ACN 008 165062
17 Lindsay Road LONSDALE SA 5160                                                     Telephone 08 8387 7779
PO Box 540 BRIGHTON SA 5048                                                                Fax 08 8387 8887





                      PART 1                          PERFORMANCE
                      PART 2                         ORAL / WRITTEN

                                            May 1994

          Plant Operator Training and Assessments on Earthmoving Equipment and Forklifts.

          Driver Training and Assessments on Cars, Trucks, Semi Trailers and 4 Wheel Drives;
National Guidelines for OHS Competency Standards

             Loadshifting Equipment

            Front -end Loader/Backhoe

          Performance Assessment

                   May 1994
Performance Criteria 1.1.1 and 1.1.2                PLAN WORK AND CHECK
1. Conducts routine checks on
                                                    Performance Criteria 1.2.1, 1.2.3 and

  vehicle/ equipment:
       Tyre condition and inflation
  Checks liquid levels -                            2. Inspects site and plans work:

  •    fuel

                                                        Identifies hazards -
       hydraulic oil                                    •    power lines

  •    engine oil                                       •    phone lines

  •    battery                                          •    service drains

  •    coolant                                          •    obstructions

                                                       Access and path of movement is

  Checks structure for defects -
                                                       indicated -
       damaged or broken parts

                                                            to work area
       loose nuts, bolts and
       couplings                                       •     for loads

  Checks attachments for defects -

                                                       Fits appropriate equipment -
                                                       •     suitable tools used

  •    bucket for missing, worn or
       loose teeth
                                                       •    secures catches

                                                            correct procedure adopted
       hoses, fittings, hydraulic
       rams for oil leaks                              •    works safely

      connections for missing pins
       or keepers                                   Performance Criteria 1.3.1.

  •   grease holes and grease pins                  3. Conducts pre-operational and post startup
                                                        checks in accordance with manufacturer's
  Checks other equipment for defects -                  specifications/ operating manual.
  • wire slings                                        •    mounts correctly

  •    chain slings

  •                                                    •    adjusts seat


                                                            in neutral

       other gear
                                                            warning device
       Checks attachments for
       security                                             engine start

 Front-end Loader/Backhoe-Performance    May 1994                                             4
   ••    gauges                                          ••    tackles task in logical

   ••    warm-up allowed                                 ••    uses sufficient revs for work

   ••    attachment movement                             ••    uses correct bucket angle

   ••    clear for travel                                ••   crowds sufficiently to fill
   ••    foot brake
                                                         ••   deposits full buckets of soil
   ••    holding brake
                                                             deposits soil away from
   ••    steering                                             trench

                                                        ••    keeps persons out of
SHIFT LOAD:                                                   operating radius

Performance criteria 2.1.1 &                            •• cuts trench to specifications
4. Drives to the work area -                            •• demonstrates digging around a pipe
   •• raises attachments smoothly

   ••   secures backhoe bucket
                                                     Performance Criteria 2.1.2
   ••   ensures travel direction clear
                                                     6. Operates front-end loader/backhoe as a
   ••   selects appropriate route                       crane -
                                                        •• checks sling attachment point
   ••   travels at safe speed
                                                              establishes weight of load
5. Sets up backhoe and excavates -
   •• positions backhoe                                       load not more than SWL for
         competently                                          the operation

   ••   applies brake                                         selects appropriate slings and gear

   ••   lowers bucket
                                                              raises bucket to connect load
        secures and mounts backhoe
        seat                                                  supervIses correct slinging of
                                                              the load
        checks controls
                                                              ensures tag line connected (if required)
        lowers stabilisers (lowest side
                                                              trial lifts load
        back wheels off ground
                                                              moves load to hand signals
        smoothly operates controls
                                                        ••    moves load safely

  F rant-end Loader/Backhoe-Performance   May 1994                                                  5
        lowers load to
         designated location
                                                            9. Picks up and shifts material in the
                                                               •    picks up material

7. Backfills trench and loads truck -                                    shifts material in
      bucket at correct level and                                        bucket

   •     uses sufficient revs and speed

                                                            Performance criteria 2.1.1, 2.1.4,
         avoids excessive wheel spin                        2.1.5 and 2.1.6

   •     crowds bucket to fill
                                                            General performance of sections 4, 5, 6,

                                                            7, 8 and 9
         ensures direction of travel
        clear                                                           equipment suitable for the

         travels with bucket low

                                                                         machine suitable for ground
         acceptable and safe speed                                       conditions


         minimises spillage and                                    •     competently shifts material
         ground damage
                                                                         equipment operated at a safe
         uses appropriate path of                                        speed
                                                                         signals are interpreted and
         approaches trench or truck                                      observed                          . .
                                                                  • loads placed to ensure stability

    •    smoothly raises and dumps
                                                                        loads placed to avoid causing hazard

    •   repositions bucket ready for

                                                            SHUT DOWN EQUIPMENT AND
        maintains stockpile and                             SECURE SITE:
        working surface
                                                            Performance criteria 3.1.1, 3.1.2
8. Consolidates and levels surface -                        and 3.2.1

   •    consolidates fill with loader

                                                            10.        Shuts down equipment and secures
        levels surface with bucket                                     site:

                                                                  Parks equipment -
        leaves excess fill for natural                               machine parked in suitable area

   •    maintains level surface to work
                                                                  (I     attachments lowered to ground

  F font-end Loader/Backhoe- Performance         May 1994                                                 6
        cutting edge of bucket
         on ground

 Shuts down equipment -
 •    neutralises controls

 •       applies holding brake

 •       idles to stop, locks ignition

        moves controls to release

        applies safety lock (where

 A voids hazards:
     parks away from danger                         .

      areas                                          .

           removes keys                              .

           locks cabin (if applicable)

Front-end Loader/Backhoe-Performance           May 1994   7
CONDUCT ROUTINE CHECKS:                                    10.    What shall be provided on a frontend
                                                                  loader/backhoe before it is used as a
Performance criteria 1.1.1                                        crane?
                                                                  Special provision to attach the slings
                                                                  to and the SWL marked on the
 1. What precaution must be taken when                           equipment.
    inspecting under a raised attachment?
    Provision provided to prevent attachment
    descending.                                            PLAN WORK:

2. Name three defects to look for in the                   Performance criteria 1.2.1
   hydraulic system.
    Oil leaks, loose connections, splits,                  11.    In built-up areas what checks should
  fractures or bulges in hoses.                                   be made before excavating?
                                                                 Check for power, telephone, gas or
3. When should slings be inspected?                              drainage lines.
   Prior to their use. (AS1666)
                                                           12.    What would you refer to in order to
4. What % wear in a shackle would cause it                        establish the location of underground
   to be discarded?                                               services?
   10% wear.                                                      Supply authority or council maps.

5. Briefly describe how you would check
    the air pressure of water filled tyres.                13.    Name two methods that you would
    Check with the valve at the top of the                        use to prevent a cave in of a trench or
   wheel.                                                         excavation?
                                                                 Shoring, battering or
6. What safety precautions should be taken                        benching.
   to inflate split rim wheels?
   Do not stand in front of the wheel                      14.   If you accidentally damaged an
   and inflate tyre in a cage if available.                      underground electrical cable who
                                                                 would you immediately contact to
                                                                 render the power supply safe?
7. Is it permissible to join a chain sling                       The electrical supply authority.
   with a bolt?
                                                           Performance criteria 1.2.2
8. What % of broken wires within a lay or in
    eight diameters of a wire rope sing would
    cause it to be discarded?                              15     What shall be provided to prevent a
   10% of the wires.                                       .     person falling into a trench?
                                                                 Barricades or guardrails or                        .
                                                                 fencing .                                          .

Performance criteria 1.1.2                                                                                          .

                                                           16    When should ear protection be worn?                .

9. What must be done to a lowered                          .     Where the noise could contribute to the
   backhoe bucket before travelling?                             loss of hearing.                       .........

   Raise the bucket and secure it.
                                                           17    What is the danger of loading a truck
                                                           .     across a sloping surface?
                                                                 The loader could overturn.

   Front-end Loader/Backhoe-OralfWritten        May 1994                                             11
18.         When should an operator wear a safety                Performance criteria 1.2.5
            Where the person could be struck on                 25 what attachment would you use to break up
           the head.                                               reinforced concrete? Hydraulic hammer
19.        In doubtful soil, what depth trench is
           required to be shored before it is                   26 when a front-end loader/backhoe is used
           entered?                                                in a demolition process what shall be
           Trenches over 1.5m deep.                                provided to the machine to protect the
20.         What is the minimum type of                                An overhead protective
            footwear that an operator should                           structure. (AS 2601)
            wear to operate load shifting
            Non-slip footwear that encloses the                 CHECK CONTROLS AND
           foot.                                                EQUIPMENT:

                                                                Performance Criteria 1.3.1
Performance criteria 1.2.3
                                                                27.     What action would you take if you
21.        Which is the preferred route of travel,                      noticed a bulge form in a hydraulic
           diagonally across or directly down                           hose?
           sloping surface?                                             Replace the hose before the machine
           Directly down the sloping suiface.                          is used.

                                                                28.   When should tests, checks and
22         what gear should be selected to travel                     inspections be made by the operator on
           down a steep sloping surface? A low                        the front-end loader/backhoe that is to
           gear. The gear required to climb the                       be operated?
           sloping surface.                                           Daily before use.

Performance criteria 1.2.4                                      Performance criteria 1.3.2

23.        What would you be required to obtain                 29.    What action would you take with
           from the Relevant Authority to                              damage and defects found on the
           operate a machine in a hazardous                            machine?
           working area?                                               Report the damage and defects to
           The required pennits.                                       authorised person and ensure safety
                                                                      is not jeopardised.
24.        What Government licence do you
           require to drive a front-end
           loader/backhoe over 4.5 tonnes on a                  SHIFT LOAD:
           public road?
           The appropriate heavy vehicle                        Performance criteria 2.1.1
                                                                30.    Is it permissible to hoist persons with
                                                                       the bucket of a front-end

      Front-end Loader/Backhoe-Oral/Written          May 1994                                              12
31.         Is it permissible to attach slings to              Performance criteria 2.1.5
            the teeth of the bucket?
            No.                                                 40.    Applicant to state the meaning of the
                                                                       hand signal for "hoisting lower"
                                                                       demonstrated by the assessor.
Performance criteria 2.1.2                                             Hoisting lower.

32         What effect would sloping ground                    41.    Applicant to state the meaning of the
.          have on the load that you would hoist                      hand signal for "hoisting raise"
           and carry with the front-end                               demonstrated by the assessor.
           loader/backhoe?                                            Hoisting raise.
           It would reduce the load that could
           be safely carried.                                  42.     Applicant to state the meaning of the
                                                                       hand signal of "stop" demonstrated by the
33.        What is the approximate weight of                           assessor.
           cubic metre of concrete?                                    Stop.
           2.4 tonnes.
                                                               Performance criteria 2.1.7
34.        What is the approximate SWL of a
           12mm diameter wire rope?
                                                               43.    What action would you take if a
           12 x 12 x 8 = 1152kg.
                                                                      hydraulic hose sprung a leak while the
                                                                      bucket was raised?
35.        Of topsoil or clay which is more
                                                                      Lower bucket and have repairs
           cohesive and harder to excavate,
           push and spread?                                           carried out.
                                                               44.     If the machine contacted a live
                                                                       power line which could not be
36.        What effect does a choker hitch
                                                                       released or the power turned off,
           around a square load have on the
                                                                       how would you dismount the
           SWL for the sling?
           Reduces the SWL by 50%.
                                                                       Jump clear ensuring contact with the
                                                                       ground and machine is not at the
37.        State the rule of thumb formula to
                                                                      same time.
           calculate the SWL of wire rope.
           Diameter in mm squared x 8 = SWL
                                                               45.     If the slings shifted on a load being
          in kgs.                                                      hoisted, what action would you take?
                                                                       Stop the crane, warn people in the area,
                                                                       then carefully lower the load and have
Performance criteria 2.1.3
                                                                       the slings re-positioned
                                                                      and secured.
38.        Before reversing the machine what
           precaution should be taken? Ensure
           the direction of travel is clear.                   SHUT DOWN EQUIPMENT:
                                                               Performance criteria 3.1.1
39.        What is the added danger when a                     46.    Name three areas where you would not
           trench is under cut?
                                                                      park the front -end loader/backhoe.
           The trench is more likely to cave in.
                                                                      Access ways, near overhangs, refuelling
                                                                      sites, tidal or flood areas, adjacent to an

      Front-end Loader/Backhoe-OrallWritten         May 1994                                               13
47     When leaving the loadshifting
equipment what should be done with all
hydraulically raised attachments? Attachments
lowered and pressure removed from hydraulic

Performance criteria 3.1.3

48.       What post-operational checks should
          be carried out by the operator on the
          front-end loader/backhoe to prepare it
          ready to be reoperated?
          Check the structure and equipment for
         defects and wear and the oil, fuel and
         water levels.


Performance criteria 3.2.1

      49 Wat shall be provided when a frontend
         loader/backhoe has to be parked on or
         protrudes onto an access way?
         Barricades, lights and signs.

      50 For what reason should the key be
         removed from the ignition of the
         To prevent unauthorised movement.

51.      Before leaving the site what must be
         provided to restrict access to the site?
        Barricades or fences.

  Front-end Loader/Backhoe-Oral/Written             May 1994   1
                                                                             Assessment summary

   Unit      Form of                                         Total              Number of        Number of              Were all           Assessment
             assessment                                    number of            boxes given         boxes            critical boxes         standard
                                                          boxes in the             or NA         req uired to         given or            requirements
                                                          assessment                                 meet                 NA?              achieved '"
             Performance                                            40                               36              Yes       No         Yes      No

     1       Knowledge                                                  15                           10              Yes       No         Yes      No

                                      Assessment completed within time allowed                                                            Yes      No    NA I

             Performance                                            59                               54              Yes       No         Yes      No

     2       Knowledge                                                  8                            5               Yes       No         Yes      No

                                      Assessment completed within time allowed                                                            Yes      No    NA I

             Performance                                                11                           9               Yes       No         Yes      No

    3        Knowledge                                                  3                            2               Yes       No         Yes      No

                                      Assessment completed within time allowed                                                            Yes      No    NA I

* Performance standard                                Number of items required to meet standard (including aU critical boxes) Number of
    Knowledge standard                                questions required to meet standard (including aU critical boxes)

Candidate is:                                                           COMPETENT                         Date:         ...............
(circle the result obtained)
                                              •                         NOT YET COMPETENT

Name of                                                                                       Name of
assessor          . .... .."                                                                  candidate         ...................
Signature             •   •   •   •   •   •       •   0    ••••••••••
                                                                                              Signature         ...................

Comments/feed back
(assessors to make any additional comments which clarify the assessment)

Front-end Loader /Backhoe-Oral/W ritten                                             May 1994                                                         1

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