Illegal Immigration

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					Illegal Immigration
Why do we need illegal
   To do the jobs Americans don’t want to do

   To work for wages American’s won’t accept

   To replace workers since we have low rates of
    fertility and a rapidly aging population

   Many illegal immigrants pay taxes and pay for
    services that we offer
Why do illegal immigrants
          need smugglers?
     Smugglers know the terrain

     Smugglers have contacts

     The U.S. is making it physically more difficult to get
      into the country

     Illegal immigrants don’t have enough money to
      migrate legally and safely
         Legal Immigration
   Family based immigration
       Immediate Relatives
         1. Spouse if married 2 years
             Have to prove it is a “real” marriage
                 Sample love letters, etc.

          2.Child, if 1 parent is a citizen

          3. Parents, if a child is a citizen
Non-Immediate Relatives
      Family Preference system
          1. Unmarried adult sons and daughters of citizens.

          2.Spouses and children of green card holders

          3. Married sons and daughters of citizens

          4. Sisters and brothers of adult citizens

          Limited to 226,000 visas annually
            Employment Based
   Extraordinary ability in sciences, arts, education,
    business or athletics

   Advanced degrees that will help U.S. economy

   Workers who will do jobs that U.S. citizens can’t be
    found for.

   Former U.S. Embassy employees from other countries

   People who want to invest money

   Generally this is too complicated for smugglers
    to get involved
              Temporary Visas
   Temporary visitor for business

   Tourist

   Foreign Student

   Special Occupation

   Trainee

   Exchange Scholar

   Intra-company transferee
Think Like a Smuggler
    Based on all these ways to migrate legally
     into the U.S., what strategies might
     smugglers employ to get illegals in?
Counterfeit Documents
    What documents might illegal migrants need?

        Passport
        Driver’s License
        Social Security Card
        College transcript
        Vocational Certificate
        Visa
        Birth Certificate
        Acquiring Counterfeit
       Steal passports
       Get expired passports from the black market and renew
        with pictures similar to the former holder
       Get passports from countries that don’t require a visa to
        enter the U.S. (e.g. Japan)
       Use a dead person’s identity. Take a photo i.d. and ask
        for a copy of “your” birth certificate using the dead
        person’s identity. Use birth certificate to get passport.
       Buy a child’s identity and order passport.
   Making fake passports
       Thailand = country #1
       Easiest to counterfeit passports from Spain, France,
        Belgium, Portugal
       Substitute photograph.
           Increasingly difficult because of holograms on
           Hard to remove laminate
Getting a Social Security
      Make counterfeit cards

      Rent a social security number
          An immigrant returns to his/her homeland but wants to
           receive Social Security benefits. This requires at least 10
           years of employment.
          Illegal immigrant rents the card and uses the number

          What’s it like in a document shop?
Entering Through Illegal
      America’s Borders:
          5000 miles with Canada
          2000 miles with Mexico
          93,000 miles of shoreline
                         Land Borders

   To get to the border
       Walking miles
       Hitchhiking or riding on train roofs
       Staying in little border towns, sometimes in captivity
       Women have special problems of rape and assault
       Swimming the Rio Grande (from New Mexico to the
        Gulf of Mexico)
   Once over the border
       Walking through the desert
       Extreme temperatures and few supplies
       Blisters and other injuries
       Since 1995 there have been 3500 deaths on the U.S. side
       Hiding out from Border Patrol or Minutemen
       Getting caught and returned to Mexico
            Smuggling By Sea
   Significant financial planning by smugglers
       Need ship, captain, navigator etc.
       Lots of food and water for journey

   Involves large groups of immigrants at once
       Because of needed numbers, migrants not adequately screened
       If migrant can’t pay, result often is violence

   Transport in cargo containers
       Dangerous because of lack of air
       Containers are stacked high and sometimes human cargo is in the
        middle of the stack.
       Put into container food, water, car battery, lights, porta-potty,
        mattresses, cell phones.
              Smuggling by Air
   Find a bona fide reason to come to the U.S
       Business delegation or conference
         Have to train the migrants all about topic to be able to speak
           intelligently at border

   A corrupt border official who is paid off
       Illegals always sent through his line

   Document swapping

   Immigrant allows himself to get caught and then pleads for
    asylum, claiming persecution in his country
Who are the Smugglers?
     Government Officials

     Law Enforcement officers

     Taxi drivers

     Street vendors

     Travel agents

     Immigration lawyers

     Waiters and waitresses
Why do they smuggle?
    Lucrative Business
        Typical fee to cross land border = $400 per person
        Increases to $3000 if involves transport to work city
        Significantly more expensive if immigrant has to go through many
         transit countries
        From Southern China, fees run between $65K and $70K per person

    Seen as heroes to the nationals of their country

    Limited punishment…up to 10 years as long as none of the
     clients dies

    Entrepreneurial
        Not a part of organized crime
        Easy to set up the business, but it’s not an easy business to do.