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The Cognitive Perspective: Memory QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Un compressed) decompressor are neede d to se e this picture. Write down you three clearest memories What is memory? • Memory is what reminds you on Friday what you should have done on the previous Monday!! What is memory The more I study, The more I lecture, The more I know; The more you know; The more I know, The more you know, The more I forget; The more you forget; The more I forget, The more you forget, The less I know, The less you know, So why study? So why should I lecture? A little experiment • Remember the following words • BEE • TREE • SEE • GLEE • PEA • KEY Read these, no need to remember • SHE • THREE • KNEE • TEA • FREE • PLEA RECALL THE WORDS ON THE FIRST LIST What about • SHE • THREE • KNEE • TEA • FREE • PLEA Are replaced by • ESKIMO • VIOLIN • BUFFALO • PENCIL • TELEPHONE • WINTER Short-term Memory • acoustic code • rehearsal • serial exhaustive retrieval • forgetting is due to interference (replacement) or decay Short-term Memory • Storage: – limited storage : 7± 2 items, chunking Working Memory What you can articulate in 2.5s Pioneers in memory • James (1890) • First US psychologist • Wrote the monumental Principles in Psychology PRIMARY MEMORY • Immediate, present effortless • SECONDARY MEMORY • Unconscious - permanent • Genuine Past • Requires effort Pioneers in memory Hermann Ebbinghaus 1885 • Nonsense syllables • Clusters of three letters: • KED, MOZ • Read list, covered it, recited • Repeat • Discovered he gradually improved • Flaws of design? Pioneers in memory Hermann Ebbinghaus 1885 • Associationist • Short term and long term memory The modal model of memory Sensory Rehearsal Store Short Long Sensory Term Term Store Store Store Transfer Sensory Store Displacement (Forgetting) But what is the evidence for separate STS / LTS? Evidence for STS / LTS distinction Converging evidence appeared to support the STS / LTS distinction as proposed by the modal model: • Capacity differences - STS = limited / LTS = unlimited • Encoding differences - STS = phonological / LTS = semantic • Serial Position Curves - STS = Recency / LTS = Primacy + Asym • Forgetting - STS = trace decay / LTS = interference • Neuropsych Evidence - HM = intact STS, impaired LTS KF = intact LTS, impaired STS BUT - psychology is never simple... Case studies • HM • KF • Milner (1996) • Shallice an • Epileptic Warrington (1970) • Antergrade amenesia • Motorcycle accident • Reread newspaper • STM impaired • Time for 15 seconds • LTM good--even • Memento after the accident Problems for STS / LTS distinction • Encoding differences - How do we comprehend text / learn language / remember faces? • SPCs - Recency effects after 20sec distraction following each item (Tzeng, 1973). Long term recency (Baddeley & Hitch, 1977) constant ratio rule (t / T) (Glenberg et al, 1980). • Forgetting - Interference effects in STS (e.g. Release from Proactive Interference - RPI) • NP Evidence - Why is HM able to encode information in LTS if the STS is a critical bottleneck? The modal model provided the first systematic attempt to account for the structures and processes which comprise the memory system But by the end of the 1960s there were several well established findings that it was unable to account for. Magic number 7 • 7 Plus or minus 2 • Brown and Peterson • George Miller (1956) technique (1959) • STM can hold • Three letter in a between 5 and 9 Trigram chunks of items • Count back ward in threes from 176 aloud Study the letters Count Backwards by three aloud 176 Study the letters Count Backwards by three aloud 176 Comparing memory SM STM LTM Capacity Small 7+/-2 Unlimited Duration .25 - 2 Up to 30 Indefinite seconds Encoding Modality Mainly Semantic/ specific acoustic visual/ acoustic Sensory Processing • Short-term sensory memory – iconic, echoic, and kinesthetic memory – Sperling’s experiment Sperling’s (1960) study of sensory memory Whole report procedure • Pay attention to the following matrix N K J A F Z +P M T W U X Task • Try to recall as many letters as possible. Partial report • Report the letters in the row indicated by the arrow. B I M T V L +K C S D F H Independent variables • Delay between matrix and cue Sperling’s Experiment • whole report : 4-5 items • partial report : 9 items – delay cue : 0 ms - 9items 150 ms - 7 items 250 ms - 6 items 1000 ms - 4-5 items Short-term sensory memory (C’d) • preattentive: large capacity, parallel processing • veridical : much physical information of the stimulus is preserved • rapid decay QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are need ed to see this picture. • Write down as many as you can remember QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are need ed to see this picture. Story telling • Make up a story for each and every item • The sillier the better. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Un compressed) decompressor are neede d to see this picture. • Write down as many as you can remember QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Un compressed) decompressor are neede d to see this picture. Wander around the house • Put each item in a part of the house. • Imagine your house, from the moment you enter it. • Pick ten distinct places • Go progressively from one to the next. • Simonides QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Un compressed) decompressor are neede d to see this picture. • Write down as many as you can remember QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Un compressed) decompressor are neede d to see this picture. Serial position curve • Words near the begging and end of a list are better remembered Coding in STM • Activity 3 • Two lists • Two groups • Counterbalancing Write in order they appear (Conrad 1964) Tulving (1972) • Semantic memory • Episodic memory • Procedural memory Semantic Episodic Difference memory memory June 23, 2004 • Describe as much as you can remember that day September 11, 2001 • Describe as much as you can remember that day Flashbulb memory • Brown and Kulik (1977): • 1) Where they were • 2) what they were doing • 3) person who gave them the news • 4) How they felt about it • 5) how Others felt about it • 6) the aftermath Your three clearest memories • Rubin and Kozin (1984) • Injury • Love affairs • Emotionally explosive • How often rehersed • Was there surprise • Was it a national event? Perceptual Encoding A A A A A A Perceptual Encoding • detection, recognition (LTM), identification, or categorization • Mental representation Animal Four legs Fur Barks Wags tail Banyan Tree X X X X X Goldish ¦ X X X X Persian Cat ¦ ¦ ¦ X X German Shepherd ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ Dachshund ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ Mexican Hairless ¦ ¦ X ¦ ¦ Barking Deer ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ? Long-term memory • permanent • unlimited capacity • forgetting - due to retrieval failure • coded by meaning, hierarchy, semantic network, etc. Hypothetical network A semantic network Slide from Dr. Joe Lau Slide from Dr. Joe Lau How does science work? • Example of working memory Working Memory (Baddeley, 1975) Experiment 1 • Stimulus: Monosyllable & 5-syllable words (sum, hate vs. university, organization) • IVs: 1) Number of syllables (1 vs. 5) 2) Number of words per sequence (4,5,6,7,8) • Presentation: 1.5s/word, auditory • Result: more sequences of monosyllable words recalled. Working Memory (Baddeley, 1975) Experiment 6 • Stimulus: Words of with 1,2,3,4,5,6 syllables (zinc, carbon, calcium, uranium, aluminum) • Presentation: – 50 lists of 5 words, 2s/word – S read the words as quickly as possible • Result: Ss recall what they could read in 1.8s Working Memory • Articulatory loop for storage: capacity is what you can say in 2.5s, acoustic code • Central executive: for computation and decision making • Visuospatial pad: for storing and processing of nonverbal information.
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