# MB 4 (DOC)

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```					    Problem Solving opportunities in Everyday Mathematics
Unit 1
Pencils are packed 18 to a box. How many pencils are there in 9 boxes? Show and

Complete the table of Divisibility:
Number      By 2?         By 3?      By 6?        By 9?          By 5?        By 10?
998,876
5,890
72,344
36,540
861
33,015
1,098
45,369
4,009,721
Explain how you said yes for one number in each column.

Math class is dismissed at 2:20 P.M. It is 1:53 P.M. How many more minutes before
math class is dismissed? Show and explain how you got your answer.

How many crayons are there in 10 boxes, if each box contains 48 crayons? Show and
How many crayons are there in 1,000 boxes? Show and explain how you got your

In the morning, I need 30 minutes to shower and dress, 15 minutes to eat, and another 15
minutes to ride my bike to school. School begins at 8:30 A.M. What is the latest I can
get up and still get to school on time? Show and explain how you got your answer.

How many marbles are there in 7 bags, if each bag contains 8 marbles?
How many marbles are there in 700 bags? Show and explain how you got your answer.

Unit 2
At the start of an experiment, the temperature in a box was 27 ° C. The temperature was
increased by 32 degrees. Next it was decreased by 43 degrees. What was the
temperature in the box then? Show and explain how you got your answer.

Maria had 2 decks of cards. One of the decks had only 36 cards instead of 52. The rest
were missing from the deck. How many cards were missing? Show and explain how you

Anthony got a new bike. He rode 18 miles the first week, 27 miles the second week, and
34 miles the third week. How many miles did he ride altogether? Show and explain how

1
Regina has \$23.08. Her sister has \$16.47. Her brother has only \$5.00. How much more
money does Regina have than her sister? Show and explain how you got your answer.

Lucas was having 12 friends over for breakfast. He started with 19 eggs. He bought 1
dozen more eggs. How many eggs did he have to cook for breakfast? Show and explain

Nicholas earned \$48 mowing lawns one weekend. With the money he earned, he bought
2 CDs that cost a total of \$23. How much money did he have left? Show and explain

Patrick’s hobby is to paint color-by-number pictures. He spent 24 hours painting in June
and 37 hours painting in July. The last picture he painted had 18 different colors. How
many hours did he paint in the two months? Show and explain how you got your answer.

Sue walked 2 miles to Jan’s house. Then both girls walked 2 miles to Tad’s house. Sue
took 28 minutes to get to Jan’s house. The girls took 45 minutes to get to Tad’s house.
How much longer did it take to get to Tad’s house than to Jan’s house? Show and explain

The temperature at midnight was 25°F. The wind chill temperature was 14°F. How
much warmer was the actual temperature than the wind chill temperature? Show and

Althea and her brother collect baseball cards. Althea has 149 cards. Her brother has 127
cards. How many cards do they have altogether? Show and explain how you got your

Julie was driving from Chicago, Illinois to Topeka, Kansas. Before she started, she filled
her tank with 10 gallons of gas. She paid \$14.08. After driving about 305 miles, she
stopped for gas in Iowa. Again, she got 10 gallons of gas and paid \$11.85. How much
more did she pay for gas in Chicago than in Iowa? Show and explain how you got your

Mark paid for his burger and fries with a \$20 bill. His burger cost \$3.89. his fires cost

Ralph and Adeline saved their money for 6 weeks. Ralph saved \$27.23. Adeline saved
\$34.98. How much more did Adeline save than Ralph? Show and explain how you got

Lucas was comparing prices on a pair of min-speakers. At one store, the pair of speakers
cost \$19.95. At a second store, the same speakers cost \$24.70. At a third store, they cost
\$18.50. If he buys the speakers at the lowest price, how much will he save over the

2
Linell and Ben pooled their money to buy a video game. Linell had \$12.40 and Ben had
\$15.88. How much money did they have in all? Show and explain how you got your

Make a magnitude estimate.
7 * 326 = _____      95 * 48 = _____
5 * 4,127 = _____    46 * 414 = _____

Certain varieties of sea horses can move 10.5 inches per minute. Would these sea horses
be able to travel 6 yards in 1 hour? Show and explain how you got your answer.

Orville Wright completed the first successful airplane flight on December 17, 1903. He
traveled 120 feet in 12 seconds. If he had been able to stay in the air for a full minute,
would he have traveled 1 mile? (Hint 1 mile = 5,280 feet) Show and explain how you

In 1960, the Triton became the first submarine to circumnavigate the world. It covered
36,014 miles in 75 days. Is that more or less than 100 miles per day? Show and explain

Unit 3
Jeanne practiced her multiplication facts for 3 weeks. The first week she practiced for 45
minutes, the second week for 37 minutes, and third week for 32 minutes. How many
minutes did she practice in all? [How many hours is this?] Show and explain how you

The shortest book Martha read one summer was 57 pages. The longest book was 243
pages. She read a total of 36 books. How many pages longer was the longest book than

Chesa collects marbles. He had 347 marbles. Then he played in two tournaments. He
lost 34 marbles in the first tournament. He won 23 marbles in the second tournament.
How many marbles did he have after playing in both tournaments? Show and explain

Unit 4
Roger had saved \$10.05 from his allowance. Then he bought a paint-by-numbers kit for
\$7.39. How much does he have left? Show and explain how you got your answer.

Larry spent \$4.82 on a notebook, \$1.79 on paper to fill it, and \$2.14 on a pen. How much
did he spend in all? Show and explain how you got your answer.

3
Compact discs are on sale for \$9, including tax.
Part A. How many can you buy with \$30?
Part B. What does the remainder represent?
Part C. What did you do about the remainder?

Rebecca and her three sisters bought their mother a bread machine for her birthday. The
machine cost \$219, including tax. The sisters split the bill evenly.
Part A. How much did each sister contribute?
Part B. What does the remainder represent?
Part C. What did you do about the remainder?

You are organizing a trip to a museum for 110 students, teachers, and parents.
Part A. If each bus can seat 25 people, how many buses do you need?
Part B. What does the remainder represent?
Part C. What did you do about the remainder?

Unit 5
In a school election, 141 fifth graders voted. One-third voted for Shira and two-third
voted by Bree. How many votes did Shira get? How many votes did Breeget? Show and

Bob, Liz, and Eli drove the 1,050 miles from Chicago to Denver. Bob drove 1/10 of the
distance. Liz drove 4/10 of the distance. Eli drove ½ of the distance. How many miles
did each person drive/? Check to make sure that the total is 1,050 miles. Show and

Carlos and Rick paid \$8.75 for a present. Carlos paid 2/5 of the total amount and Rick aid
3/5 of the total. How much did Carlos pay? How much did Rick pay? Show and explain

A pizza costs \$12.00, including tax. Scott paid 1/4 of the total cost. Trung paid 1/3of the
total cost. Pritish paid 1/6. Bill [aid the rest. How much did each person pay?
Scott _____ Trung ______ Pritish ______ Bill ______

Chris made pizza dough with 5/8 cup of white four and ¼ cup of whole wheat flour.
How much flour did he use in all? Show and explain how you got your answer.

Sheryl’s puppy weighed 1 ½ pounds when it was born. After two weeks, the puppy had
gained 3/8 pounds. How much did the puppy weigh after two weeks? Show and explain

Fran had \$6.48 to spend on lunch. She bought a hamburger for \$2.83. How much did
she have left to spend after buying the hamburger? Show and explain how you got your

4
The large rhombus on your Geometry Template is worth 1. Use your Template to draw a
shape worth 2 ½. Show and explain how you got your answer.

Sophie went to the ball game. She spent \$8.50 on the ticket, \$2.72 on a hot dog, \$1.99 on
a soft drink, and \$0.15 on a souvenir pencil. How much did she spend in all? Show and

Number of times that each of the following players won the four “Grand Slam” tennis
tournaments.
Player           Australian          Wimbledon French Open U.S. Open             Total
Open
Chris Evert      2                   3             7               6             18
Lloyd
Monica Selles    4                   0             3               2             6
Steffi Graf      4                   7             6               5             22
Jimmy            1                   2             0               5             8
Connors
Pete Sempras     2                   6             0               6             14
How many times did Jimmy Connors win Wimbledom? What is the total number of
times he won the four tournaments listed above? Show and explain how you got your

How many times did Chris Evert Lloyd win the U.S. Open? What is the total number of
times she won the four tournaments listed above? What fraction of this total were won
at the U.S. Open? Show and explain how you got your answer.

How many times has Monica Selles won the Australian Open? What fraction is this of
her total number of wins for these four tournaments? Show and explain how you got your

How many times has Steffi Graf win the French Open? What fraction is this of her total
number of wins for these four tournaments? Show and explain how you got your answer.

Linell got 80% correct on a spelling test. If the test had 20 questions, how many did

Jamie spent 50% of his money on a baseball cap. The cap cost \$15. How much money
did Jamie have at the beginning? Show and explain how you got your answer.

Hunter got 75% correct on a music test. If he got 15 questions correct, how many
questions were on the test? Show and explain how you got your answer.

The total number of horses in the world is about 60,800,000. China is the country with
the greatest number of horses (about 8, 900,000). What percent of the world’s horses live

5
In the United States, about 45% of the population has blood type O. About how many
people out of every 100 have blood type O? Show and explain how you got your answer.

About 11 out of every 100 households in the United States has a parakeet. How would
you express this as a percent? Show and explain how you got your answer.

I am a number. If you double 1/3 of me, you get 14. What number am I? Show and

Class survey of favorite snacks: Cookies – 8 Granola bar – 4 Candy bar – 10 Fruit – 2
Other – 1 Add all of the votes and the total is ______. That total is the number of
students who voted. Make a bar graph showing the results. Label appropriately. Show

Another fifth grade class with 20 students collected snack-survey data. The class made a
circle graph of the results. Cookies – 5 Granola bar – 4 Candy bar – 7 Fruit – 3
Other – 1. Make a circle graph to represent this data. Show and explain how you got

Complete.
a. 1 hour = ___ minutes
b. 3 hours = ___ minutes
c. 5 weeks = ____ days
d. 4 years = ___ months
e. 2 ½ years = ___ months

Concrete is an artificial stone. It is made by first mixing cement and sand with gravel or
other broken stone. Then enough water is mixed in to cause the cement to set. After
drying (or curing), the result is a hard piece of concrete. The cement, sand, and gravel
are commonly mixed using this recipe.

Recipe for Dry Mix for Concrete
Material                          Fractional Part of Mix      Percent Part of Mix
Cement                            1/6                         16 2/3%
Sand                              1/3                         33 1/3%
Gravel                            ½                           50%
Use the Percent Circle to make a circle graph for the above recipe. Label each section of
the graph, and give it a title. Show and explain how you got your answer.

6
Recently a fifth grade class made a survey of favorite snacks. They have recorded the
the fraction that “Percent” represents. Show and explain how you got your answer.
Snack                    Number                Fraction              Percent
Granola Bar                                                          16%
Candy Bar                                                            40%
Fruit                                                                8%
Other                                                                4%
Make a circle graph of the snack-survey data. Remember to label each piece of the graph
and give it a title. Show and explain how you got your answer.

If 7 yards of cloth cost 21 shillings (a unit of money), how much do 19 yards of cloth

After studying arithmetic two hours a day for 7 to 9 years, 94% of eighth graders in
Boston in 1845 could solve the following problem. Try to solve it.
What is ½ of 1/3 of 9 hours, 18 minutes?

Here is a problem from around 1870 given to students at the end of 6 to 8 years of
elementary arithmetic study. Try to solve it.
I was married at the age of 21. If I live 19 years longer, I will have been married
60 years. What is my age now? Show and explain how you got your answer.

Complete.
a. ½ hour = ___ minutes
b. 2/6 hour = ___ minutes
c. 1 ½ hours = ___ minutes
d. 3 ½ days = ___ hours
e. 2 years = ___ weeks

Complete.
a. ¼ hour = ___ minutes
b. 20 minutes = ___ hour
c. 30 minutes = ___ hour
d. ¾ hour = ____ minutes
e. 1/12 hour = ___ minutes

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Unit 6
Ms. Perez’s physical education class participated in the standing long jump. These are
the results rounded to the nearest inch.
24      35      33     48      33      48     27     35       27       55     43      24
55      33      52     33      29      59     26     59       48       37     42      42
Organize these data on this line plot.
                                                     |         |     |       |
20       25      30    35      40      45     50     55       60       65     70      75
Make a bar graph for the data on this line plot. Label it with a title and appropriate
information.

Find the following landmarks for the standing long jump data:
a. Maximum (the longest distance a student jumped) = ___ in
b. Minimum )the shortest distance a student jumped): ___ in.
c. Model: ___ in              d. Median: ___ in
e. Mean (average): ___ in (You may use a calculator)
d. Mode:       e. Range:

Mr. Hernandez’s class took a survey to find out when students prefer to do their
homework. They got responses from 125 fifth grade students. The results are shown in
the table below.
As soon as I get home                          17%
After having an after-school snack             30%
Right after dinner                             39%
Just before going to bed                       14%
Make a circle graph of the results, using your Geometry Template. Give the graph a
title. Label the sections of the graph. Show and explain how you got your answer.

When Antoinette woke up on New Year’s Day, it was –4 degrees outside. By the time
the parade started, it was a cozy 18 degrees F. How many degrees had the temperature

Randy was growing sunflowers. After eight weeks, he measured the height of his
sunflowers, in inches. He recorded the heights: 31, 39, 47, 46, 49, 42,49, 52, 53 55, 52,
58, 57, 53, 65, 63, 64, 73. Record these heights in a stem-and-leaf plot.
How tall is the tallest sunflower? Which landmark is the height of the tallest
flower? How many sunflowers did Randy measure? What is the mode for his
measurement? How would you find the median for his measurement?

1.   How much is 3/5 of \$1?
2.   How much is 3/5 of \$10?
3.   How much is 3/5 of \$1,000?
4.   Eight counters is ½ of the set. How many countries are in the set? ___counters
5.   Twenty counters is 2/10 of the set. How many counters are in the set?
6.   A set has 40 counters,. How many countries are in 3/8 of the set/
7.   A set has 36 counters. How many counters are in 5/6 of the set?

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8. Mariah shared her sandwich equally with her 3 friends. What fraction of a sandwich
did Mariah get?
9. Bernice gave 2/3 of her 18 fancy pencils to her bet friends. How many people did
Bernice have left?

Draw a circle graph that is divided into the following sectors: 32%, 4%, 22%, 18%, and
24%. Make up a situation for the graph. Give the graph a title. Label each sector.

The temperature in Chicago at 6 p.m. was 35 °F. By midnight, the temperature had
dropped 48 degrees. What was the temperature at midnight? Show and explain how you

Brenda bought 4 cheeseburgers for her family for lunch. The total cost was \$5.56. How
much did 3 cheeseburgers cost? Show and explain how you got your answer.

Thomas’s family went on a long trip over summer vacation. They drove for 5 days. The
distances for the 5 days were as follows: 347 miles, 504 miles, 393 miles, 422 miles, and
418 miles.
A To the nearest mile, what was the average distance traveled per day? Show and
B. Tell what you did with the remainder. Explain why.

Justin’s school has 15 classrooms. On an average, there are 28 students per room. One
fifth of the classrooms are for fifth graders. About how many students are in the school?

Carolyn reads 45 pages of a book every night. How many pages did she read in the
month of March (31 days)? Show and explain how you got your answer.

Lucienne and her class made 684 note cards for a school benefit.
How many boxes of eight can they fill? Show and explain how you got your answer.
A. Explain what the remainder represents and what you did with it.

Favorite flavors of ice cream data was gathered in a Mr. Lenard’s 5th grade class. Create
a bar graph to represent these choices: vanilla – 4 chocolate – 7 Strawberry – 4
Chocolate chip – 12
Create a bar graph to represent this data. Include a title and appropriate labeling.
How many students prefer the class’s favorite flavor?
How many more students prefer chocolate than vanilla?

A piece of ribbon is 7 ½ inches long. If a piece 2 3/16 inches long is cut off, how long is
Write a number sentence to show how you solved the problem.

9
Round:
489 to the nearest ten
608 to the nearest ten
23,605 to the nearest hundred
18.27 to the nearest tenth
12.17 to the nearest whole number
15.98 to the nearest tenth
200.73 to the nearest whole number

Complete this table
Fraction                    Decimal                          Percent
2/3
4/8
4/5
3/10
7/25
15/50

Unit 7
Regina is baking two different kinds of chocolate-chip cookies. One recipe calls for ¼
cup of chocolate chips. The other calls for ¾ cup of chocolate chips. How many cups of
chocolate chips does she need in all? Write a number model. Show and explain how you

Roger found a long piece of heavy rope that was 24 ¾ feet long. It was a perfect rope for
making jump ropes. If each jump rope is 8 ¼ feet long, how many can he make? Show

Amanda collects dobsonflies (a pretty scary-looking creature, by all accounts). Below
are the lengths, in millimeters for the flies in her collection.
95, 107, 119, 103, 102, 91, 115, 120, 111, 114, 115, 107, 110, 108, 98, 112
Create a stem-and-leaf plot that represents this data.
Find the median: ___ minimum: ___ range: ___ mode:___

Solve the following problem to get as many different answers as possible. Write a
number sentence, using parentheses, for each way. 6 * 4 – 2 / 2= ? (Hint – there are at
least four ways)

A grocery store received a shipment of 120 cases of apple juice. Each case contained 4
six-packs of cans. After inspection, the store found that 9 cans were damaged. [How
many of the cans were NOT damaged?] Write an expression that represents the number

10
Robin asked her friends to help figure out how much money she needed to go to the
movies. She asked her friends, “How much is 4 plus 5 times 8?” Frances and Sack said,
“72”. Ann and Ricky said, “44”. How did they get 72 and how did they get 44?
Robin’s friends couldn’t agree who was right. Finally Robin said, “I need to buy one
under-12 ticket for \$4 and 5 adult tickets for \$8”. Then Robin’s friends knew who was
right. Who do you think was right? Show and explain how you got your answer.

A person breathes an average of 12 to 15 times per minute. At this rate, about how many
breaths might a person take in a day? Show and explain how you got your answer.

Find the whole set.
a. 4 is 1/8 of the set
b. 4 is 2/5 of the set
c. 9 is 3/7 of the set
d. 5 is 1/3 of the set
e. 12 is 3/8 of the set

Make a circle graph of the survey results
Favorite After-School Activity
Activity            Percent of Students      Write it as a          Write it as a
Choosing it              fraction               decimal
Eat snack           18%
Visit friends       35%
Watch TV            22%
Play outside        15%

For each temperature change in the table two number models are shown in the
“Temperature after Change” column. Only one of the number models is correct. Choose
the correct number model and complete that number model.
Temperature           Temperature            Temperature after Temperature after
before Change         Change                 Change # Model ? Change # Model ?
40 º                  Up 7º                  40 + 7 =             40 + ( -7) =
10º                   Down 8º                10 – (-8) =          10 – 8 =
- 15º                 Up 10º                 - 15 + 10 =          15 + 10 =
- 20º                 Down 10º               - 20 – 10 =          20 – (- 10)=

The Healthy Delights Candy Company specializes in candy that is wholesome and good
for you. Unfortunately, they have been losing money for several years. During the year
2000, they lost \$12 million, ending the year with a total debt of \$23 million.
Part A. What was Healthy Delights’ total debt at the beginning of 2000? Show
Part B. Write a number model that fits this problem.
In 2001, Healthy Delights is expecting to lose \$8 million.
Part A. What will Healthy Delights’ total debt be at the end of 2001? Show and explain

11
Julie arrived 20 minutes before the race began. She started right on time. It took her 24
minutes to finish the 6-kilometer race. She stayed 10 minutes after the race to cool off;
then she left. If she arrived at the race at 9:10 am, what time was it when she left? Show

Marcus had \$5.00 to spend on lunch. He bought a hot dog for \$1.75 and some French
fries for \$0.69. How much money did he have left for dessert? Show and explain how

A salesperson is often assigned a quota. A quota is the dollar value of the goods that the
salesperson is expected to sell. Suppose a salesperson is \$3,500 below quota and then
makes a sale of \$4,700. Show and explain how you got your answers.
Part A. Did the sales person exceed or fall short of his or her quota? Show and
Part B. Write a number model to figure out by how much the salesperson
exceeded or fell short. (Use negative and positive numbers. Think about a
number line with the quota at 0.)

Stock prices change every day. The first day, a stock’s price went up ¼ dollar per share.
The next day, it went down ½ dollar. The third day, it went up 5/8 dollar.
Part A. Did the value increase or decrease from the beginning of Day 1 to the end
Part B. Write a number model to figure out by how much the stock increased or
decreased over the 3-day period. (Use negative and positive numbers. Think
about a number line with the Day 1 starting price at 0.)

There are 36 stamps in each package. How many stamps are there in…
a. ¾ of a package?
b. 5/7 of a package?
c. 2/9 of a package?
d. 7/12 of a package?
e. 2/3 of a package?

Make a circle graph of the survey results
Time Spent on Homework
Time                    Percent of Students Write as a fraction Write as a decimal
0 – 29 minutes          25
30 – 59 minutes         48
60 – 89 minutes         10
90 – 119 minutes        12
2 hours or more         5

The water in Leroy’s and Jerod’s fish tank had evaporated so that it was about 5/8 inch
below the level it should be. They added water and the water level went up about ¾ inch.
Did the water level end up above or below where it should be? How much above or
below? Write the number model. What is the answer? Show and explain how you got

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Find the whole set.
a. 10 is 1/5 of the set
b. 12 is ¾ of the set
c. 8 is 2/7 of the set
d. 15 is 5/8 of the set
e. 9 is 3/5 of the set

Is this more or less than ½? Show and explain how you got your answer.
Is this more or less than ¼? Show and explain how you got your answer.
3/8 + 1/8 = _________ Show and explain how you got your answer.

Joe had 2 granola bars. He ate 1 ½ bars.
a. Shade the part that he ate
b. Write the part he ate as a decimal.

Unit 8
Javier has \$5.00 to buy school supplies. He wants one pack of pencils for \$1.38, a
notebook for \$2.74, and some fancy writing paper for \$1.29. Does he have enough

Solve.
a. If there are 12 counters in the whole set, how many are there in ¾ of the set?
b. If there are 5 counters in 1/8 of the set, how many are there in the whole set
c. If there are 8 counters in 4/7 of a set, how many are there in the whole set?
d. If there are 15 counters in the whole set, how many are there in 2/5 of the set?
e. If there are 3 counters in 2/6 of the set, how many are there in the whole set?

Lydia has 7 pages of a 12-page song memorized. Has she memorized more than 2/3 of

A CD that normally sells for \$15 is on sale for 1/3 off. What is the sale price? Show and

Christine bought a coat for ¼ off the regular price. She saved \$20. What did she pay for

Julie makes \$4.00 per week for doing the dishes every night. She paid her sister Amy
\$0.75 each time Amy did the dishes for her. Is that a fair price? Show and explain how

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Solve.
a. If there are 18 counters in the whole set, how many are there in 5/6 of the set?
b. If there are 21 counters in the whole set, how many are there in 2/3 of the set?
c. If there are 6 counters in 2/7 of the set, how many are there in the whole set?
d. If there are 10 counters in1/5 of the set, how many are there in the whole set?
e. If there are 9 counters in 3/8 of the set, how many are there in the whole set?

Amanda found a can containing 237 dominoes. A full set has 28 dominoes. What is the
greatest number of complete sets that can be in the can? Show and explain how you got

Raphael bought 14 pounds of meat to make hamburgers at the Fourth of July barbecue.
He made 5 hamburgers from each pound. Buns come in packages of 8. How many
packages of buns did Raphael need? Show and explain how you got your answer.

Every moon and planet in our solar system pulls objects toward it with the force called
gravity. In a recent Olympic games, the winning high jump was 7 fet8 inches, or 7 2/3
feet. The winning pole vault was 19 feet. Suppose that the Olympics were held on
Earth’s Moon, or on Jupiter, Mars, or Venus. What height might we expect for a winning
high jump or a winning pole vault/
1. On the Moon, one could jump about 6 times as high as on Earth. What would be the
height of the winning high jump? About ____ of the pole vault? About _____
2. On Jupiter, one could jump about 3/8 as high as on Earth. What would be the height
of the winning high jump? About _____ of the pole vault? About _____
3. On Mars, one could jump about 2 2/3 times as high as on Earth. What would be the
height of the winning high jump? About _____ of the pole vault? About _____
4. On Venus, one could jump about 1 1/7 times as high as on Earth. What would be the
height of the winning high jump? About _____ of the pole vault? About _____
5. Is Jupiter’s pull of gravity stronger or weaker than Earth’s? Show and explain how

The dimensions of a large doghouse are 2 ½ times the dimensions of a small doghouse.
a. If the width of the small doghouse is 2 feet, what is the width of the large
doghouse?
b. If the length of the small doghouse is 2 ¼ feet, what is the length of the large

Find the difference between the highest and lowest temperature recorded in each state.
Lowest                 Highest               Difference
Arizona                - 40º                  127º
South Dakota           - 58º                  120º

1. If 12 counters are 1/5 of a set, how many counters are in the set?
2. If 15 counters are 1/7 of a set, how many counters are in the set?

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3. If 31 pages are 1/8 of a book, how many pages are in the book?
4. If 13 marbles are 1% of the marbles in a jar, how many marbles are in the jar?
5. If \$5.43 is 1% of the cost of a TV, what does the TV cost?
6. If 84 counters are 10 % of a set, how many counters are in the set?
7. After 80 minutes, Dorothy had read 120 pages of a 300-page book. If she continues
reading at the same rate, about how long will it take her to read the entire book?
8. Eighty-four people attended the school concert. This was 70% of the number
expected to attend. How many people were expected to attend?
9. (Challenge.) In its most recent game, the Lincoln Junior High basketball team made
36 baskets, which was 48% of the shots team members tried. How many shots did they
try?

Six jars are filled with cookies. The number of cookies in each jar is not known. For
each cue given below, find the number of cokes in the jar.
Clue                                          Number of Cookies in Jar
a. ½ jar contains 31 cookies
b. 2/8 jar contains 10 cookies
c. 3/5 jar contains 36 cookies
d. 3/8 jar contains 21 cookies
e. 4/7 jar contains 64 cookies
f. 3/11 jar contains 45 cookies

Use your percent sense to estimate the list price for each item. Then calculate the list.
(Hint: First use your calculator to find what 1% is worth.)
Sale Price         Percent of         Estimated         Calculated List
List Price         List Price        Price
\$120.00            60%
\$100.00            50%
\$8.00              32%
\$255.00            85%
\$77.00             55%
\$80.00             40%
\$9.00              60%
\$112.50            75%
\$450.00            90%

Alan is walking to a friend’s house. He covered 6/10 of the distance in 48 minutes. If he
continues at the same speed, about how long will the entire walk take? Show and explain

If the average coal miner world 2/3 of a month of 30 days, how many days during the
month does he work? Show and explain how you got your answer.

A recipe for fudge calls for ¼ of a cake of chocolate. If a cake costs 20¢, find the cost of
the chocolate called for by the recipe. Show and explain how you got your answer.

15
In target practice the battleship Indiana shot at a target 24 times. If ¾ of the shots hit,
how many successful shots were fired? Show and explain how you got your answer.

A collection of mail that required 6 hours for a postman to make with a horse and wagon
was made in an automobile in 5/12 the time. How long did the automobile take? Show

How many corks per day does a machine in Spain make from the bark of the cork tree, if
it makes 1/3 of a sack of 15,000 corks in that time?

Write > or <.
a. 50% _____ 2/3
b. 620 – 80 _____ 30 * 40
c. 7/8 _____ ¼ + 2/4
d. 20 * 19 ______ 20 to the second power
e. 0.35 = 0.25 _____ 1/8 = 1/8

Finding the worth of the unit fraction will help you to solve each problem.
1. If 4/5 of a number is 16, what is ¼ of the number? What is the number?
2. Our football team won ¾ of the games that it played. It won 12 games. How many
games did it platy?
3. When a balloon had traveled 800 miles, it had completed 2/3 of its journey. What was
the total length of its trip?
4. Neil’s box of mixed fruit contains 15 oranges. These oranges are worth 3/5 of the
total number of pieces of fruit in the box. How many pieces of fruit does Neil have?
5. Grandma baked cookies. Twenty cookies were oatmeal raisin. The oatmeal raisin
6. Tiana jogged 6/8 of the way to school in12 minutes. If she continues at the same pace,
how long will her entire job to school take?
7. After 35 minutes, Hayden had completed 7/10 of his math tests. If he has a total of 55
minutes to complete the test, do you think he will finish on time?
8. Ian bought a video game that was on sale for \$45. He paid 75% of the original price.
How much would the game have cost if it had not been on sale?
9. An ad for a computer printer stated that you could buy the printer for only \$28-, or
80% of the original price. What was the original price of the printer? How much would
you save?

Complete the table showing how far Melissa ran during her 60-minute run. She ran at a
steady rate for the entire time.
Time                15 minutes        30 minutes                       60 minutes
Miles                                 4 miles        6 miles
What percent of the run is 30 minutes?
What percent of her total distance is 6 miles?

16
How can constructing a table help solve a percent problem?

Fifteen percent of the 20 students in Ms.Swanson’s class were left-handed. How many

About 85% of the 600 students at Emerson Middle School speak English at home.
Another 10% speak Spanish, and 5% speak other languages. About how many students
speak each language at home? Show and explain how you got your answer.
English?
Spanish?
Other?

The government reported that 5 % of 90,000,000 workers do not have jobs. How many

Chase is packing cookies in ½-pound bags. He has 10 pounds of cookies. How many
bags can he pack? Show and explain how you got your answer.

Regina is cutting lanyard to make bracelets. She has 15 feet of lanyard and needs 1 ½
feet for each bracelet. How many bracelets can she make? Show and explain how you

Eric is planning a pizza party. He has 3 large pizzas. He figures each person will eat 3/8
of a pizza. How many people can attend the party, including himself? Show and explain

Unit 9
Create a graph to represent each number story.
1. Juanita started with \$350. She saved another \$25 every week. How much money
does she have at the end of 5 weeks?
2. Meredith received \$350 for her birthday. She deposited the entire amount in a non-
interest bearing checking account in the bank. Every week she withdrew \$50. How
much money will she have left in this bank account after 5 weeks?

Complete the “What’s My Rule?” table and state the rule.
IN         OUT
2          -10
0
16         4
3
-5

Will a circle with a radius of 4 inches fit inside a circle with a diameter of 5 inches?

17
Write the smallest number you can make that is less than 1 by using each of the following
digits only once; 8 9 2 3 Write this number in words. Show and explain how you got

A bedroom floor is 12 feet by 15 feet (4 yards by 5 yards)
Floor area = _____square feet
Floor area = _____square yards
Imagine that you want to buy carpet for the bedroom in Problem 1. The carpet comes on
a roll that is 6 feet (2 yards) wide. The carpet salesperson unrolls the carpet to the length
you want and cuts off your piece. How long a piece will you need to cover the bedroom

Which has the greater area, a 3-ft-by-2-ft rectangle or a triangle with base 3 ft and height

Which has the greater area, a triangle with base 10 cm and height 4 cm or a parallelogram
with base 5 cm and height 6 cm. Show and explain how you got your answer.

Solve the following problems.
a. 10 – (-2) =
b. 5 – 8 =
c. 15 – (-5) =
d. - 15 – (-5) =
e. – 4 – 7 =

Mr. Carroll’s class collected autumn leaves and sorted them by color. The class had 24
yellow leaves, 17 green leaves, 37 red leaves, 8 orange leaves, and 14 brown leaves.
Make a circle graph to represent this data. Show and explain how created the graph.

Sometimes it is helpful to know that 1 liter is a little more than 1 quart. In the United
Stated, gasoline is sold by the gallon. If you travel in Canada or Mexico, you will find
that gasoline is sold by the liter. Is 1 gallon of gasoline more or less than 4 liters of

Name a number between each pair of numbers.
a. 4.2 and 4.25
b. 3/8 and 3/7
c. - 12 and - 11
d. 1/10 and 0.15
e. 2/3 and 5/6
f. 7/16 and4/5

18
Make up a set of 15 numbers that has the following landmarks.
Maximum: 152
Range: 25
Mode: 139
Median: 142
Make a stem-and-leaf plot of the data you created.

Unit 10
Name a number between each pair of numbers.
a. – 1.30 and – 1.20
b. 8.05 and 8.10
c. – 0.26 and – 0.25
d. 1/3 and 7/8
e. ¼ and 0.3
f. 0.2 and 2/9

Make a stem-and-leaf plot of the following numbers; 120, 111, 137,144,121,120,95, 87,
120, 110, 135, 90, 86, 137, 144, 121, 120, 95, 87, 120, 110, 135, 90, 86, 143, 95, 141
Find the landmarks: Mode: ____ Median: _____ Range: _____
Show and explain how you created the plot and got your answers.

The table shows how Robert spent his allowance for the month of April. Complete the
table and make a circle graph of the data.
Type of Expense       Amount Spent Percent of Allowance
Snacks                \$2.50
Movie                 \$5.50
Gum                   \$0.50
Baseball Cards        \$1.50
Total
Show and explain how you got your answers and how you created the graph.

Solve.
a. 1/3 of 36 =
b. 2/5 of 75 =
c. 3/8 of 88 =
d. 5/6 of 30 =
e. 2/7 of 28 =

19
Mr. Kim’s art class asked 50 people each to name their favorite kind of movie. The
results are shown in the table. Complete the table and then make a circle graph of the
results.
Kind of Movie Number of people Percent of Total
Action            20
Comedy            14
Romance           2
Thriller          7
Mystery           4
Total
Show and explain how you got your answer and created the graph.

Ms. Hopheart’s class asked 50 people to name their favorite kind of fruit The results are
shown in the table. Complete the table and then make a circle graph of the results.
Kind of fruit                Number of People                Percent of Total
Apples                       20
Bananas                      12
Grapes                       5
Oranges                      8
Other                        5
Total                        50
Show and explain how you got your answers and how you created the graph.

Janet wanted to know how long it would take her to drive 525 miles. She was traveling
at about 65 miles per hour. Explain how she might solve these problems using a graph, a
formula, or a table.

Unit 11
Complete the following table.
Polyhedron            Number of Faces     Number of Vertices         Number of Edges
(f)                 (v)                        (e)
Rectangular prism     6
Tetrahedron                               4
Triangular prism                                                     9
Rectangular pyramid
Octahedron

Theresa is y years old. Write an algebraic expression for the age of each person below.
a. Nancy is four years older than Theresa
b. Frank is twice as old as Theresa.
c. Jose is 1/3 as old as Theresa.
d. Lucianna is 8 years younger than Theresa
e. If Theresa if 12, who is the oldest person above? How old is that person?

To calculate the volume of any prism or cylinder, you multiply the area of the base by the
height. How would you calculate the volume of a Pyramid or Cone?

20
The Pyramid of Cheops is near Cairo, Egypt. It was built about 2600 B.C. It is a square
pyramid. Each side of the square base is 756 feet long. Its height is 449.5 feet. The
A. Calculate the volume of this pyramid. [Show your work.]
B. What is the average volume of one limestone block? [Show and Explain how

You have 12 white tiles. If you add some black tiles so that the ratio of white tiles to
black tiles is 1 to 3, how many black tiles will you need? How many tiles will you have in

You have 15 white tiles. If you add some black tiles so that 3 out of 4 tiles are white,
how many black tiles will you need? How many tiles will you have in all? Show and

You have a total of 24 tiles. Five out of 8 tiles are black. How many black tiles do you

Draw 12 shaded tiles. Then draw some unshaded tiles so that 3 out of 5 tiles are shaded.

5/7 of a set contains 22522 objects. How many objects are in the whole set? Show and

4/9 of a set contains 36 objects. How many objects are in the whole set? Show and

111/12 of a set contains 88 objects. How many objects are in the whole set? Show and

If 15 marbles are 3/5 of the marbles in a bag, how many marbles are in the bag? Show

If 14 pennies are 7% of a pile of pennies, how many pennies are in the pile? [Show and

75 students are absent today. This is 10% of the students enrolled at the school. How
many students are enrolled at the school? Show and explain how you got your answer.

Jane paid \$90 for a new radio. It was on sale for ¾ of the regular price. What is    the

Unit 12

21
2. If Mica starts reading a 230-page book at 3:30 P.M., and she reads straight through the
book (without stopping), about what time will Mica finish the book? [Show and Explain

Tryee and Jake built a tower of centimeter cubes. The bottom floor of tower is
rectangular. It is 5 cubes wide and 10 cubes long. The completed tower is the shape of a
rectangular prism. They began building at 2 P.M. They built for about 1 hour. They used
approximately 200 cubes every 10 minutes. How tall was the final tower? Show and

The students in Mrs. Dillard’s class took a survey of their favorite colors. Complete the
table. Then make a circle graph of the data.
Favorite Color       Number of         Percent of
Students          Class
Red                  6
Blue                 10
Orange               4
Yellow               2
Purple               3
Total

It rained 2 out of 4 days in the month of April. On how many days did it rain that month?

For every 4 times John was at bat, he got 1 hit. If he got 7 hits, how many times did he

There are 20 students in Mrs. Kahlid’s fifth-grade class. Two out of 8 students have no
brothers or sisters. How many students have no brothers or sisters? Show and explain

Rema eats 2 eggs twice a week. How many eggs will she eat in the month of February?
How many weeks will it take her to eat 32 eggs? Show and explain how you got your

David took a survey of people’s favorite flavors of ice cream. Of the people he surveyed,
2 out of 5 said that they like fudge swirl best. 1 out of 8 chose vanilla, 3 out of 10 chose
maple walnut, and the rest chose another flavor.
a. If 16 people said that fudge swirl is their favorite flavor, how many people took part in
David’s survey?
b. If 80 people participated in David’s survey, how many preferred a flavor that is not
fudge swirl, vanilla, or maple walnut?

Draw 20 tiles so that 2 out of 10 tiles are white and the rest are shaded.
a. How many tiles are white?

22
Of the 42 animals in the Children’s Zoo, 3 out of 7 are mammals. How many mammals
are there in the Children’s Zoo? Show and explain how you got your answer.

Five out of 8 students at Kenwood School plan an instrument. There are 224 students at
the school. How many students play an instrument? Show and explain how you got your

Mr. Lopez sells subscriptions to a magazine. Each subscription costs \$18. For each
subscription he sells, he earns \$8. One week, he sold \$198 worth of subscriptions. How
much did he earn? Show and explain how you got your answer.

There are 48 students in the fifth grade a Roberts’s school. Three out of 8 fifth graders
read two books last month. One out of 3 students read just one book. The rest of the

Mrs. Porter’s students took a survey of their favorite movie snacks. Complete the table.
Then make a circle graph of the data.

Favorite Snack       Number of Students           Percent of Class
Popcorn              11
Chocolate            5
Soft drink           6
Fruit chews          2
Candy with nuts      1
Total

Of the 115 students in the sixth grade, 2 out of 5 belong to the Drama Club. How many
students are members of the Drama Club? Show and explain how you got your answer.

Three out of 4 student at Highland School ordered a hot lunch today. There re 150
students at the school. How many students ordered a hot lunch? Show and explain how

Gina and the other members of her troop sell cookies for \$3 a box. For each box they sell,
the troop earns \$1.50. One week, Gina’s troop sold \$90 worth of cookies. How much
did the troop earn? Show and explain how you got your answer.

Challenge 30% of the tickets sold by a movie theater for the Friday night show were
children’s tickets t \$4 each. The rest of the tickets were sold at the full price of \$8.50.
The movie theater collected \$252 for the children’s tickets. How many tickets did they

23
It would take 27,000 spiders, each spinning a single web, to produce a pound of spider
web.
Number of       27,000         54,000
spiders
Pounds of       1              2              3               4             5
Spider Web
At this rate, how many spiders, each spinning a single web, would be needed to produce
10 pounds of spider web? Show and explain how you got your answer.

The deer botfly flies so fast that it is almost invisible to the human eye. In 1 minute it can
travel 13 miles.
Miles           13
Minutes         1                2                3                4             5
At this rate, how far could a deer botfly travel in 1 hour?

To celebrate her birthday, Ms.Hahn decided to give each of the fifth graders one strand of
her favorite kid of licorice whip. There are 179 fifth graders. The whips come 15 strands
to a package at a cost of \$1.19 per package. Show and explain how you got your answer.
a. How many packages of licorice whips does Ms. Hahn need to buy?
b. How much will she spend?

In the Malagasay Indian tribes, it is against the law for a son to be taller than his father.
If a son is taller, he must give his father money or an ox. Suppose a father is 5 feet 10 ½
inches tall and his son is 5 feet 6 ¾ inches tall. How many more inches can the son grow
before he is as tall as his father? Show and explain how you got your answer.

In the state of Indiana, it is illegal to travel on a bus within 4 hours of eating garlic. If
you lived in Indiana and had eaten a bowl of pasta with garlic bread 2 1/3 hours ago, how
many more hours would you need to wait before you could legally travel on a bus? Show

In Idaho, it is against the law to give a person a box of candy that weighs more than 50
pounds. It is Valentines Day, and you give your mother a box of candy that weighs 48 ¼
pound. How much more could the box weigh without breaking the law? Show and

The body of an average jelly fish is about 9/10 water. What fraction of the jellyfish is not

The world record for a jump by a frog is 19 feet 3 1/8 inches. How much farther would a
frog need to jump to set a new world record of 7 yards? Show and explain how you got

The maximum length for a typical king cobra is about 5 4/5 meters. If 6 of these snakes
were lined up end to end, how far would they stretch? Show and explain how you got

24
An average trumpeter swan weighs about 16 4/5 kilograms. What is the approximate
weight of 3 average trumpeter swans? Show and explain how you got your answer.

Cherie lives on a chicken farm. Every morning she collects the eggs from the hen house.
She collected 162 eggs on Monday, l04 eggs on Tuesday, and 157 eggs on Wednesday.
She packed them into cartons, each containing 12 eggs. How many egg cartons can she

25

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