DR_M.ARUMUGAM_ICORE 2010.ppt by wulinqing


									Renewable Biofuel from Microalgae:
     Potential and Prospects

              Dr. M. Arumugam
    Defence Institute of Bio-Energy Research
           Field station, Pithoragarh
Global oil production scenario

                             Source: ASPO 2006

OPEC countries in domination from 2008
India Energy situation
Energy Status: Indian Scenario

                      (Khan et al., 2009)
    Sector wise energy production and
           consumption: India

Out of the total Oil 70 % is being imported:
     Dependence of OPEC countries
If the governments around the world stick to
current policies, the world will need almost 60%
more energy in 2030 than today

At the present staggering rates of consumption,
the world fossil oil reserve will be exhausted in
less than 45 years (IEA, 2007).

   What is an alternative?

       Renewable Energy
Renewable Energy Sources:

Geothermal, Solar Energy, Hydropower, Wind, Waves & Tides


 Renewable energy obtained from various forms of Biomass
National Policy on Biofuel (8th September 2008) was set up to
look exclusively into issues pertaining to biodiesel and the
development of Jatropha curcas as feedstock for biodiesel

Blending target of Ethanol (10%) and Biodiesel (20%) with
petro-diesel were proposed by 2011-12.


 Jatropha curcas    Camelina sativa       Micro Algae
      Biodiesel from algae: Biological concepts

Algae is an photosynthetic microorganism converts solar energy to
fixed neutral lipids in the presence of CO2 and light.

                                              (Arumugam et al., 2010)

   Optimum Growth Condition
   Temp-25-30ºC, CO2: 1 to 2%; pH: 6.5-7.5 and light 1.2 Klux
The fatty acid and TAG biosynthesis

                    (Courchesne et al, 2009)
Potential of Microalgae

     Crop          Oil yield (L/ha)

     Corn                172

   Soybean               446

    Canola              1190

   Jatropha             1892

    Coconut             2689

    Oil palm            5950

Microalgae (30%)       58,700

Microalgae (70%)      136,900

                         (Chisti, 2007)
           Advantages over other feed stock
Synthesis and accumulate large quantities of neutral lipids (20 to 50 % of
Dry Cell Weight)

Multiply at higher rate (1-3 doubling time in a day)

Utilize nutrients from variety of waste water, provide an additional benefit
of waste water bioremediation

Sequester CO2     from flue gases, thereby reducing emission of major
green house gas

Algae biofuel      contains    no   sulfur,   is   non-toxic   and   highly

Produce as a value added by-products (Proteins, Polysaccrides,
pigments animal, feed, manure, Hydrogen and biopolymers)

Grow in suitable culture vessels (Photo-bioreactors) throughout the
year with an annual biomass productivity, on an area basis exceeding
that of terrestrial plants by approximately tenfold
      DIBER Initiatives in Second
          generation biofuel
(i) Collection, Screening of ideal algal strain

         Two algal strains exhibited more promising potential

                           Scenedesmus bijugatus (Turpin)
                           Oil percent: 16 to 40%
                           Biomass Yield (Dry weight): 450 kg/ha/day

               Chlorococcum humicolo (Naegeli)
 Oil percent: 14 to 22 %
 Biomass Yield (Dry weight): 210 kg/ha/day
                                                            (Arumugam et al., 2010)
         Mass culturing of selected algal strains

                               Plastic tray to optimize
                               culturing technique

Open race way pond at
DIBER, Fd stn, Pithoragarh
    (ii) Standardization growth medium for open pond

   Algal culturing in laboratory: synthetic growth medium such
   as modified CHU-13, BBM, BG11 etc

   However culturing algae in large scale is limited because of
   non-availability of appropriate affordable growth medium
                                                          Effect of nutrient on algal biomass grow th

                     Growth (OD 540 nm)

                                          1.000                                                              T2
                                          0.800                                                              T3
                                          0.600                                                              T4
                                          0.400                                                              T5

                                          0.200                                                              T7

                                                  Day 1   Day 3      Day 5       Day 8     Day 12 Day 15

T1: CHU13; T2: Tap Water (Control); T3: Urea@ 0.5% ; T4: Urea@ 0.1%
T5: 50 % FYM extract ; T6:100 % FYM extract ; T7: 50 % FYM extract +Urea@ 0.1%
                                                                                                           (Arumugam et al., 2010)
(iii) Algal Harvesting and Processing

  It accounts for 20-30% of total production cost

  Find out the economically viable harvesting method

                                Natural Sun drying of algal bio-mass
  Gravity settling
(v) Extraction of Algal oil

    Organic Solvent extraction
•          Polar Solvents
•          Non polar solvents

Proposed Methods:
       Mechanical extraction (algae Milling )
       Electroporation
       Supercritical CO2 fluid extraction
       Ultrasonic and micro waves
       Oil extraction using Organic solvent

Principle: Polar Organic solvents will dissolve
all the total lipids/fats present in the cell.

Organic Solvent: n-Hexane and Petroleum ether

 Extraction method: Soxhlet Apparatus


 Heating at 65ºC for 6-8 hrs

 Fixed oil collected after evaporating the
  residual solvents using Rota-vapor
      Algal Oil recovery

Oil content was examined for
different strains and found an
        yield of 20-30%
(vi) Processing of Algal oil

Microalgal oil contains fatty acid and triglycerid compounds can
be converted in to Methyl esters (i.e., Biodiesel) using
conventional transesterification technology.

           Bio-diesel Specifications (B-100)

                  • IS         : 15607
                  • ASTM       : 6751
                  • EN         : 14214
Technical bottlenecks….
    High Production cost

      Algal cell harvesting and drying

          Oil extraction and processing

               An ideal algal strain

                 Suitable culturing infrastructure
              Biodiesel: For a better future
"The term Peak Oil refers to the maximum rate of the production of
oil in any area under consideration, recognising that it is a finite
natural resource, subject to depletion."
                                            -Colin Campbell

“The use of vegetable oils for engine fuels may seem insignificant
today. But such oils may become, in the course of time, as
important as the petroleum and coal tar products of the present
                                           -Rudolf Diesel, 1912.
Dr. Zakwan Ahmed, Director, DIBER
Shri. M. C. Arya
Dr. M. Arif
Dr. Ankur Agarwal

                   Dr. W. Selvamurthy
                     DS and CC R&D (LS)
                    DRDO Bhawan, Newdelhi

                                 Thank you all…

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