Introduction to Cognitive Science Psychology by zhangyun

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									The Cognitive Perspective:
        Memory




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Write down you three clearest
         memories
          What is memory?

• Memory is what reminds you on Friday
  what you should have done on the
  previous Monday!!
             What is memory

The more I study,    The more I lecture,
The more I know;     The more you know;
The more I know,     The more you know,
The more I forget;   The more you forget;
The more I forget,   The more you forget,
The less I know,     The less you know,
So why study?        So why should I
                       lecture?
           A little experiment


• Remember the following words
• BEE   • TREE
• SEE   • GLEE
• PEA   • KEY
Read these, no need to remember

  • SHE          • THREE
  • KNEE         • TEA
  • FREE         • PLEA
RECALL THE WORDS ON THE FIRST LIST
                  What about

       • SHE             • THREE
       • KNEE            • TEA
       • FREE            • PLEA

Are replaced by

     • ESKIMO            • VIOLIN
     • BUFFALO           • PENCIL
     • TELEPHONE         • WINTER
           Short-term Memory

•   acoustic code
•   rehearsal
•   serial exhaustive retrieval
•   forgetting is due to interference
    (replacement) or decay
          Short-term Memory

• Storage:
 – limited storage : 7± 2 items, chunking


Working Memory
 What you can articulate in 2.5s
                Pioneers in memory

• James (1890)
• First US psychologist
• Wrote the monumental
  Principles in Psychology
     PRIMARY MEMORY
• Immediate, present
  effortless
• SECONDARY MEMORY
• Unconscious - permanent
• Genuine Past
• Requires effort
                 Pioneers in memory

Hermann Ebbinghaus 1885
• Nonsense syllables
• Clusters of three letters:
• KED, MOZ
• Read list, covered it, recited
• Repeat

• Discovered he gradually
  improved
• Flaws of design?
               Pioneers in memory

Hermann Ebbinghaus 1885
• Associationist
• Short term and long term
  memory
          The modal model of memory

Sensory
                             Rehearsal
 Store


                     Short                   Long
Sensory
                      Term                   Term
 Store
                     Store                   Store
                                  Transfer
Sensory
 Store             Displacement
                   (Forgetting)

  But what is the evidence for separate STS / LTS?
                 Evidence for STS / LTS distinction

Converging evidence appeared to support the STS / LTS
distinction as proposed by the modal model:

• Capacity differences - STS = limited / LTS = unlimited

• Encoding differences - STS = phonological / LTS = semantic

• Serial Position Curves - STS = Recency / LTS = Primacy + Asym

• Forgetting - STS = trace decay / LTS = interference

• Neuropsych Evidence -    HM = intact STS, impaired LTS
                           KF = intact LTS, impaired STS

BUT - psychology is never simple...
                Case studies

•   HM                    • KF
•   Milner (1996)         • Shallice an
•   Epileptic               Warrington (1970)
•   Antergrade amenesia   • Motorcycle accident
•   Reread newspaper      • STM impaired
•   Time for 15 seconds   • LTM good--even
•   Memento                 after the accident
                    Problems for STS / LTS distinction

• Encoding differences - How do we comprehend text / learn
language / remember faces?
• SPCs - Recency effects after 20sec distraction following each
item (Tzeng, 1973). Long term recency (Baddeley & Hitch, 1977)
         constant ratio rule (t / T) (Glenberg et al, 1980).
• Forgetting - Interference effects in STS (e.g. Release from
Proactive Interference - RPI)
• NP Evidence - Why is HM able to encode information in LTS if
the STS is a critical bottleneck?

   The modal model provided the first systematic attempt to account for the
       structures and processes which comprise the memory system
But by the end of the 1960s there were several well established findings that it
                          was unable to account for.
             Magic number 7

• 7 Plus or minus 2      • Brown and Peterson
• George Miller (1956)     technique (1959)
• STM can hold           • Three letter in a
  between 5 and 9          Trigram
  chunks of items        • Count back ward in
                           threes from 176
                           aloud
Study the letters
Count Backwards by three aloud


             176
Study the letters
Count Backwards by three aloud


             176
           Comparing memory

           SM         STM        LTM


Capacity   Small      7+/-2      Unlimited


Duration   .25 - 2    Up to 30   Indefinite
           seconds

Encoding   Modality   Mainly     Semantic/
           specific   acoustic   visual/
                                 acoustic
          Sensory Processing

• Short-term sensory memory
 – iconic, echoic, and kinesthetic memory
 – Sperling’s experiment
Sperling’s (1960) study of sensory memory
       Whole report procedure

• Pay attention to the following matrix
N   K   J   A

F   Z +P    M

T   W   U   X
                   Task

• Try to recall as many letters as possible.
             Partial report

• Report the letters in the row indicated
  by the arrow.
B   I   M   T

V   L +K    C

S   D   F   H
        Independent variables

• Delay between matrix and cue
         Sperling’s Experiment

• whole report : 4-5 items
• partial report : 9 items
  – delay cue :
            0 ms    - 9items
            150 ms - 7 items
            250 ms - 6 items
            1000 ms - 4-5 items
     Short-term sensory memory (C’d)

• preattentive: large capacity, parallel
  processing
• veridical : much physical information of the
  stimulus is preserved
• rapid decay
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• Write down as many as you can
  remember
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            Story telling

• Make up a story for each and every item
• The sillier the better.
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• Write down as many as you can
  remember
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      Wander around the house

• Put each item in a part of the house.
• Imagine your house, from the moment
  you enter it.
• Pick ten distinct places
• Go progressively from one to the next.

• Simonides
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• Write down as many as you can
  remember
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          Serial position curve

• Words near the
  begging and end of a
  list are better
  remembered
              Coding in STM

•   Activity 3
•   Two lists
•   Two groups
•   Counterbalancing
Write in order they appear
      (Conrad 1964)
            Tulving (1972)

• Semantic memory
• Episodic memory
• Procedural memory
Semantic   Episodic   Difference
memory     memory
            June 23, 2004

• Describe as much as you can remember
  that day
         September 11, 2001

• Describe as much as you can remember
  that day
            Flashbulb memory

•   Brown and Kulik (1977):
•   1) Where they were
•   2) what they were doing
•   3) person who gave them the news
•   4) How they felt about it
•   5) how Others felt about it
•   6) the aftermath
      Your three clearest memories

•   Rubin and Kozin (1984)
•   Injury
•   Love affairs
•   Emotionally explosive
•   How often rehersed
•   Was there surprise
•   Was it a national event?
    Perceptual Encoding



A   A   A   A   A   A
         Perceptual Encoding

• detection, recognition (LTM), identification,
  or categorization
• Mental representation
                 Animal   Four legs   Fur   Barks   Wags tail
  Banyan Tree      X         X         X      X       X
    Goldish        ¦         X         X      X       X
   Persian Cat     ¦         ¦         ¦      X       X
German Shepherd     ¦        ¦         ¦      ¦       ¦
   Dachshund       ¦         ¦         ¦      ¦       ¦
Mexican Hairless   ¦         ¦         X      ¦       ¦
  Barking Deer     ¦         ¦         ¦      ¦        ?
            Long-term memory

•   permanent
•   unlimited capacity
•   forgetting - due to retrieval failure
•   coded by meaning, hierarchy, semantic
    network, etc.
Hypothetical network
A semantic network
Slide from Dr. Joe Lau
Slide from Dr. Joe Lau
       How does science work?

• Example of working memory
          Working Memory               (Baddeley, 1975)



Experiment 1
• Stimulus: Monosyllable & 5-syllable words
    (sum, hate vs. university, organization)
•    IVs: 1) Number of syllables (1 vs. 5)
            2) Number of words per sequence (4,5,6,7,8)
•    Presentation: 1.5s/word, auditory
•    Result: more sequences of monosyllable words
     recalled.
           Working Memory                  (Baddeley, 1975)



Experiment 6
• Stimulus: Words of with 1,2,3,4,5,6 syllables
        (zinc, carbon, calcium, uranium, aluminum)
•       Presentation:
    –    50 lists of 5 words, 2s/word
    –    S read the words as quickly as possible
•       Result: Ss recall what they could read in 1.8s
            Working Memory

• Articulatory loop for storage: capacity
  is what you can say in 2.5s, acoustic code
• Central executive: for computation and
  decision making
• Visuospatial pad: for storing and
  processing of nonverbal information.

								
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