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IS112 – Chapter 1 Notes

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					IS112 – Chapter 1 Notes
           Computer Organization and
           Programming
           Professor Catherine Dwyer
           Fall 2004
Systems Architecture                          Chapter 1




   Chapter Goals

      Describe primary activities of information
       systems professionals.
      Describe technical knowledge of computer
       hardware and systems software needed by
       IS professionals.
      Identify sources of information for continuing
       education in computer hardware and
       systems software.
Systems Architecture                          Chapter 1




   IS Professionals

      Responsible for acquisition and installation of
       technological devices
      Responsible for design, development, and
       installation of information systems
Systems Architecture                                         Chapter 1




   Skills and knowledge needed

   To Acquiring and Configuring Technological
     Devices, you must:
       –   Know business hardware and software preferences.
       –   Know business hardware and software requirements.
       –   Have sufficient knowledge of the available alternatives.
       –   Understand related technical terms.
Systems Architecture            Chapter 1


   Standard Process of Information
   System Development
Systems Architecture                             Chapter 1



   Systems Survey Step

     Examines user information needs, how needs are
      currently being addressed, and feasibility of
      developing or acquiring an information system to
      address those needs.
     Requires knowledge of hardware and systems
      software to assess the degree to which user needs
      are currently being met, and to estimate the
      resources required to address unmet needs.
Systems Architecture                                        Chapter 1




   Systems Analysis Step


      Examines the user needs and the extent to which
       they are being met.
      Called needs analysis or requirements analysis.
      Typical outcomes:
       –   Detailed descriptions of user interfaces and data access
           speed
       –   Detailed data-processing and storage requirements
Systems Architecture                                         Chapter 1




   Systems Design Step

      Determines the exact configuration of all hardware
       and software components.
      Design step tasks:
       –   Selecting computer hardware
       –   Selecting computer software
       –   Selecting application program development tools
      Design decisions made based on earlier decisions:
       –   Files or database design
       –   Program design
       –   User interface design
       –   Design of system backup and recovery mechanisms
Systems Architecture                                       Chapter 1




   Systems Design Step – cont.

   Technical knowledge needed:
       –   System requirements and the capabilities of that hardware
           and operating system
       –   Development tool selection
Systems Architecture                              Chapter 1




   Systems Implementation Step

      Constructed based on the “blue prints” created
       during systems design
      Hardware and systems software are acquired,
       installed, configured and tested
      Application programs and files are developed,
       installed and tested
      The entire system is tested
Systems Architecture                                         Chapter 1




   Systems Implementation Step- cont.

   Technical knowledge needed:
       –   Knowledge of hardware and systems software
       –   Installation and configuration of hardware and systems
           software
       –   Knowledge of how to format storage devices, set up
           security systems, install application programs and establish
           accounting and auditing systems
Systems Architecture                                      Chapter 1




   Maintenance Step

      System is evaluated for errors that escaped
       undetected during installation and testing.
      Minor changes are made as maintenance changes.
      Technical knowledge needed:
       –   Knowledge is needed to classify the proposed change as
           minor or major
       –   Knowledge is needed about the hardware and software
           components that are affected by the change
Systems Architecture                               Chapter 1


   Management of Computer
   Resources

      Knowledge is needed to manage the computer
       resources within a large organization.
      The manager of a collection of information systems
       must contend with a great deal of technical
       complexity.
      Attention must be paid to two important technological
       issues:
       –   Compatibility
       –   Future trends
Systems Architecture                                         Chapter 1


   Management of Computer
   Resources

      Compatibility:
       –   The new system must not only operate correctly by itself,
           but also operates smoothly with all of the other systems in
           the organization.
      Future Trends:
       –   The manager must have a broad understanding of current
           technology, as well as future technology trends.
Systems Architecture                   Chapter 1


   Computer Technology Information
   Sources

      Periodical Literature:
       –   ACM Computing Surveys
       –   Computerworld
       –   Communications of the ACM
       –   Computer
      Technical Web Sites
      Vendor and manufacturer sites
Systems Architecture                               Chapter 1




   Professional Societies

      Association for Information Technology
       Professionals (AITP)
      Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), has
       student chapter with free online courses
      Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers
       (IEEE) Computer Society
Systems Architecture                              Chapter 1




   Summary

      Technical knowledge of computer hardware and
       systems software is required to develop information
       systems.
      Technical knowledge also is required to manage the
       computer resources of an organization.
      Technical knowledge constantly must be updated
       due to changes in hardware and software
       technology.
Systems Architecture                            Chapter 1




   Summary

      Information about computer hardware and software
       is readily available on the World Wide Web.
      An understanding of computer technology is
       necessary.
      Computer knowledge can be updated through
       reading periodicals, using Web sites and joining
       professional societies.