HUMAN IMPACT on the BIOSPHERE Chapter 6 - PowerPoint

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HUMAN IMPACT on the BIOSPHERE Chapter 6 - PowerPoint Powered By Docstoc
					HUMAN IMPACT on the
   BIOSPHERE
       Chapter 6-1
  A Changing Landscape
                INTEREST GRABBER How Does Everything Fit?




Go to      Click here to play the Ch6 video segment.
Section:
  Section 6-1




Leaving a Mark on the World
Have you ever seen very old photographs of the
town or city in which you now live? Has your
area changed? Perhaps there are more
buildings or roads than there were many years
ago. Maybe your town or city has more trees
and flowers now than it had years ago.
Humans, like all organisms, have an effect on
their environment.

 Go to
 Section:
                  Interest Grabber Answers




1. Choose an animal other than a human and describe at least two ways
   in which it may change its environment.
Sample answers: A beaver both removes wood from a forest and dams a
body of water. A dog digs a hole and may damage plants, but also may
unearth worms and turn the soil.
2. What events might have led to the changes that occurred in your town
   or city?
   Sample answers: increase or decrease in population and industry.
3. What positive effect have humans had on their environment? What
   negative effect have humans had on their environment?
 Humans preserve, conserve, and restore the natural environment as well
 as construct facilities that improve human health. Humans pollute the air,
 water, and land with materials that can harm humans and other organisms.
     HUMAN ACTIVITIES
Humans participate in
Food webs     Biogeochemical cycles
__________ & ____________________




       http://www.brevardcounty.us/mrrp/images/misc/boat_cartoon.jpg



Humans play a part in the ecosystems
on the planet
      HUMAN ACTIVITIES can change
      local and global environments!
   HUNTING and GATHERING
   ______________________________

    AGRICULTURE
   ____________________

    INDUSTRY
   _________________

  URBAN DEVELOPMENT
  ___________________________
Images from:
http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/s2s/latest/art1/src/proj/Art/cave_art/Hunters-Deer.jpg
http://www.istockphoto.com/file_thumbview_approve/127525/2/istockphoto_127525_farming.jpg
http://www.kidcrosswords.com/kidoutdoors/the%20environment/pollution_smokestacks.jpg
http://www.lubee.org/images/about-threats-1.jpg
WHAT HAVE WE BEEN DOING?
HUNTING and GATHERING
_______________________




http://msnbc.msn.com/id/8302763

                                  http://www.aeffonline.org/images/poachersandelephant.jpg
  HUNTING AND GATHERING
Throughout human history, people have
         birds and mammals
hunted __________________, ___________
                                fished
in rivers, and gathered
  __________________________________
   wild seeds, fruits,and nuts.




Even these early people changed their
 _________________
  environments
                          http://www.amonsoquath.net/gallery/pages/chee.html
          HUNTING AND GATHERING
Today, people in many parts of the world still
follow the “hunter-gatherer” way of life.




These people make ______________ on the
                   few demands
environment. However, some are beginning to
      modern technology
use ____________________ such as guns,
snowmobiles, or other tools.
http://www.travelwriter.co.za/let-the-train-strain_p2.html   http://www.museevirtuel.ca/Exhibitions/Inuit_Haida/inuit/snowmobile.jpg
 WHAT PROBLEMS CAN THIS
        CAUSE?
 OVERHUNTING
________________ can put animal
 populations at risk of ____________
                         extinction




          http://www.geocities.com/jeniegirl27/SealHunting.html
                                       http://www.southeastutah.org/photos/dino.jpg



        VOCAB
Species that has died out =
   extinct
 ______________

Species whose population size is
rapidly declining and will become
extinct if the trend continues
    endangered
= _____________                                http://www.blackfootedferret.org/




Species that is in danger of
becoming endangered in
                   threatened
the near future = ____________
                              http://www.fresnochaffeezoo.com/images/bald-eagle.gif
 WHAT PROBLEMS CAN THIS CAUSE?
Scientists hypothesize that the first humans to
arrive in North America caused a major
 mass extinction
__________________of animals like
woolly mammoths, giant sloths, and
saber-toothed cats.




                            http://www.tunturisusi.com/kissat/smilodon4.jpg
WHAT PROBLEMS CAN THIS CAUSE?
Many species that once lived in
North America (like zebra, cheetah, and
yak) have disappeared from continent.




          http://www.swindonweb.com/life/mammoth1.jpg
                               EXAMPLE: WHALES
   During the 19th and the earlier part of
   20th centuries, over-hunting led to a
   severe _________of whale
            overkill
   populations, and to _______________
                          endangerment
   of five whale species.

    Minke whale = most hunted species




http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/guides/456900/456973/html/nn1page1.stm   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whaling#Conservation_status
EXAMPLE: North American Buffalo
  Wild buffalo
______________ in America once numbered
30 - 60 million, ranging from Virginia to
Alaska and all points in between.
                            Pile of bison skulls, 1870’s



By 1884, the buffalo
was close to extinction
        overhunting
due to ______________.

                            http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Bison
       HOW DO WE HELP?
International Whaling Commission has
placed a moratorium on whaling.

Only works if nations voluntarily comply




              http://www.cdnn.info/eco/whaling_250146.jpg
        HOW DO WE HELP?
Conservation efforts, private ownership, and
reintroduction of buffalo have allowed the
population to recover slightly.

Today, the total buffalo
population in North
America is estimated at
90,000 and about
85 percent
of these animals are
privately owned.
                                  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Bison
         WHAT PROBLEMS CAN THIS
                CAUSE?
  Many endangered animals today are
                  Illegal poaching
   threatened by ____________________




                                                                 http://www.aeffonline.org/images/poachersandelephant.jpg
http://cnnstudentnews.cnn.com/EARTH/9710/02/kenya.ivory.ap   /
OVERHUNTING/POACHING
• All five rhino species are ____________
                             endangered.

• Just a few decades ago, the world’s
  rhino population exceeded 100,000,
  but today there are less than 11,000 due to
  _____________ and _________________.
   habitat loss          poaching

     Rhino horns
• _______________ are in demand in many
  countries where they can bring over $60,000/lb.
  It is ground into medicine in China and
  carved into ceremonial dagger handles in Yemen.
                        http://nationalzoo.si.edu/Publications/ZooGoer/2003/6/Sidebar_Forensics.cfm
    WHAT CAN WE DO TO HELP?
      Convention on International Trade
The_______________________________
  __________________________ (CITES)
   in Endangered Species
bans international ________ in products
                    trade
from endangered species.




http://www.mtholyoke.edu/~sjberg/CITES.htm
 WHAT CAN WE DO TO HELP?
Support “Green” organizations that work
 for laws to establish quotas and protect
 species.




 http://www.nwf.org/
 http://www.maksimum.com/haberler/h/greenpeacee_cevre_cezasi.php
                                                                   http://www.sierraclub.org/
 http://www.sierraclub.org/
HUMAN ACTIVITIES can also change
  local and global environments!
   HUNTING and GATHERING
   ______________________________

    AGRICULTURE
   ____________________

    INDUSTRY
   _________________

  URBAN DEVELOPMENT
  ___________________________
Images from:
http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/s2s/latest/art1/src/proj/Art/cave_art/Hunters-Deer.jpg
http://www.istockphoto.com/file_thumbview_approve/127525/2/istockphoto_127525_farming.jpg
http://www.kidcrosswords.com/kidoutdoors/the%20environment/pollution_smokestacks.jpg
http://www.lubee.org/images/about-threats-1.jpg
By end of last ice age (about 11,000 years ago)
 humans began the practice of farming
       AGRICULTURE
 = __________________

Soon people around the
world were growing
                                      agriculture
crops and raising
animals for food


                             http://www.bu.edu/mzank/Jerusalem/im/agriculture.jpg
                         Changing Agriculture
The spread of agriculture was one of most
 __________ developments in human history.
  important

It _____________ in large quantities that could
   provided food
   be stored for later.

                  settle in one place
Allowed people to __________________ and
 enabled the _______________of cities,
              development
 governments, laws, and writing.

http://www.travelwriter.co.za/let-the-train-strain_p2.html   http://www.museevirtuel.ca/Exhibitions/Inuit_Haida/inuit/snowmobile.jpg
        Changing Agriculture
By middle of 20th century, despite agricultural
                       ________________in
 advances there were food shortages
 many parts of the world.
            http://www.enjoy.org/hstech/HungerSite02/america/FordSchwartz/




Governments and scientists began a major
 effort to ____________ food production
             increase
                           Changing Agriculture
                             highly productive
Plant breeders: developed _______________
       “miracle strains” of wheat and rice
              AND
Modern ________________________spread
           farming techniques
                                                                                 http://www.wfbf.com/media_center/photo_gallery/Soybean%20combine.jpg




 http://interactive.usask.ca/ski/media/stills/agriculture/crops/t_plant-breeder.jpg




                GREEN REVOLUTION
This effort = ______________________
        Changing Agriculture
Large fields are planted with a single variety
                     MONOCULTURE
 year after year = ________________

           fertilizers
Chemical _____________
boosted crop growth
      pesticides
and ______________
controlled
damaging insects


                          http://imagesource.allposters.com/images/NGSPOD04/107870.jpg
        Changing Agriculture
Over the last 50 years, the green revolution
                                     double
has helped world food production _________.

 Even though hunger is still a major problem
 in parts of the world, agriculture and
 the green revolution have provided many
 people with better nutrition.




                     http://www.enjoy.org/hstech/HungerSite02/america/FordSchwartz/
         Challenges for Future
Modern agriculture has increased world
     food supplies
 _________________, but has also created
 ________________ challenges.
      ecological

Large scale monoculture leads to problems
       Insect pests
 with ____________ and _______________.
                          diseases

Use of farm chemicals (fertilizers & pesticides)
can damage ____________ insects,
               beneficial
  ________________ water supplies, and
    contaminate
  ______________ in the environment
    accumulate
        Challenges for Future
Finding enough __________ for irrigation is
                 water
  another problem.

Less than ¼ of US farmland
                   irrigation
relies heavily on ___________,
but this area produces a
 major
__________ portion of
our harvest.


               http://www.suu.edu/faculty/bowman/Econ1740/HeilbronerZinn/ogallala_aquifer_map_pic_2.gif
                 http://www.suu.edu/faculty/bowman/Econ1740/HeilbronerZinn/ogallala_aquifer_map_pic_2.g


        Challenges for Future
Many Midwest states rely
        OGALLALA
on the ___________aquifer
for their water needs.

However, we are using
water faster than the
                   replenish
water cycle can _____________ it.

Evidence indicates this aquifer may
   run dry
 __________ within 20-40 years.
        HOW DO WE HELP?
          modern technology
Applying ____________________ to farming is
 changing some of this environmental
 impact.

EX:
  _________________ and
   Satellite imaging
___________________
  GPS technology
enable farmers to
apply chemicals
 only where needed
_____________________
        HOW DO WE FIX IT?
Applying modern technology to farming is
 changing some of this environmental
 impact.

EX:
  “No-till”
___________ and other
“green” farming methods
     reduce soil erosion
can ___________________
     protect ecosystems
and ___________________


                           http://cbarc.aes.oregonstate.edu/images/no-till.jpg
Sustainable Agriculture
  Ways to preserve the environment
  Section 6-4




 Cover Crops                           Controlled Grazing                            Biological Pest Control
 Legumes, grasses, and other           By managing graze periods and herd            The use of predators and parasites
 cover crops recycle soil nutrients,   densities, farmers can improve nutrient       to control destructive insects
 reduce fertilizer need, and           cycling, increase the effectiveness of        minimizes pesticide use as well as
 prevent weed growth.                  precipitation, and increase the carrying      crop damage
                                       capacity of pastures.          A       B         C

Contour Plowing                                            Yr. 1
Contour plowing reduces                                               corn     oats alfalfa    Crop Rotation
soil erosion from land runoff.                                                                 Different crops use and
On hilly areas, plowing is done                                                                replenish different nutrients.
                                                           Yr. 2                      alfalfa By rotating crops, the loss
across the hill rather than                                           corn alfalfa (plowed in) of important plant nutrients
straight up and down.
                                                                                               is decreased.
                                                           Yr. 3
                                                                      oats alfalfa       corn
HUMAN ACTIVITIES can also change
  local and global environments!
   HUNTING and GATHERING
   ______________________________

    AGRICULTURE
   ____________________

    INDUSTRY
   _________________

  URBAN DEVELOPMENT
  ___________________________
Images from:
http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/s2s/latest/art1/src/proj/Art/cave_art/Hunters-Deer.jpg
http://www.istockphoto.com/file_thumbview_approve/127525/2/istockphoto_127525_farming.jpg
http://www.kidcrosswords.com/kidoutdoors/the%20environment/pollution_smokestacks.jpg
http://www.lubee.org/images/about-threats-1.jpg
        INDUSTRIAL GROWTH
      and URBAN DEVELOPMENT
The impact of humans on the biosphere was
transformed by the _____________________
                   INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
during the 1800’s.




                  http://www.archives.gov/research/american-cities/images/american-cities-015.jpg
Industrial productivity and scientific
advancements have provided us with
the ______________________ we enjoy today
      modern conveniences




                       http://www.vallartasource.com/images/cell_phone.jpg
                       http://www.danielwiener.com/daniel/tips/archives/humvee_2.jpg
                       http://www.scriptfx.com/gallery/computer/laptop.jpg
                       http://www.wii-volution.com/images/wii/gamecube.jpg
                       http://www.nbz.ru/pic/catalog/ipod/ipod_color.gif
BUT . . .
The spread of urban
areas has resulted in
      destruction
the _____________
habitats.

                                                     Air, water, & soil
                                                      pollution
                                                     _____________ has had an
                                                     impact on surrounding
                                                     ecosystems.
 http://www.kidcrosswords.com/kidoutdoors/the%20environment/pollution_smokestacks.jpg
Energy production requires
 burning fossil fuels
______________________
which impacts
  air quality
_______________
       global climate
and _______________.




  MORE ON THIS
  IN 6-4!
                             http://tuberose.com/Environmental_Toxicity.html
                SOUTH DAKOTA
           CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS
NATURE OF SCIENCE:
Indicator 1: Understand the nature and
     origin of scientific knowledge
9-12.N.1.1. Students are able to evaluate a scientific
  discovery to determine and describe how societal,
  cultural, and personal beliefs influence scientific
  investigations and interpretations

 •Recognize scientific knowledge is not merely a set of static facts
     but is dynamic and affords the best current explanations.

 •Discuss how progress in science can be affected by social issues.
                  SOUTH DAKOTA
             CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS
NATURE OF SCIENCE:
Indicator 1: Understand the nature and
     origin of scientific knowledge
9-12.N.1.2. Students are able to describe the role of
  observation and evidence in the development and
  modification of hypotheses, theories, and laws.

•Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and models.

•Evaluate the scientific accuracy of information relevant to a specific issue
               SOUTH DAKOTA
          CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS
LIFE SCIENCE:
Indicator 3: Analyze how organisms are linked to one
      another and the environment.
9-12.L.3.1. Students are able to identify factors that can
  cause changes in stability of populations, communities,
  and ecosystems.

• Predict the results of biotic and abiotic interactions.
   Examples:
     Fluctuation in available resources
            (water, food, shelter)
     Human activity
     Response to external stimuli
              SOUTH DAKOTA
         CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS
EARTH SCIENCE:
Indicator 1: Analyze the various structures and
        processes of the Earth system.
9-12.E.1.2. Students are able to describe how atmospheric
  chemistry may affect global climate.
  Examples: Greenhouse Effect, ozone depletion,
      ocean’s effects on weather
9-12.E.1.3. Students are able to assess how human activity
  has changed the land, ocean, and atmosphere of Earth.
  Examples: forest cover, chemical usage, farming,
      urban sprawl, grazing
                 SOUTH DAKOTA
            CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS
TECHNOLOGY, ENVIRONMENT, & SOCIETY:
Indicator 1: Analyze various implications/effects of
 scientific advancement within the environment and society.
9-12.S.1.2. Students are able to evaluate and describe the impact of
   scientific discoveries on historical events and social, economic, and
   ethical issues.

  Examples: nuclear power, global warming, and alternative fuels
            SOUTH DAKOTA
      ADVANCED SCIENCE STANDARDS
 LIFE SCIENCE:
 Indicator 3: Analyze how organisms are linked to one
       another and the environment.

9-12.L.3.1A. Students are able to relate genetic, instinct,
  and behavior patterns to biodiversity and survival of
  species. (SYNTHESIS)

• Relate the introduction of non-native species to the
  disruption of an ecosystem.
      Examples: zebra mussels
                  SOUTH DAKOTA
             CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS
TECHNOLOGY, ENVIRONMENT, & SOCIETY:
Indicator 2: Analyze the relationships/interactions
among science, technology, environment, and society.
9-12.S.2.1. Students are able to describe immediate and long-term
   consequences of potential solutions for technological issues.
   Examples:
      environmental, power and transportation, energy sources, issues

9-12.S.2.2. Students are able to analyze factors that could limit technological
   design.
   Examples: ethics, environmental impact, manufacturing processes,
   operation, maintenance, replacement, disposal, and liability

9-12.S.2.3. Students are able to analyze and describe the benefits, limitations,
   cost, and consequences involved in using, conserving, or recycling
   resources.
   Examples: agriculture, energy
           Core High School
          Nature of Science
       Performance Descriptors
High school students   given a scientific discovery, evaluate how different
                       societal, cultural, and personal beliefs influenced the
performing at the      investigation and its interpretation;
ADVANCED level:
High school students   given a scientific discovery narrative, determine and
                       describe how societal, cultural, and personal beliefs
performing at the      influenced the investigation and its interpretation;

PROFICIENT level:
High school students   describe the role of observation in the development
                       of hypotheses, theories, and laws and conduct
performing at the      student investigations;
BASIC level:           given a scientific discovery narrative, identify the
                       cultural and personal beliefs that influenced the
                       investigation.
           Core High School
          Life/Earth Science
       Performance Descriptors
High school students   predict the effect of an interruption in a given cycles;
                       predict how human activity may change the land,
performing at the      ocean, and atmosphere of Earth.
ADVANCED level:
High school students   predict how life systems respond to changes in
                          the environment;
performing at the      describe how various factors may affect global
                       climate;
PROFICIENT level:
                       explain how human activity changes the land, ocean,
                       and atmosphere of Earth

High school students   describe one factor that may affect global climate;
                       give an example of human activity that changes the
performing at the      land, ocean, or atmosphere of Earth
BASIC level:
             Core High School
     Technology, Environment, Society
         Performance Descriptors
                       modify a technology taking into consideration limiting
High school students   factors of design;
performing at the      given a narrative of a scientific discovery, defend a position
                       on the impact of the ethical issues.
ADVANCED level:
                       given a narrative of a scientific discovery, identify and
High school students   evaluate the immediate and long-term consequences of
performing at the      scientific issues
                       evaluate factors that could limit technological design;
PROFICIENT level:      given a narrative description of a resource, analyze and
                       describe the benefits, limitations, cost, and consequences
                       involved in its use, conservation, or recycling
                       given a narrative of a scientific discovery, identify the
High school students   immediate consequences of scientific issues;
performing at the      identify ethical roles and responsibilities concerning a given
                       research project;
BASIC level:           identify factors that could limit technological design;
                       given a narrative description of a resource, describe a
                       benefit and limitation involved in its use, conservation, or
                       recycling.
                          SOURCES
     http://www.animation-station.com/smileys/index.php?page=17




     http://mff.dsisd.net/Environment/Cycles.htm




http://www.romanviii.co.uk/bp/nhpage.asp?pcat=about_us
                          SOURCES
http://www.oldetimecooking.com/Images/Fruits/Apple.jpg




   http://vilenski.org/science/safari/classifyall/eukaryotic.html




    http://dustconnection.com/images/stories/cleaning_bucket_sm.jpg

				
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