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					                         Photonics
Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus named
after D. V. Efremov (NIIEFA) is a subject of the State Corporation
«Rosatom», before – Federal Agency on Atomic Energy.
NIIEFA is located in Saint Petersburg.
It is involved in development of:
- charged-particles accelerators;
- thermonuclear reactors, particularly it participates in the
  International program ITER;
- laser facilities.
Director of the Laser Science and Technology Center is Professor,
Doctor of Technical Sciences
Gennady Alekseevich Baranov.
1. Description of the Laser Center of the NIIEFA
 Laser Center is equipped with industrial CO2 laser systems of different power (100 W – 15 kW)
 operating as in CW and inpulse-periodic modes and for different applications. Specialists with
 many-years practical experience in the area of creation and usage of laser equipment and
 processing works for the Laser Center.
                                    CO2-amplifier of super-atmospheric pressure
                                    The results of calculations and experiments showed that the amplifier intended for
                                    obtaining 10-um picosecond pulses with a peak power of ~1 TW, which can be used for
                                    solving many fundamental and applied problems, must possess the following
                                    parameters:
                                    Discharge volume, cm…………………… (5-10)  10  100
                                    Interelectrode gap, cm……………………..5…10
                                    Gas mixture composit……………………..CO2:N2:He
                                    Gas mixture pressure. atm………….…….5…10
                                    Concentration of molecular gases (%), no less, than…. 15
                                    Specific energy contribution, J/l  atm, no less, than….100
                                    Small-signal gain, cm-1 ..no less, than………… 0.02




                                 Repetitively pulsed CO2 laser for medium-mass isotope separation
                                 The complex includes a high-power TEA CO2 laser and an isotope separation reactor, in
                                 which Freon molecules containing isotope 13C dissociate; the laser and the reactor have a
                                 common optical resonator.
                                 The implementation of this technology of carbon isotope separation a reliable high-power
                                 CO2 laser with the following parameters was built:
                                 Radiation wavelength, n……………………………………9.6
                                 Pulse energy, J……………………………………………..20
                                 Energy density at the laser output, J/ cm-2, …..no less than 10
                                 Pulse duration, μs, ………………………….no more than 0.5
                                 Average power, kW……………………………………….4
                                 Pulse repetition rate, Hz…………………………………..200
    Production of nano-powder
     Following the development of technologies of synthesis of nanostructured bulk
     materials in recent years with improved mechanical parameters and new
     electromagnetic and optical properties], considerable attention is being paid to the
     production of nanopowders. At the same time, the technique of vaporisation of
     materials by laser radiation followed by the condensation of vapor has been known
     since long and has always attracted attention due to the high purity and small size of the
     obtained particles, economy and variety of the starting materials. The technology and
     the facility developed by us allow production of pure nanopowders of complex
     composition with a quite narrow size distribution of particles using targets made of
     coarse powders of commercially available chemical compounds or mechanically mixed
     components
 Modification of biological objects in water media by CO2-laser radiation
 We have shown the efficiency of the laser method of depolymerisation of polysaccharides and
 meta-bolic activation of the yeast culture Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using a CO2 laser for
 irradiating their water solutions supplied to the interaction region drop by drop. We have
 shown that galacto-containing low-molecular derivatives of polysaccharides obtained from
 pectins of the sea grass Zostera and the Iceland moss by laser modification of their water
 solutions are promising for therapy of chronic persisting infections and stomach and
 duodenum ulcers. Objective product obtained by the laser activation of the yeast culture is
 promising for the preventive treatment of immunodeficiency states of human beings subjected
 to the adverse exposure to ionising radiations, for the prophylactic and complex medical
 treatment of toxic emphysema, for protecting the organism from injury caused by various
 biological pathogens, for example, the grippe virus
2.5 MV subnanosecod pulser with laser triggering spark gap for obtaining high current
high quality electron bunch
This generator was created and delivered to Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands, for
use in a structure of the research complex for production of 100 fs, 100 pC electron bunches, with
an emittance below 1 p mm mrad. It should be used as a pulsed power supply for the injector
which is designed to obtain a high-current high quality electron bunch. The characteristics of
generator are:
-        Voltage amplitude on a loading of 100…150 Ohm          2.5 MV
-        Pulse duration                                         1 nsec
-        Leading edge and falling edge of pulse                  150 ps
-        Pulse jitter concerning a laser pulse is no more, than 500 ps
2. The main research activities of the Laser Center of the NIIEFA

-   Development of laser systems for industry, including radiators and manipulators;
-   Development of laser medical systems, mainly copper vapor lasers;
-   Development of shot-pulses (of picosecond length) laser sets on the base of the CO2
    amplifiers for fundamental scientific researches;
-   Development of laser facilities for environmental protection (lidars);
-   Development of laser processing for industry, and in the first place, laser welding in
    presence of strong magnet fields;
-   Development of laser methods of isotopes separation by method of selective
    multiphotone dissociation, in the first place, producing stable carbon isotope С13;
-   Researches of as continuous and pulse-periodic laser radiation interaction with matter;
-   Researches of laser action on bio-objects. They includes as action on polysaccharides
    and on cells and micro-organisms, так и на клетки и микроорганизмы, first of all on
    yeast cultures.
    It is worth to note that a considerable part of listed works was carried-out in
    collaboration with European (French, German and Sweden) or American enteties in
    frames of projects funded by the International Science and Technology Center.
 3. Research activities where co-operation is sought and
    where we already have good achievements
1. Laser modification of biological objects and carbon
    materials for creation of protection means against
    bio-pathogens and toxic chemical agents.
2. Development of high-power (Terawatt power level
    and picoseconds pulse length) laser facility on the
    base of high-pressure CO2-amplifiers for research of
    interaction between laser radiation and matter.
3. Joint use of the stable carbon isotope С13 in biology
    and medicine, first of all in respiratory tests for
    noninvasive diagnostics of a wide range of deceases
    of human viscera.
Prof. Gennady Alekseevich Baranov
Director of the Laser Science and Technology Center of the Efremov Scientific Research
Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus

 Contact us:
•Address: Doroga na Metallostroy 3, Metallostroy, Saint Petersburg, 196641 Russia
•Tel.: (7-812) 464-81-31; (7-812) 464-44-58
•Fax: (7-812) 464-46-53
•E-mail: gennady@mail.rcom.ru

Main papers concerning the photonics topic:
•D. V. Afanas’ev, G. A. Baranov, A. A. Belyaev, et al. Pisma Zh. Tekh. Fiz , 27,10
 (2001) (in Russian).
•A. V. Astakhov, D. V. Afanas’ev, G. A. Baranov, et al. Voprosy Atomnoy Nauki i
 Tekhniki, Ser. Electrophisicheskaya Apparatura, 1 (27). 46-51 (2002) (in Russian).
•G.A.Baranov, A.A.Belyaev, S.A.Smirnov, et al. Pisma Zh. Tekh. Fiz., 28, 25 (2002).
•G.A.Baranov, A.A.Belyaev, S.A.Smirnov, et al. Pisma Zh. Tekh. Fiz., 29, 57 (2003).
•G.A.Baranov, A.A.Belyaev, S.A.Smirnov, et al. Quantum Electronics 35(9) 867-872
 (2005)
•G.A.Baranov, A.A.Kuchinsky. Quantum Electronics 35(3) 219-229 (2005)
•A.V. Astakhov, G.A.Baranov, A.A.Belyaev, et al. Voprosy Atomnoy Nauki i
 Tekhniki, Ser. Electrophisicheskaya Apparatura, 3 (29), 80-84 (2005) (in Russian).
•G.A. Baranov, V.V.Khukharev. Novye Promyshlennye Tekhnologyi 5, 46-48 (2005)
(in Russian).

				
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