter the Great comes home to
             Russia
• Brought with him
  technical experts,
  teachers, and soldiers
  to teach western
  methods.
• Was ready to become
  a true Czar without his
  sister in 1698.
Do you think Sophia accepted
       this new way?
              • Now she did try to
                assassinate her
                brother.
              • Sent her personal
                body guards the
                Streltsky to kill Peter.
              • They failed.
                Another Coup
1698 – Forced to return home when he
 hears of another rebellion by Sophia
Responds with force – ordering a mass
  execution of the surviving rebels
  Next day he stared his program to
recreate Russia in the image of the West
              Peter’s Response:
• Forced his sister to
  become a nun and locked
  her away in a nunnery.
• Hung the bodies of the
  Streltsky guards outside
  her window.
   – 1,000 corpses
• Later he sent her to a sub-
  arctic nunnery.
• She died in 1704
 Peter hung the
  bodies of the
rebels outside of
Sophia’s convent
  window, and
Sophia apparently
   went mad.
                         Peter the Great
About 70 years later, Peter I crowned czar. Became known as Peter the
   Great for his efforts to transform Russia into a modern state.
          Early Rule                        Building a Navy
• 1682, Peter became czar while a     • Attack disaster, but inspired
   child; sister ruled in his place         Peter to build navy
  • Age 17, removed sister from        • Labored side-by-side with
   throne, took power for himself         thousands of carpenters
         – Tall, strong man
      – Had strong personality,          • Built hundreds of ships
            boundless energy            • New navy took up Azov
• One of first acts, stormed Azov,             campaign
   Black Sea port held by Turks            • Turks surrendered
                 Modernization and Reform
                              Westernization
• Peter realized country needed to modernize to catch up with rest of Europe
  • Wanted westernization; to bring elements of Western culture to Russia
• 1697, journeyed to western Europe to see what Russia needed to modernize


                                 New Skills
       • Peter traveled in disguise, was sometimes recognized anyway
              • Learned hands-on skills, especially shipbuilding
            • Recruited European experts to bring skills to Russia

                                  Rebellion
• Trip cut short by rebellion of streltsy, military corps with political influence
 • Thought streltsy wanted sister on throne; had members tortured, executed
             • Disbanded streltsy, organized more modern army
           Personality Traits of Peter I
•   He was 6 ft and 7 inches
    tall.
•   He was a vulgar man who
    enjoyed cruelty.
•   He would visit the state
    torture chambers, watch
    the executions, and even
    participate in them.
•   He was afraid of
    cockroaches. (They made
    him faint!)
•   He was an honest man
    with simple tastes.
•   He did not enjoy or allow
    elaborate rituals or
    ceremonies in his court.
•   He was a hard worker. His
    days started at 4AM.
•   He could not sit still.
  Personality Traits Cont: Political
• He was an avid learner. For example, he
  studied algebra and geometry to apply it to
  military training.
• His goal was to modernize Russia.
• He suffered from convulsive fits.
• As a teenager, he traveled Europe in incognito.
  On his travels, he learned how to be a
  seaman, a common soldier, a carpenter, a
  mechanic, a barber, and a dentist.
• He had a hot temper.
              Personality Traits Continued
• He was handsome and had unusual physical strength.
• He was a simple man and enjoyed simple pleasures like a mug of
  beer and good conversation.
• He did not like fancy clothes that limited his movement.
• He often wore worn-out shoes and an old hat.
• He was fond of merry-making and crude jokes.
• He had a terrible temper and could be cruel.
• His second wife, Catherine, was able to calm him down.
• Sometimes Peter would beat his high officials with a stick.
• His greatest gift was statesmanship: his ability to pick talented
  men for the highest positions in the government from all social
  classes.
• He was an autocrat, but he also believed he was the servant of the
  state.
• He was not above doing any job or duty if it needed to be done.
• He was original, shrewd, bright, energetic, courageous,
  industrious, and iron-willed.
                   Personality Continued
• Peter the Great was extremely
  abusive and cruel to his son Alexis,
  heir to the throne. Peter believed he
  was an incompetent ruler.
• He beat him about the head,
  dragged him by his hair across the
  floor, etc.
• Peter had worked hard all his life to
  create a great Russia, and was
  damned well not going to let his
  “noodle of a son” muck it up.
• “*I grow worried+ when I see you,
  the heir to the throne, who are so
  very useless for the conduct of state
  affairs.”
           5

                  Peter the Great

Peter the Great was committed to a policy of westernization in Russia.
However, persuading Russians to change their way of life proved difficult. To
impose his will, Peter became the most autocratic of Europe’s absolute
monarchs. During his reign he:

•   used autocratic methods to push through social and economic reforms.
•   imposed policies which caused the spread of serfdom.
•   brought all Russian institutions under his control.
•   He stressed loyalty to the monarchy and to the state.
•   Initially, he and his brother Ivan jointly ruled the throne under the
    patronage of his sister Sofia, but then after a failed coup d’etat where she
    tried to murder him, Sofia was overthrown and was exiled to a covenant.
Becoming the Absolute Monarch
               • Following another king’s
                 model, he sought to make
                 the boyars too weak to
                 challenge him.
                  – Took away walled
                    fortresses.
                  – Took away private armies.
                  – Made the boyars become
                    courtiers and serve in his
                    government and military.
How do you think Peter got
      compliance?
             • Humiliations
             • Imprisonment /
               Torture
             • Forced labor
             • Death
             • AND ---
          Political Changes of Peter I
• He built up the Russian military.
• The army grew to 200,000 soldiers.
• The navy grew to 75,000 sailors. He is considered to be
  the father of the Russian navy.
• He built St. Petersburg from scratch and made it the new
  capital of Russia.
                  History of St.Petersburg
     • 1703, May 26
     • Peter the Great
     • Northern War
            – Peter and Paul’s
              Fortress – the
              birthplace of St.Pete
            – An island in the delta
              of the Neva River


                                             92
Irina McClellan
            Peter and Paul’s Fortress




                                        93
Irina McClellan
         Political: St. Petersburg
• First living quarter was a wooden cabin where Peter
  lived while the city was being built
• It was only 60 sq. meters
• First structure built was the Peter and Paul Fortress,
  which was designed to protect the city from the
  Swedish army and navy
• Peter wanted the entire city to be built of stone, but
  could not afford it, and so had the walls painted to
  look like it was made of bricks
                          St. Petersburg
Peter also founded a new city
• Early 1700s, fought Sweden to acquire warm-water port
   – Other ports choked by ice much of year
   – Port farther south on Baltic Sea to keep Russia open to western trade
     all year, connect Russia to west
• On land won from Sweden, Peter built new capital, St.
  Petersburg
   – Russia’s government moved to new city
   – Featured Western-style architecture
«Palace Square»




                  St. Petersburg is called the cultural capital of Russia
«The Winter Palace»




  The whole development of St. Petersburg is materialized
   in its palaces and temples, park ensembles and street
                         labyrinths
«Peter and Paul Fortress»




                            It is a city of “White Nights”
Scenes from St. Petersburg
    The Winter Palace
                   The Winter Palace
• Former residence of
  Russian Emperors
• Built in 1760s
• Located on the bank
  of the Neva River
• Part of the State
  Hermitage museum


 Irina McClellan                       103
Peter used forced peasant labor to build his
                  palace.
The Winter Palace
JAV (just another view)
  The Winter Palace
The Winter Palace and the
       Hermitage
The Winter Palace of Russian Emperors,
            St. Petersburg
Scenes from St. Petersburg
      Political, Social, and Cultural
              Changes Cont.
• Social: He opened positions within the government to
  talented sons of common men.
• He created a supervisory senate and a new system of central
  administration.
• He tried to reform provincial and local governments.
• Cultural: He created the Holy Synod and put the czar at the
  head of the Russian Orthodox Church.
• He was unable to eradicate the traditional corruption of the
  government officials.
• He was the first monarch to give unlimited power a moral
  and political definition.
• “Remember that you are fighting not for Peter, but for the
  state.”
                    Political Changes Continued
•   Local Government:
     – In 1699, towns were allowed to elect their own officials, collect revenue, and stimulate trade.
     – In 1702, towns were governed by an elective board so that towns could govern themselves.
        Emphasis on the local landlord and provincial governor.
•   Provincial Government:
     – In 1707, Russia was divided into 8 guberniia each led by a Gubnator who had full power.
     – Each guberniia was divided into districts called uzeda.
     – In 1718, there were 12 guberniia and each was divided into 40 provintsiia which were further
        divided into districts. A Gubernator was directly answerable to Peter the Great.
•   Central Government:
     – Peter was advised by a council and his orders were carried out by 40 departments in the
        Prikazy.
     – Some had specific functions while some had vague responsibilities in many departments.
     – In 1711, Peter appointed a 9 man senate which evolved into a chief executive and highest
        court of appeal.
     – It was supervised by army officers until 1715 when an Inspector-General was appointed and
        then further replaced by a Procurator-General, who was the most powerful man in Russia
        after Peter.
                   Political Changes/Military
                             Reforms
• During Peter the Great’s reign, the military reforms greatly
  modernised Russia’s army and navy
• Peter introduced a professional standing army in 1699.
• All the soldiers received similar training so that the army
  had uniformity. The Streltsy was abolished. (The Streltsy
  were the previous army units officered by foreigners –
  Peter hated them).
• Two elite guards regiments were created. By 1725,
• Russia had 130,000 men in the army.
• The navy was essentially Peter’s creation. It was based on the moth of the
  River Don and then expanded to the Baltic Sea.
• Peter the Great brought in foreign experts and by 1725, Russia had 48 ships
  and 800 galleys. The officers of the navy were foreign, but the crews were
  Russian.
• The Russian navy defeated Sweden’s navy and its success alarmed George I
  of Britain.
           Political/Military Changes

• Established a regular army along
  modern lines.
• He drafted peasants and townspeople to be the
  soldiers. Officers were nobles.
• Standard uniforms were provided.
• Regular drills were introduced.
• Obsolete cannons were replaced with new mortars
  and guns designed by specialists and Peter.
• Army Regulations of 1716: required officers to teach
  their men how to act in battle.
• Had 52 battleships and hundreds of galleys built.
   5

  Expansion Under Peter
Peter created the largest standing army in Europe and set out to extend
Russian borders to the west and south.

Peter unsuccessfully fought the Ottomans in an attempt to gain a warm-
water port for Russia.

Peter engaged in a long war with Sweden, and eventually won land along
the Baltic Sea. On land won from Sweden, Peter built a magnificent new
capital city, St. Petersburg.

Peter signed a treaty with Qing China which recognized Russia’s right to
lands north of Manchuria.

Peter hired a navigator to explore what became known as the Bering Strait
between Siberia and Alaska.
   Peter the Great
Blazing to the Pacific
           • Made fur trading outposts
             all the way to Alaska.
              – FYI: Alaska was part of
                Russia until 1862.
           • The Bering Strait is named
             for the Danish navigator
             Vitus Bering that he sent
             to discover a way
             between Russia and
             Alaska.
       The Great Northern War
• 1700 – Russia goes to
  war against Sweden to
  get control of the land
  needed for a warm
  water port.
   – Had 5x as many troops
     as Sweden did!
      • Got his royal butt
        kicked by the Swedes!
Peter did not give up!
           • Went back and rebuilt
             his military and
             trained them better.
           • 1709 – defeated the
             Swedes and took the
             land that would
             become his new
             capitol.
Wars and Foreign Policies of Peter I
• He needed a warm water seaport, since the ones in the White Sea
  froze in winter.

• He fought with Turkey from 1695 to 1711 over the port of Azov on
  the Black Sea. But he could not keep the port.

• He fought with Sweden in the Great Northern War from 1700 to
  1721. Russia won parts of Livonia and Estonia along the Black Sea.

• The Treaty of Kyakhta of 1727 fixed the Russo-Chinese border.

• His expensive wars inhibited the economic growth of Russia.
Russia & Sweden After the
  Great Northern War
Russian Empire (during Peter)
           Economic Changes of Peter I
•   Taxed the peasants and middle class, but not the nobles.
•   Introduced the potato, tobacco, and grapes to the Russian people.
•   Increased trade with Western Europe.
•   Built canals and roads to facilitate trade.
•   Made St. Petersburg a major trading port between Russia and Western Europe.
•   The heaviest taxes fell on the peasants.
•   There were taxes on land, clothing, tools, tobacco, food, giving birth, and getting
    married.
•   He passed the decree that land could not be split up among your children. The
    father had to leave it to a sole heir.
•   Set up farms to raise sheep.
•   Set up factories to make clothes.
•   Established state mines and factories.
•   Encourage and subsidized private industry.
•   Established trade with China.
•   Create the first poll tax in Russia.
•   He increased the government income 5 ½ times it original amount.
•   Military expenditure was met out of direct taxation.
•   Revenue was expanded three times to pay for the military and wars. 85% of royal
    income was taken up this way. Direct taxation through family, but many houses
    grouped together as “one” house and therefore paid as just one house
                   Social Changes
• At the beginning of his reign, there was already some
  degree of economic differentiation between the
  various regions of Russia
• Artisans were establishing small businesses, small-
  scale production was expanding, and industrial
  plants and factories were expanding, where both
  serfs and workers were hired
• Peter’s plans greatly aided these people – a decree in
  1699 released townspeople from subjection to
  military governors and allowed to elect their own
  municipalities
• The material position of the landed nobility was
  strengthened under Peter. They gained almost
  100,000 acres of land and 175,000 serfs.
 Give the Boyars something they
        wanted in return.
• Serfdom spread in
  Russia.
   – Slave = Serf
• The boyars, now
  called nobles, got
  more control over the
  people of Russia.
   – It continued until 1861
     in Russia.
                 Social Changes of Peter I




•   Attempted to subordinate the nobility to the state.
•   Enlarged the service nobility.
•   Forced sons of nobility to attend technical schools.
•   Introduced the Table of Rank, which established a hierarchy in which nobles were
    promoted on merit.
•   They were classified by functions: military, naval, civilian etc and broken into 14
    categories.
•   Factory owners and others who had risen to officer’s rank could move ahead of nobles.
    The predominance of the boyars came to an end.
•   Gave the nobles more power over land and serfs.
•   Organized the social life of his royal court along Western lines.
•   Introduced the practice of marrying royal Russian princes to Western princesses---
    especially German princesses.
•   Modified the structure of serfdom into sub-categories.
•   Reorganized the entire social structure to serve the needs of the state.
                 Social Organization
• All townspeople were divided between “regulars” and
  “commons” (inferiors)
• Regulars were divided between two guilds
  – 1) Rich merchants and members of liberal
     professions, like doctors, artists, and actors
  – 2) Artisans and small tradesmen
  – Commons were hired laborers, without the
     privileges of regulars
  – Was determined by amount of capital made by
     certain person
  – Those who were manufacturers had special
     privileges, coming under the jurisdiction of the
     College of Manufactures and being exempt from the
     billeting of troops, from elective rotas of duty, and
     from military service
     Modernization with Force
• Serfs were forced
  labor for many
  improvements.
• Worked until they
  died to create the
  modernization.
                        Cultural Reforms
    • In addition to modernizing army, Peter made many other reforms
                   • Brought church under state control
                        • Built up Russian industry
                    • Started first newspaper in Russia
                         • Sponsored new schools
   • Modernized calendar, promoted officials on service, not social status

      Cues from West                              Modern Russia
• Supported education; believed          • Through these, other reforms Peter
Russians needed to learn more about          tried to impose will on Russians
         science from West                 • Goal was to make Russia more
  • Wanted Russians to adopt                          modern country
 European-style clothing, grooming            • Not always successful, but
• Cut off boyars’ traditional long            considered founder of modern
  coats, beards to look European                     Russia for efforts
           Cultural Changes of Peter I, The Great
•   Founded a naval academy
•   Founded a school of navigation and maths in 1701
•   Founded a school of medicine in 1707
•   Founded a school of artillery
•   Founded a school of engineering in 1712
•   Ordered his court to adopt Western clothing
•   Ordered men to shave their beards and instituted a beard tax
•   Peter would personally cut off the beards of his boyars and the skirts of their long
    coats
•   Only peasants and Orthodox clergy were allowed to remain bearded
•   Allowed women out in public without a veil
•   Adopted the Western Julian calendar
•   Secular schools were opened and children of soldiers, officials, and churchmen were
    admitted to them.
•   Compulsory education was required of all government workers.
•   Russians were permitted to go abroad to study, and this was paid for by the
    government.
THE LAW FACULTY OF THE ST. PETERSBURG
           STATE UNIVERSITY

                             St. Petersburg State
                         University was founded in
                         1724 by a decree of Peter
                          the Great. Law has been
                           taught at the University
                           since the first day of its
                         foundation. Thus the Law
                        Faculty of the St.Petersburg
                            State University is the
                        oldest law school in Russia.
                   The Summer Garden
• One of the Oldest
  Parks in St.Pete
• Early 1700s
• Summer palace of
 of Peter the Great
• Statues of Greek
Gods and goddesses


 Irina McClellan                       131
How about the Church?
           • Peter replaced
             positions with western
             leaning patriarchs.
           • Built fabulous new
             churches in the
             western style.
            Cultural Changes (cont)
• Opened up Western-style hospitals
• Encouraged literacy – founded a newspaper in 1703 called the
  “Vedomosti”
• Founded the Russian Academy of Science in 1724
• Hired foreign technicians to teach Russians how to build better ships and
  stronger fortresses
• Started the first Russian newspaper
• Set up 50 elementary schools
• Introduced the letters for the Russian language and made it a written
  language
• In 1721, Peter abolished the Patriarchate of Moscow and put the
  Orthodox Church under the control of the government through the Holy
  Synod.
• The Holy Synod persecuted dissenters and conducted censorship of all
  publications.
     Cultural Changes Continued
• Priests were obliged to give sermons to make the
  peasants listen to reason and to teach children to
  fear God and be in awe of the czar.
• The regular clergy were forbidden to allow men
  under 30 years old or serfs to take vows as monks.
• Peter closed many churches and monasteries for the
  land and revenue.
                     Stipulations
• Had to be WESTERN:
   – Dress like they did in the
     west.
   – Shave their beards.
   – Women were to dress
     western and not be
     segregated from men.
   – Dancing and mingling
     between men and women
     was ORDERED.
               Russia’s Peter the Great

          Decree of 1705:
• “All court attendants, government
  officials of all ranks, military
  men…must shave their beards
  and mustaches.”
• “If it happens that some of them
  do not wish to shave their beards
  and moustaches, let a year tax be
  collected from such persons…”
            Russia’s Peter the Great
Decree of 1701:

   ―Western dress shall be worn by all the nobles,
    members of our councils…and government
                     officials.‖

  ―The upper dress shall be of French or Saxon cut
  and the lower dress and underwear shall be of the
     German type. They shall also ride German
                      saddles.‖
• Peter ordered his subjects to adopt French
  or Saxon cut clothes and German
  waistcoats, boots and hats. Ladies were
  also forced to adopt western fashions
  including cumbersome petticoats.
• The only problem with this enforced
  fashion is that it wasn't very suitable for the
  cold Russian weather.
• Russian nobles were used to wearing warm
  sheepskin robes so Peter's fashion decrees
  left many nobles freezing their behinds off.
     *Peter also is never seen in any of his
portraits wearing a beard. After a whirlwind
  trip to Amsterdam, Berlin, Vienna, Rome,
   Copenhagen, Venice, and London Peter
   noticed that no one was wearing beards.
   *He began to see beards as a thing of the
 past and ordered all his subject to go for a
                      trim.
 *Peter hated beards so much that he would
   rip a beard out by the roots if he caught
             anyone wearing one.
  * He thought mustaches were much more
                    civilized.
     Translation:
    Right Corner:
     “The barber went to
cut off an Old Believer’s
         beard”

     Left Corner:
“The Old Believer says:”
      “Listen, barber, I
neither want to cut my
beard nor shave watch
 out, or I will call the
guards to teach you to
       behave.”
Peter’s Modernization with Force
                • Improved education
                • Academies for
                  mathematics, science,
                  music, dance and
                  engineering.
                • Improved travel with
                  roads, waterways, and
                  canals.
                • Developed mining and
                  textiles for export.
Revolts?
    • Peter’s first wife, Eudoxia:
       – Preferred the “old” ways and
         encouraged revolts.
           • Divorced and sent to a sub-
             arctic nunnery.
    • His son Tsarivitch Alexei:
       – Hated his father and was
         encouraged by his mother to
         revolt.
       – Was executed by his father.
  Conservative Clergy
        Nobility
His son Alexis sentenced
    to death by Peter
 Died while being tortured
Alexis renounced his right to succession and fled to
Austria. Peter thought he fled to get foreign backing
 and had him arrested and tried for treason. He was
   sentenced to death. Died from the torture wich
occurred before the execution could ever take place.
  Peter the Great had a problem
         close to his death
• Despite having had 11
  children with two wives,
  only two daughters had
  lived.
   – Too young.
• His grandson was too
  young and Peter didn’t
  think he would be able to
  continue Russia’s
  transformation to a
  modern country.
• WHO SHOULD COME
  AFTER HIM?
Peter’s second wife
          • Catherine I
          • Born Martha Elena
            Scowronska
             – Lithuanian Peasant
             – A commoner, little better
               than a serf to the Russian
               nobles.
                 • Had grown up a peasant,
                   doing laundry, becoming
                   other men’s mistresses.
             – Rumors that Peter had
               purchased her from one of
               her lovers.
             Peter and Catherine
• Love at first sight. Secretly
  married in 1707.
• As smart and daring as
  her husband.
• Could deal with Peter’s
  temper and help him in
  epileptic seizures.
• Never left his side.
   – Kept a 3 room cabin for
     them and their children
     while he was building St.
     Petersburg.
 Peter died in 1725
 In November 1724 – he
leapt into freezing water
 and worked throughout
the night to assist in the
   rescue of 20 sailors
  whose ship had been
grounded. The resulting
 fever helped lead to his
   death in early 1925
Peter and Catherine
          • Peter crowned her
            Czarina and they were
            co-rulers in 1724.
          • Ruled by herself from
            1725 until her death
            in 1727.
Catherine I coronation gown
After Catherine I

         • Peter’s Grandson.
            – Became czar at 12
         • Only ruled three
           years.
         • Died of smallpox on
           his wedding day in
           1730.
            – Did bring back his
              Grandmother Eudoxia
              from exile. (Peter’s first
              wife.)
             After Peter II?
• Remember Peter the
  Great’s “co-czar”
  brother?
• His daughter Anna
  became Czarina.
Czarina Anna
        • The Russian nobles
          put her on the throne.
           – She would be easy to
             control.
              • She should be
                “grateful” for the
                chance to become the
                Czarina.
              • She wasn’t known for a
                strong personality, she
                could be influenced.
                  – Maybe even get a
                    Constitutional
                    Monarchy?
  Czarina Anna ruled until 1 740
• Kept company with foolish
  people.
• Created a Secret Police to
  terrorize people to follow
  her.
• Enjoyed humiliating the
  older nobles.
   – Ordering marriages
     between inappropriate
     people and having them
     spend the night naked in an
     “ice palace.”
Anna HATED her Cousin
           • Elizabeth
           • The daughter of Peter
             the Great and his wife
             Catherine.
           • Every inch the
             daughter of her
             parents!
    The saddest story of a Czar
• Ivan VI
• A nephew of Anna,
  she adopted him
  when he was an infant
  and declared him her
  successor in 1740.
• She died later that
  year.
Would the daughter of Peter the
    Great let a baby rule?
                • Elizabeth took the throne.
                • Infant Ivan was
                  imprisoned.
                   – Never left his prison.
                   – Not allowed contact except
                     with guards.
                   – No education.
                   – Effort to “rescue” him and
                     make him czar failed and he
                     was killed by his guards in
                     1764.
   Empress Elizabeth aka Czarina
• Continued her father’s
  westernization, but had
  censorship of ideas she
  did not agree with.
• Waged years of war
  against Prussia.
   – Frederick the Great
• Could be kind and generous.
   – Abolished the death
     penalty.
• “Had to be the bride at every
  wedding, the corpse at every
  funeral.”
   – “It is all about ME.”
Empress Elizabeth
         • Selected a nephew to
           become the next czar.
            – The future Peter III
         • Put some special thought
           into deciding who his wife
           should be.
            – Selected German Princess
              Sophia Augusta Frederika
              of Anhalt – Zerbst.
                • Known in history as ___
Catherine the Great
Huh?
  • How does a German
    princess become the
    Czarina of Russia?
  • What happened to her
    husband?
Her husband Peter -
          • Not very smart
          • Not good looking
          • Loved everything
            PRUSSIAN not
            Russian.
            – Cheered on Frederick
              the Great against his
              aunt.
            Peter and Catherine
• Were NOT a good couple.
• Peter preferred male-
  looking German women
  for mistresses rather than
  being with his wife.
• Empress Elizabeth wanted
  a son from Peter and
  Catherine.
   – Blamed Catherine
   – What is a woman to do?
            1762: Elizabeth dies
• Peter ends the war with
  Frederick the Great at a
  great loss to Russia.
• Peter puts his Prussian
  Guards above the Russian
  nobles.
• Plans to divorce
  Catherine.
   – Monastery for her!
   – Marry a German mistress.
Catherine’s current lover helps
        hatch a plan!
                • Gregori Orlov
                • Stage a Coup d’Etat.
                   – A takeover of the
                     government.
                   – Imprison Peter.
                   – Make Catherine the
                     Czarina.
                        It Worked!
• Peter was so hated that
  people welcomed
  Catherine to the throne.
   – Peter ended up being
     murdered.
       • By Gregori Orlov
   – Paul always harbored a
     hatred of his mother for
     not making him czar and
     killing his “father.”
    Catherine the Great – what
   happened with Prince Orlov?
• She never married again.
• She kept many lovers.
   – Would enjoy, give them
     land, serfs, and money as a
     “pension”.
   – But expected the men to be
     loyal to her for life.
   – Some say 11 lovers, others
     say 300 lovers in her life.
Catherine and Orlov
          • Had a son together.
          • He was raised by both his
            parents and made noble.
          • Alexsai did a great deal of
            traveling in the west.
          • Gregory Orlov, broken at
            not getting Catherine to
            marry him, went west for
            five years, came home a
            “broken” man.
             – Died after marrying his
               niece in retaliation against
               Catherine.
Catherine the Great
          • Did not get along with
            her son at all.
          • Took her grandsons,
            Alexander and
            Nicholas and raised
            them, intending to
            make one of them the
            czar over their father.
           Catherine the Great
• Set forth new efforts
  with an effective ruler
  to keep going with
  Peter the Great’s
  reforms.
            Catherine the Great
• Died before she could
  make her choice law in
  1796.
   – Ruled Russia for 34 years
   – Not bad for a non-Russian
     woman!
• Paul took over and tried
  to undo everything his
  mother had done.
   – Made it law no woman
     could rule in Russia.
   – He was murdered five years
     later.
Catherine the Great: An
  Enlightened Despot
Catherine the Great
An Enlightened Ruler
          Reorganized
            government, so she
            knew what was
            happening throughout
            Russia.
          Codified laws (wrote
            them down!)
          State-sponsored
            education for boys
            and girls.
   Enlightened Despots
• Catherine the Great of
  Russia (r. 1762-1796)
  – German born wife of Czar
    Peter III
  – Controlled government after
    Peter III’s accidental(?) death
  – Increased European culture in
    Russia
  – Peasant Reforms
  – Territorial Expansion
  – Corresponded with Diderot
                    Catherine the Great
                               Russia
                 • Catherine II became ruler, 1762
• Dreamed of establishing order, justice, supporting education, culture
       • Read works of, corresponded with Voltaire, Diderot

                             Reforms
             • Drafted Russian constitution, code of laws
           • Considered too liberal, never put into practice


                           Limitations
• Intended to free serfs, but would lose support of wealthy landowners
          • Catherine had no intention of giving up power
• Became tyrant, imposed serfdom on more Russians than ever before
 Catherine the Great of Russia
• Modernized the Russian
  army and government
• Studied in France during the
  Enlightenment
• Tried to link Russia to the
  West through trade and
  diplomatic relations
• Increased Russia’s territory,
  especially against the
  Ottomans (Turks) – sought
  to link Russia to its Slavic
  neighbors to the south
‫ ﺣ‬Catherine II
                                         Catherine II
   ‫ ﻣ‬German by birth, husband of Peter III; easily assimilated
   ‫ ﻣ‬Practical sense and great energy (five in the morning); corresponded with Diderot
   ‫ ﺣ‬Trained Alexander on the Western Model; Swiss La Harpe

‫ ﺣ‬continued Westernization, modernization started by Peter I
‫ ﺣ‬Estrangement of upper class from their own people

‫ ﺣ‬Summoned a Legislative Commission from which obtained valuable information
‫ ﺣ‬Legal codification, restrictions on the use of torture, religious toleration except Old
  Believers

‫ ﺣ‬Unscrupulous foreign policy but accepted practice of the day, main builder of modern
  Russia
   ‫ ﻣ‬Eastern Question
   ‫ ﻣ‬Greek Project
   ‫ ﻣ‬Defeated the Turks but checked by balance of power
   ‫ ﻣ‬Three Partitions of Poland
   ‫ ﻣ‬Black Sea, Odessa
   ‫ ﻣ‬Potemkin villages

‫“ ﺣ‬You write only on paper but I have to write on human skin”
      1762 –                                                                                8
‫ﺣ‬
                                    Catherine II efforts
    Failure to reform serfdom; peasant rebellion discouraged further

‫ ﺣ‬Pugachev’s rebellion (1773)
   ‫ ﺣ‬Worked upon by Old Believers
   ‫ ﺣ‬Recalled Stephen Razin
   ‫ ﺣ‬Class antagonism profound
   ‫ ﺣ‬Emelian Pugachev, dubbed Peter III, headed an insurrection in the Urals
   ‫ ﺣ‬Imperial manifesto proclaimed end of serfdom, taxes, and military consription
   ‫ ﺣ‬Famine dispersed rebels
   ‫ ﺣ‬Betrayed, body drawn and quartered

‫ ﺣ‬Catherine responded with repression
‫ ﺣ‬Conceded more powers to the landlords; shook off Peter I’s compulsory state
  service
‫ ﺣ‬Culmination of serfdom,; Moscow Gazette “For sale, two plump coachmen”
‫ ﺣ‬Russian Empire with the consent of the serf-owning gentry



     1762 –                                                                     8
    Personality Traits of Catherine II
•   Spent hours alone reading French romances, Roman literature, and the works of
    philosophers like Voltaire and Diderot
•   She was generous, considerate, and humane.
•   She was a German princess. When she married, she changed her name, religion,
    and learned Russian to truly be a Russian czarina.
•   She was known as the “Little Mother” to her people.
•   She spoke freely with her advisers.
•   She was open about her lovers. There were at least 12 of them over her lifetime.
    When she tired of them, she would send the off with money, gems, and thousands
    of serfs.
•   Most likely had to suppress her longings
           for her homeland, but was a great
           queen for her adoptive country
              Personality Traits (cont.)
•   She rose at 6 AM. She would rub her face with ice to wake up and would drink 5
    cups of black coffee. She also worked 15 hour days.
•   She wanted to know everything. She was an avid learner.
•   She was passionate, energetic, curious, and had a desire to create and control.
•   She had a profound understanding of human nature and the impact of public
    opinion.
•   She found her husband to be inept ruler. When she learned that he was going to
    divorce her she planned to overthrow him. On June 28, 1762 the army sided with
    Catherine and Peter was arrested and murdered four days later and she took the
    throne in 1762 and she ruled until 1796.
•   Her lovers included: Serge Saltuikov, a court chamberlain; Stanislav Poniatowski, a
    member of one of Poland’s grand families – would love Catherine his entire life;
    Simon Zorich, a major in the Hussars; Ivan Rimsky-Korsakov, a talented musician
    with an amazing voice; Alexander Lanskoy, the youngest of Catherine’s favorites,
    almost loved him like a mother, but then died of diphtheria
                            Catherine the Great
 Russia’s next important ruler was actually a German princess who came to
   Russia to marry a grandson of Peter the Great. She became known as
                           Catherine the Great.
    Takes Power               Honoring Peter I              Early Reforms
• Husband became Czar         • Catherine saw self as     • Influenced by European
        Peter III              true successor of Peter         thinkers—believed
                                      the Great             strong, wise ruler could
 • Catherine and many
                                                                 improve life for
   nobles grew angry at       • Worked to build on his
                                                                    subjects
  his incompetent, weak         westernization efforts
           rule                                              • Reformed legal,
                                  • To emphasize
                                                              education systems
• Catherine seized power,      legitimacy of her claim,
  was declared czarina of        built statue honoring     • Removed restrictions
          Russia                          Peter               on trade; promoted
                                                               science, the arts
Catherine Looking At Peter The Great’s
               Legacy
  She was born a
   Germany, yet
married Elizabeth’s
nephew Peter, who
  was heir to the
     throne.
As a young girl and the rest of her life, she devoured
 books. Learning helped her to escape the palace
   intrigues of the Peter’s aunt, Tsarina Elizabeth.
   When
 Elizabeth
died, Peter
made peace
with whom?
Yes, Frederick the Great.
     Peter was
assassinated within
six months, and in a
    military coup,
 Catherine took the
       throne.
                 Challenges to Catherine’s Rule
                                    Conflicts
           • Catherine tried to reform Russia, was distracted by conflict
    • Faced war in Poland, where people wanted freedom from Russian influence
                   • 1768, Ottoman Empire joined Polish cause

                              War and Rebellion
        • Eventually won war, took over half of Poland, territory on Black Sea
         • While war raging, Catherine faced popular rebellion inside Russia
       • Man claiming to be Peter III traveled countryside, leading ragtag army

                       Strengthening the Monarchy
              • In the end, man captured, beheaded, rebellion put down
• Rebellion convinced Catherine she needed to strengthen monarchy in rural areas; put
                   local governments in hands of landowners, nobles
     Political Aspects of Catherine II
•   Many believed Catherine’s reign would not last long. She was not the least bit
    Russian, and the rightful heir, the grandson of Peter the Great, had been
    murdered.
•   Catherine knew her position was fragile, but handled the situation well.
•   She kept the statesmen who served under Empress Elizabeth and Peter.
•   She kept Chancellor Nikita Panin in charge of foreign affairs.
      Political Aspects of Catherine II
•   When Catherine met with the Senate for the first time she was shocked by the
    realities of Russia economic and social situation.
•   The majority of the army was abroad and hadn’t been paid for eight months.
•   The budget showed a deficit of 17 million rubles, in a country of only 100 million
    people. No one knew what the revenues of the treasury were.
•   People complained of corruption, extortion and injustice.
•   No one knew how many towns there were in Russia, nor did they have a map to
    check, so Catherine had the clerk go out and purchase one.
    Political Changes of Catherine II
• Overthrew her incompetent and unstable husband, arrested him, and he
  was assassinated in jail
• She reduced the Russian clergy to a group of state-paid government
  workers.
• Believed that people were innocent until proven guilty
• She reorganized the 29 provinces under a central administration focused
  on reform.
• She introduced the legal philosophy of innocent until proven guilty.
• She had laws written in simple vernacular language for all to understand,
  were printed up in small books for all to have.
• Local governments and courts were remodeled in 1775 with elected
  government officials by nobles, merchants, and peasants.
• She separated the courts from the nobility.
• Worked to reunite all the Russian classes – this included
  decentralization, the distribution of functions and power, and the
  gentry’s participation
As a builder of Russia’s borders,
Catherine was more successful.
  She gained an important port on the
   Black sea, which became Odessa.
      Political Changes of Catherine (Cont)
• She set up jury courts, and separated the courts from the nobility
• She had to put down the Pugachev Uprising in a brutal manner to
  maintain political stability.
• She eliminated the use of torture.
• In 1767, she convened a convention of delegates from all social classes,
  except serfs, to write a constitution. However, they could not agree on
  anything. She grew frustrated with their lack of progress. She disbanded
  the convention and wrote the constitution herself.
• She saw herself as the first servant to the state.
• She created a stable government where people were free to express their
  opinions.
     Political Changes Continued
• She doubled the number of civil servants in
  the provinces.
• She set up a commission for the building of
  towns to reduce the risks of fires.
• To reduce the risk of fire, all side streets had
  to be 75 feet wide.
 She also
participate
 d in the
partition of
  Poland.
              Wars and Foreign Policies of Catherine II
•   Political:
•   She wanted the empire to grow.
•   She split Poland with Austria and Prussia.
•   She gained more land in the Ukraine and Lithuania.
•   She seized a small portion of land along the Baltic Sea from the
    Swedes in 1787 and 1788.
•   She battled the Ottoman Turks for fertile land along the north coast
    of the Black Sea from 1768 – 1774 and 1787 -1791. And eventually
    won the land from them.
•   In 1783, she annexed Crimea.
•   Social: With her newly conquered lands, she expanded Russia’s
    population by 20% or by 7 million people.
•   Social: She welcomed European immigrants to Russia to use their
    technical skills. About 40,000 Germans settled along the Volga River.
 Political: Pugachev , a Cossack,
proclaimed himself the true tsar.
  He said he was really Peter III,
 Catherine’s deceased husband.
This imposter promised that he
 would free the serfs, abolish
   taxes, and forced military
      conscription (draft)
Tens of thousands joined his
          forces…
.
  They were at
first successful,
 but eventually
 Pugachev was
    captured.
He was brought to Moscow in an iron cage.
He was drawn and quartered, though Catherine
ordered that he not be tortured during the trial.
 Pugachev’s
rebellion was
  the most
   violent
   peasant
 uprising in
   Russian
   history.
Catherine responded by
  enforcing serfdom.
Economic Changes of Catherine II
•   In an effort to better the state of agriculture she sought to improve farming
    techniques. She sent experts to study the soil and propose suitable crops.




•   Made grants to landowners to learn the methods being
    devised in England and to buy English machines.
•   Encouraged introduction of modern methods to sheep and cattle breeding.
•   The populated areas needed more workers so Catherine appealed to Europe,
    mostly Germany, inviting settlers and offering attractive terms.
•   She then turned to mining and sent geologists to access the ores from Russia’s
    seemingly barren lands.
•   She paid special attention to the mining of silver.
Economic Changes of Catherine II (cont)
 • The fur industry was still large and she encouraged the
   existing trade in Siberia.
 • In 1762 she decreed that anyone could start a new
   factory so long as it wasn’t in the two capitals. Soon
   state peasants were running large textile plants.
 • A whole range of industries began to immerge: linen,
   pottery, leather goods, and furniture.
 • Catherine turned to English experts to set up more
   sophisticated ventures.
 • Admiral Knowles came over to construct warships and
   dockyards.
       Economic Changes of Catherine II (cont)
• Hundreds of factories were built. Some were so large that they employed over
  1000 workers.
• They produced clothes, shoes, rope, muskets, and ammunition.
• She had 100 towns built. She renovated and expanded the older towns.
• She expanded trade.
• She increased communication systems.
• She taxed the nobles. Then the nobles taxed the peasants and made the whole
  village responsible.
• She confiscated the property of the clergy. The Russian Orthodox Church owned
  1/3 of all the lands and serfs in Russia.
• She founded the first School of Mines in St. Petersburg with a complete
  underground mine to train miners.
• She focused special attention on the mining of silver.
• She expanded the fur trade in Siberia.
• She had state textile factories run by peasants.
• She encouraged the development of new industries: linen, pottery, leather
  goods, and furniture.
         Economic Changes Continued
• She brought in experts from around the world to help her set up
  and train Russians to work in the new industries.
• She increased the number of factories from 984 to 3161.
• She abolished export duties.
• She increased trade between Russia and China through Manchuria:
  Russian furs, leather, and linens for Chinese cottons, silks, tobaccos,
  silver, and tea..
• By 1765, she had repaid ¾ of Russia’s debt and had turned a budget
  deficit into a budget surplus
• She had an accurate census taken and updated maps to
  address needs in agriculture and trade.
• She built more roads and repaired
  existing roads and bridges.
                Social Changes of Catherine II
• She practiced religious toleration for Jews, Muslims, Protestants, and Catholics.
  She even allowed Jews to hold elected local government positions.
• She gave her support and power to the nobility, because she needed their
  support to reform Russia.
• Though she opposed serfdom, she ended up extending serfdom to win the
  favor of the Russian nobles.
• She imposed serfdom in the Ukraine.
• However, she criticized nobles who overworked their serfs.
• She was the first Russian monarch to ask advisers to research and find ways to
  improve the lives of the Russian peasants.
• She wrote the 1767 Great Instruction that defined the function of each social
  class, so they served the state.
• http://artsci.shu.edu/reesp/documents/nakaz.htm - Great Instruction
• In 1785 the Charter of Nobility was passed, which recognized the gentry of each
  province as a group with an elected leader that could directly petition
  Catherine. It also restored previous rights and privileges of the gentry
• She had the Russian nobility adopt French practices and gave them a common
  identity.
Cultural Changes of Catherine II

• Established schools, hospitals, and poorhouses.
• Promoted the education for women and founded the Smolny Institute
  to educate the daughters of nobles.
• Was a patron of the arts and sciences.
• Introduced the use of smallpox vaccinations to Russia, and she was
  the first to be vaccinated.
• Opened Russia to teachers, professors, scientists, actors, painters, and
  writers from all over Europe.
• Collected European art that was housed in the Hermitage Palace.
• Built English-style parks.
• Catherine’s court was very luxurious and she was the first to move
  into the newly built Winter Palace, where she was loved by the elite
  of the country and started a royal art collection which would later
  become the world-famous Hermitage
• The most prominent embankments on the left bank of the Neva River
  were upgraded to their present red granite look and the marvelous
  wrought iron fence of the summer gardens
          Cultural Changes Cont.
•   Made French a popular language among Russian nobles.
•   Started orphanages.
•   Published a literary journal.
•   Promoted Russian culture.
•   The first professor of Russian law was appointed by her.
•   Created a national network of primary and secondary schools that
    were free and open to men and women from all social classes.
•   Loved the theater.
•   Wrote plays and fairytales.
•   She brought Dr. Thomas Dindale, a specialist on smallpox, to Russia to
    vaccinate herself and the Russian people.
•   To facilitate this, she bought houses in Moscow and St. Petersburg
    that were converted into vaccination hospitals.
•   Founded hospitals for civilians.
•   She required that every county with a population between 20,000
    and 30,000 have a hospital, doctor, surgeon, an assistant surgeon, and
    a student doctor.
            Cultural Changes Continued
• She built up the Imperial Art Collection to 3926 pieces of work.
• She commissioned the building of palaces and the Hermitage
  Palace/Museum.
• The Hermitage held her private apartments, a conference chamber,
  and theater, besides being an art museum.
• The Hermitage was made of jasper, malachite, marble, and gold.
• The Hermitage held 4,000 paintings, 38,000 books, 10,000 drawing,
  and a natural history collection.
• The Hermitage also held all her jewels, porcelain, and her favored
  cameo collection of over 10,000 pieces.
• She had a theatre built for operas and plays performed by artists
  invited to Russia.
• She wrote several operas herself.
• In 1783, she appointed Princess Dashkova as the first Director of the
  Academy of Science and then president of the Russian Academy. It
  was the first time a female held such positions
Catherine the Great’s Palace
   Living quarters of the Russian
             Emperors




Irina McClellan
                                    222
             The Hermitage Museum
• Catherine the Great
• The largest Art Gallery
  in Russia
    – 3 million works of art
    – 1.000 rooms
• Collection
    – Western European,
    – Ancient Egyptian
    – Oriental Art

 Irina McClellan                    224
The Hermitage
The Hermitage
                   The Bronze Horseman
• Peter the Great
• 1784, Catherine the
  Great
• Symbol
    – Form of a wave-symbol
      of sea
    – Horse-Russia
    – Snake-symbol of
      enemy

 Irina McClellan                         230
         Cultural Changes Continued
• She was penpals with Voltaire, Diderot, and Baron von
  Grimm.
• She bought the first set of the French Encyclopedia by
  Diderot.
• She commissioned a French artist, Etienne Falconet, to
  sculpt a statute of Peter the Great.
• She was tolerant of religions.
• She turned a blind eye to the traditional practices of the
  Eastern Orthodox Church.
• She allowed reputable religions to build churches, run their
  own schools, and practice their religion freely.
• In 1786, she issued the Statutes for Schools which required
  every district town to have a minor school with two
  teachers. And every provincial town had to have a major
  school with six teachers.
• She increased the number of grants to study abroad
 And there were
 all sorts of nasty
rumors about her
sexual appetites,
 passed about by
 her enemies, of
       course.
                             Catherine’s Death?
• Catherine the Great actually died when she suffered a stroke at the age of 67,
  while using the bathroom
• She was found with her eyes closed and face congested, with foam at her
  mouth, and though the doctors tried to bleed her, they knew it was the end, for
  she died several hours later without regaining consciousness
• There was a big inquiry about the “horse story” about Catherine’s death. The
  popular rumor was that Catherine died having sex with a horse in her
  bathroom. This was completely untrue, but was spread by both wrong
  translations in Russian text, and also the false rumors spread by her French
  enemies.
   – The French were her enemies because of Catherine’s outrage that the
      French King and Queen Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were executed
      during the French Revolution. She was completely against the revolution
      and was anxious not to transport the seeds of revolution to her own
      country. She even welcomed French refugees to St. Petersburg
She began as an
  enlightened
 ruler…but had
  to put away
   those ideas
  when faced
 with revolts by
different groups
    in her vast
      empire.

				
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