Docstoc

The “What Works ”” Approach and the California Logic Model

Document Sample
The “What Works ”” Approach and the California Logic Model Powered By Docstoc
					     California Department of
     Corrections and Rehabilitation



The “What Works” Approach and
   the California Logic Model



                            Steven F. Chapman, Ph.D.
                Assistant Secretary, Office of Research
                     Why “What Works”?
• “The rehabilitative efforts that have been
  reported so far have had no appreciable
  effect on recidivism…Does nothing work?”
                --Robert Martinson (1974)
• Storm of debate within corrections
  community.
• Policy makers gave up on treatment in
  favor of “Get Tough” sanctions.

Office of Research                    California Department of
October 15, 2007                 Corrections and Rehabilitation
    Response to “Nothing Works!”
• New and better research in the 80s and
  90s uncovered risk factors for offending
  and revealed consistently effective
  treatments.
• Researchers began to develop strategies
  to reduce re-offending based on research.
• This began the modern “What Works”
  approach to correctional treatment.

Office of Research               California Department of
October 15, 2007            Corrections and Rehabilitation
         The ‘What Works Strategy’
                     Don Andrews and Paul Gendreau

• Risk Principle: Target high-risk offenders.
• Need Principle: Treat risk factors associated with
  offending behavior.
• Treatment Principle: Employ evidence-based
  treatment approaches.
• Responsivity Principle: Tailor treatments to meet
  special needs.
• Fidelity Principle: Monitor implementation quality
  and treatment fidelity.


Office of Research                             California Department of
October 15, 2007                          Corrections and Rehabilitation
                     Central Concepts

• Assessment of Risk, Need and Responsivity
• Evidence-Based Treatment




Office of Research                    California Department of
October 15, 2007                 Corrections and Rehabilitation
                First Priority:
           Assessment of Risk/Need

  Factors within the individual or environment
    associated with re-offending behavior.

    Vision: An Evidence-Based, Comprehensive
            Case Management System

Office of Research                 California Department of
October 15, 2007              Corrections and Rehabilitation
     Development of Classification

• First Generation: Clinical Judgment, ‘Gut
  Feelings’.
• Second Generation: Actuarial, Based on Static
  Predictors (Burgess Scale and Others).
• Third Generation: Actuarial, Based on Static
  and Dynamic Predictors.
• Fourth Generation (?): Actuarial, Based on
  Static, Dynamic, Protective and Responsivity
  Factors.

Office of Research                  California Department of
October 15, 2007               Corrections and Rehabilitation
Clinical vs Actuarial Assessment

Meta-Analysis:
Risk Assessment Correlation with Recidivism
Study                         Criterion     Clinical        Actuarial
                              General        r = .03          r = .39
                             Recidivism
Bonta et al. (1998)
                              Violent
                             Recidivism      r = .09          r = .30

                               Sexual
Hanson & Bussierre, (1998)                   r = .11          r = .42
                             Recidivism



Office of Research                             California Department of
October 15, 2007                          Corrections and Rehabilitation
Actuarial Risk Predicts Recidivism
                                    Recidivism by Risk

100
                                                     76
  80                                64                                60
  60                                            53                                       54
                               42                                39                 38
  40                 30
              22                           24                                  20
  20                      15                                13
         10
   0
          Florida         YLS/CMI          Arizona           Missouri          Virginia
                                     Low   Moderate       High


Office of Research                                               California Department of
October 15, 2007                                            Corrections and Rehabilitation
Major Risk Factors
For Re-offending                               History
                                            of Antisocial
                                              Behavior

                              Antisocial                       Antisocial
                              Attitudes                        Associates




                      Antisocial                                        Problems
                      Personality             RISK                     With Family,
                                                                        Parenting
                       Patterns




                            Problems at                         Leisure,
                           Work or School                      Recreation


40 years of                                  Substance
                                               Abuse
research reveals--

 Office of Research                                    California Department of
 October 15, 2007                                 Corrections and Rehabilitation
  Antisocial/Pro-criminal Attitudes
• Views that are supportive of a criminal lifestyle
• Rationalize, minimize or excuse their
      –   Role
      –   Victims
      –   Friendships
      –   Substance Abuse
      –   Behavior
• Samenow’s 52 Thinking Errors


Office of Research                     California Department of
October 15, 2007                  Corrections and Rehabilitation
            Lohan Defends Herself After Arrest
                       By SANDY COHEN, AP Entertainment Writer



                        LOS ANGELES - Lindsay Lohan says she's innocent.
                        The 21-year-old actress was arrested and released
                        on bail for investigation of misdemeanor driving under
                        the influence and with a suspended license, and
                        felony cocaine possession, early Tuesday in Santa
                        Monica, less than two weeks after completing her
                        second trip to rehab.

    "I am innocent ... did not do drugs they're not mine. I was almost hit by
    my assistant Tarin's mom I appreciate everyone giving me my privacy,"
    Lohan wrote in an e-mail to "Access Hollywood" host Billy Bush, the show
    reported on its Web site Tuesday night.
    Police found cocaine in one of Lohan's pockets during a pre-
    booking search, Sgt. Shane Talbot said. Police initially said Lohan was
    also being booked for investigation of transporting a narcotic but later said
    she was not.

Office of Research                                          California Department of
October 15, 2007                                       Corrections and Rehabilitation
             Pro-Criminal Associates

•    Associates act as role models
•    Associates provide the context
•    Associates provide reinforcement
•    Isolation from pro-social others increases
     risk



Office of Research                   California Department of
October 15, 2007                Corrections and Rehabilitation
                     Temperamental and
                     Personality Factors

•    Psychopathy             • Egocentricism
•    Weak socialization      • Below average verbal
                               intelligence
•    Impulsivity
                             • Risk taking
•    Restless Energy
                             • Weak problem-solving or
•    Aggression                self-regulation skills



Office of Research                        California Department of
October 15, 2007                     Corrections and Rehabilitation
   Weak Predictors of Continuing
       Offending Behavior
• Lower class origins
      – Poor neighborhoods
      – Parental SES
• Personal distress
      – Low self-esteem
      – Depression
      – Mental disorders
• Biological/neuropsychological indicators

Office of Research                California Department of
October 15, 2007             Corrections and Rehabilitation
   Characteristics of Risk Factors

• Static (Risk)
• Dynamic (Criminogenic Needs)
• Responsivity
• Resilience



Office of Research             California Department of
October 15, 2007          Corrections and Rehabilitation
• Risk tells you WHO to target

• Needs tell you WHAT to treat

• Responsivity tells you HOW to go about it




Office of Research               California Department of
October 15, 2007            Corrections and Rehabilitation
      ‘What Works’ Strategy:
   Targeting High-Risk Offenders
• Treating high-risk offenders gives the greatest
  reduction in re-offending behavior.
• Guide placement, release decisions.
• Avoid mixing high- and low-risk offenders.
• Matching levels of treatment services—intensity
  and duration—to the risk level of the offender.
• Utilize intensive community-based treatment for
  low-risk, high-needs offenders.

Office of Research                    California Department of
October 15, 2007                 Corrections and Rehabilitation
   Targeting High-Risk Offenders
Risk Level and Treatment Recidivism Outcomes
                                                Level of Treatment
Study                        Risk Level
                                                Minimal         Intensive
                               Low                  .16              .22
O’Donnell et al. (1971)
                               High                 .78              .56
                               Low                  .03              .10
Baird et al. (1979)
                               High                 .37              .18
                               Low                  .12              .17
Andrews & Kiessling (1980)
                               High                 .58              .31
                               Low                  .15              .32
Bonta et al. (2000)
                               High                 .51              .32


Office of Research                             California Department of
October 15, 2007                          Corrections and Rehabilitation
               Matching Offenders to
               Appropriate Treatment
  • Assessment should point to specific categories
    of high or low risk.
  • Assessment should reveal roadblocks to
    treatment.
  • Assessment should provide enough variability
    to show change between admission and
    release in specific areas.
  • Assessment should provide direction for
    aftercare services.

Office of Research                    California Department of
October 15, 2007                 Corrections and Rehabilitation
             Central Concept:
        Evidence-Based Treatment




Office of Research          California Department of
October 15, 2007       Corrections and Rehabilitation
    Meta-Analysis: Sanctions and
            Recidivism
                           Effect
 Sanction                                     Sample
                           Size
 Criminal Sanctions
                           -.07              30 Tests
 (Deterrence Alone)
 Inappropriate Treatment   -.06              38 Tests
 Unspecified Treatment      .13              32 Tests
 Appropriate Treatment      .30              54 Tests
                                            Andrews & Zingler, 1990


Office of Research                  California Department of
October 15, 2007               Corrections and Rehabilitation
                     Deterrence Theory
                          Mark Carey

    For deterrence to be effective, the
    offender must:
          •   Be aware of the sanction
          •   Perceive it as unpleasant
          •   Weigh the costs and benefits
          •   Assess the risk
          •   Make a rational choice

Office of Research                          California Department of
October 15, 2007                       Corrections and Rehabilitation
          Resistance to Punishment

• Risk takers

• Under the influence of drugs or alcohol

• History of being punished




Office of Research                 California Department of
October 15, 2007              Corrections and Rehabilitation
                Correctional Quackery
                     (LaTessa)
• Offenders lack:            • Need a pet
   – Creativity              • Males need to get in touch
   – Discipline                with “feminine” side
   – Organizational skills   • Females need to learn how
   – High self-esteem          to apply makeup
• Need to get back to        • Need “sweat lodges”
  nature                     • Need to be treated like
• Need Oatmeal Pies and        babies and dress them in
  Tai Chi                      diapers



Office of Research                        California Department of
October 15, 2007                     Corrections and Rehabilitation
           Avoid What Doesn’t Work

   • “Talking cures”       • Positive Relationship
                             with the Offender
   • Drug Education
                           • Intensive Supervision
   • Shock Incarceration
                           • Self Actualization
   • Self-Esteem
                           • Targeting Non-Crime
   • Shaming                 Producing Needs


Office of Research                    California Department of
October 15, 2007                 Corrections and Rehabilitation
                     To Be Considered
                     ‘Evidence-Based’
• Rigorous experimental design (experimental or
  quasi-experimental)
• Significant deterrent effects on:
      – Violence or serious delinquency
      – Any risk factor with a large effect
• Replication with demonstrated effects, preferably
  by an outside researcher
• Sustainability of effects
Office of Research                                 California Department of
October 15, 2007                              Corrections and Rehabilitation
             What Works Treatments

• Behavioral approaches
• Family-centered approaches
• Social Learning--Modeling
• Sex Offender and Dual-Diagnosis
  programs



Office of Research                 California Department of
October 15, 2007              Corrections and Rehabilitation
                 Behavioral Therapies
• Behavior                 • Aggression
  Modification               Replacement
• Cognitive-                 Training
  Behavioral               • Cognitive
  Therapy                    Restructuring
• Rational-Emotive         • Problem-Solving
  Therapy                  • Self-Control Skills

Office of Research                   California Department of
October 15, 2007                Corrections and Rehabilitation
                     Family Interventions
• Functional Family            • Multi-Dimensional
  Therapy                        Therapeutic Foster
• Multisystemic                  Care
  Therapy                      • Brief Strategic Family
• Home-Based                     Therapy
  Behavioral Systems           • Multi-Dimensional
  Family Therapy
                                 Family Therapy
• Therapeutic Foster
  Homes                        • Family Effectiveness
                                 Training

Office of Research                        California Department of
October 15, 2007                     Corrections and Rehabilitation
         Social Learning Treatment:
                  Modeling
                     • Anti-Criminal Modeling
                     • Skills Development
                     • Mentoring




Office of Research                            California Department of
October 15, 2007                         Corrections and Rehabilitation
         Results for Juveniles, Lipsey and
                   Howell, 2004
 Condition                                                           Recidivism Rate
 Recidivism rates for comparable juveniles not in a treatment
 setting--police arrest within six months of release from program.           40%
 Recidivism rate for juveniles in "treatment as usual"
                                                                             34%
 Recidivism rate for juveniles in "upper tier"--most effective
 program types, but with no supplemental services and otherwise              32%
 "average" program characteristics
 Upper tier programs plus best supplemental service, otherwise
 average                                                                     28%
 Upper tier, best supplement, high-end implementation
                                                                             24%
 Upper tier, best supplement, high-end implementation, and best
 fit with juveniles                                                          21%


Office of Research                                             California Department of
October 15, 2007                                          Corrections and Rehabilitation
   Evidence-Based Programming
   •   COMPAS Risk/Needs Assessment
   •   Recidivism Reduction Strategies
   •   SB 618—San Diego
   •   Trauma-Informed Care Projects
   •   Family-Based Approaches
   •   EBT in Reentry Aftercare

              Vision: System-Wide Improvement
Office of Research                      California Department of
October 15, 2007                   Corrections and Rehabilitation
                     CDCR Vision




Office of Research                 California Department of
October 15, 2007              Corrections and Rehabilitation
                      Steven F. Chapman, Ph.D.
                          Assistant Secretary
                          Office of Research
                       California Department of
                     Corrections and Rehabilitation
                             1515 S Street
                       Sacramento, CA 95814
                     Steven.chapman@cdcr.ca.gov



Office of Research               California Department of
October 15, 2007            Corrections and Rehabilitation

				
DOCUMENT INFO