Hair Care Principles of Hair Design

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					PRINCIPLES OF HAIRSTYLING - WORKBOOK

Hairstyling & Aesthetics – TXJ3E – Ms. Navas
Rev: May 2011




Name: ________________________________________________
                                                                                  Principles of Hair Design TXJ3E

THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY BLANK




Adapted from Milady’s Standard Cosmetology textbook and various unknown sources                                Page 2
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Table of Contents
Philosophy of Design ..................................................................................................................................... 5

    Elements of Hair Design ............................................................................................................................ 5

FACIAL TYPES................................................................................................................................................. 7

    ROUND FACE ............................................................................................................................................. 8

    OVAL FACE ................................................................................................................................................ 8

    HEART FACE .............................................................................................................................................. 9

    SQUARE FACE ............................................................................................................................................ 9

    OBLONG FACE ......................................................................................................................................... 10

    Activity – Face Shapes ............................................................................................................................. 11

        Assignment: Face Shapes. .................................................................................................................. 12

The Art of Braiding ...................................................................................................................................... 16

    Activity: Braiding Board Project .............................................................................................................. 17

    Types of Braids ........................................................................................................................................ 18

        4 Strand Braid – Step by Step.............................................................................................................. 19

        Invisible French Braid – Step by Step .................................................................................................. 21

        Visible French Braid ............................................................................................................................ 22

        Rope Braid ........................................................................................................................................... 23

The Basics of Long Hair ............................................................................................................................... 28

    Wet or Dry? ............................................................................................................................................. 28

    Tools of the Trade ................................................................................................................................... 28

        Back-combing...................................................................................................................................... 28

    Bobby Pins vs Hairpins ............................................................................................................................ 29

ROLLER SETS ................................................................................................................................................ 30

    Parts of a roller curler: ............................................................................................................................ 30

    Roller Placement ..................................................................................................................................... 31

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    Assignment: History of the Pin Curl ........................................................................................................ 32

    Assignment: Design a Tool ...................................................................................................................... 32

    Safety: ..................................................................................................................................................... 34

    Activity: Wet Styling ................................................................................................................................ 35

Roller Set Design Techniques ...................................................................................................................... 39

    Roller Set #1 ............................................................................................................................................ 39

    Roller Set #2 ............................................................................................................................................ 39

    Roller Set #3 ............................................................................................................................................ 40

    Roller Set #4 ............................................................................................................................................ 40

    Roller Set #5 ............................................................................................................................................ 41

    Roller Set #6 ............................................................................................................................................ 41

    Roller Set #7 ............................................................................................................................................ 42

    Roller Set #8 ............................................................................................................................................ 42

    Roller Set #9 ............................................................................................................................................ 43

    Roller Set #10 .......................................................................................................................................... 43

        Activity: Rubric for Roller Set Design Techniques ............................................................................... 44

Activity: Client Consultation........................................................................................................................ 47

Activity: Wedding Hair Disaster .................................................................................................................. 48

Activity: You and Your Hair ......................................................................................................................... 50

REVIEW ..................................................................................................................................................... 57

    Word Bank for Review ......................................................................................................................... 59




Adapted from Milady’s Standard Cosmetology textbook and various unknown sources                                                                             Page 4
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Philosophy of Design
A good designer always sees the end result before beginning. At times, you may look back into the past
for inspiration.

Elements of Hair Design
Line defines form and space. The presence of one nearly always means that the other two are involved.
Lines create the shape, design and movement of a hairstyle. The eye follows the lines in a design. They
can be straight or curved. There are 4 basic types of lines.



      1. Horizontal lines create width in hair design. They extend in the same direction and maintain a
         constant distance apart – from the floor or horizon.

      2. Vertical lines create length and height in hair design. They make a hairstyle appear longer and
         narrower as the eye follows the lines up and down.

      3. Diagonal lines are positioned between horizontal and vertical lines. They are often used to
         emphasize or minimize facial features. Diagonal lines are also used to create interest in hair
         design.

      4. Curved lines soften a design. They can be large or small, a full circle or just part of a circle.

____________________________________________________________

FORM—should be in proportion to the shape of the head and face, and
the length and width of neck and shoulder




SPACE—is the area the style occupies; three dimensional as well as
having length, width, and depth




Adapted from Milady’s Standard Cosmetology textbook and various unknown sources                                Page 5
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LINE—creates form, design, and movement




                              CURVED LINES

                                          Soften a design

                                          Are circular in shape

                                          Can be placed horizontally, vertically, or diagonally



PROPORTION

            Relationships between objects relative to their size should be harmonious.

            Analogy: 60” TV in a small room or a 13” TV in a large room is out of
             proportion.

            Hairstyles can be designed to correct out-of-proportion face shapes.

BODY PROPORTION

            Hair and body proportion must be compatible.

            A large hairstyle balances a large body structure.

            Hair should never be wider than the center of the shoulders.

SYMMETRICAL BALANCE

            Design is similar on both sides of the face.

            Same length

            Same volume

            Same distance from the center of the face




Adapted from Milady’s Standard Cosmetology textbook and various unknown sources                                Page 6
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FACIAL TYPES
                                                            The face is divided into three zones:

                                                                    o     Forehead to eyebrow

                                                                    o     Eyebrows to end of nose

                                                                    o     End of nose to bottom of chin




       There are 5 basic face shapes that we will cover: oval, round, square, heart and oblong.




       Most of us have combinations of these face shapes.




FACIAL SHAPE                         FACIAL CONTOUR                                           STYLING AIM

Round                                round hairline and round chin; wide face                 to create the illusion of length in the
                                                                                              face

Heart                                wide forehead and narrow chin                            the decrease the width of the
                                                                                              forehead and increase the width of
                                                                                              the lower part of face

Square                               straight hairline and square jaw line;                   to create the illusion of length; offset
                                     wide face                                                the square features

Oblong                               long; narrow face with hollow cheeks                     to make face appear shorter and
                                                                                              wider




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                                 ROUND FACE
                                 A round face is as wide as it is long with rounded edges including chin area. A round
                                 face could be very flattering and can be accentuated with a bowl like hair cut. The
                                 nose is the center guide. In trying to maintain the appearance of an oval face shape,
                                 hair for round face shapes should be kept close to the sides of the face. Hairstyles
should add height on
top of the head. If you
want your face to
appear slimmer, make
sure hair is showing
below the chin. One
length chin cuts tend to
widen the face
therefore should be
avoided. Celebrities
with round face shapes:
Cameron Diaz, Kyra
Sedgwick and Penelope Cruz.




                               OVAL FACE
                   The oval face is 1.5 times longer that it is wide and its forehead is slightly wider than
                   the jaw. This is the ‘wannabe’ face shape, similar to the hourglass body shape. Oval
                   face shapes are highly desired and envied. All other face shapes attempt to create the
                   illusion of having an oval face. The oval face shape suits any hair style, including long,
short, medium, layered, straight or even curly. However, the best styles to go for are the ones that have
layers at the height of you best features such as cheekbones, lips or chin. Bangs can be added to
emphasize the eyes or add a little change. A
center parting accentuates the nose. Celebrities
with oval face shape include: Jessica Alba, Charlize
Theron, and Beyonce Knowles.

The idea is to create an oval contour with the
remaining facial shapes. How are we going to do
this? Let’s find out.




Adapted from Milady’s Standard Cosmetology textbook and various unknown sources                                  Page 8
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                                     HEART FACE
                                     This facial shape is widest at the temples and narrowest at the jaw line with a
                                     small sometimes pointed chin. Many heart-shaped faces also have a high
                                     forehead.

                       Hairstyle for this shape needs to add width at the jaw line. Eyes and cheekbones
are generally strong points of the heart shaped face therefore can be played up.

For long hair styles, add long, wavy layers around your cheekbones that fall in the neck area. For shorter
hair, add top layers that are long and soft.
Side-swept bangs are a great technique to
lessen the width and height of the forehead
area.

Avoid blunt-cut bangs, short hair, ponytails
and choppy layers. Subtle layering is much
more flattering. Celebrities with Heart
Shaped Face include: Brittany Murphy,
Reese Witherspoon and Scarlett Johannson.

Harsh choppy layers or blunt cut bangs do
not suit a heart-shaped face.

Best look is full curly, wavy, bouncy hair




                               SQUARE FACE
                               The square face shape is as wide as it is long and has strong angles. This face shape
                               needs a hair style with softness to lessen the effects of the angles.

                  Long hair styles should fall past the shoulders, with face-framing layers to soften the
                  jaw line. Shorter styles should be kept round and soft with height in the crown area.
Wispy bangs are great, as well as fluffy, wispy curls.

Straight lines and straight bangs are a no-no.

Do not let any haircut end at the jawline.
These styles will accentuate the square-ness                                                                      of
your face shape. Celebrities with square face
shapes include: Demi Moore, Gwyneth
Paltrow and Geena Davis.

Notice the softness around Geena’s face which helps elongate the facial shape


Adapted from Milady’s Standard Cosmetology textbook and various unknown sources                                    Page 9
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                                  OBLONG FACE
                                  Long and narrow facial shape with a square chin and hairline is known as
                                  Rectangular facial shape. An oval can be easily created just by adding a side swept
                                  bang. The goal with this face shape is to create the illusion of more width by adding
                                  fullness at the sides and having a smooth top with bangs of some sort play down
                                  on its length by adding a fringe on the forehead Extremely long or short haircuts
make the face look longer
while chin-length bobs and
haircuts add width to the
face. Curls and waves can
also add width to your face
and make it appear more
oval.

Avoid extremely long,
straight styles, one-length
cuts, short layers that add
volume in the crown area
and styles without bangs as
these will make your long
face much more pronounced. Celebrities with long face shapes include: Ashlee Simpson, Sarah Jessica
Parker and Hilary Swank.

Notice how much more their faces are elongated with their hair totally off their faces.




Adapted from Milady’s Standard Cosmetology textbook and various unknown sources                                  Page 10
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Activity – Face Shapes
Find 5 different celebrity faces for each of the shapes and paste them into each corresponding box.

          Round                                Oval                               Heart        Square            Oblong




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Assignment: Face Shapes.
For each of the face shapes, find a friend and design/style their hair according to their face shape.

Client Name:____________________________________________________

Face Shape: ____________________________________________________

Description of hairstyle:

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________


Why you styled it in the fashion:

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________


Picture of the final look:




Adapted from Milady’s Standard Cosmetology textbook and various unknown sources                               Page 12
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Review – Face shapes

Complete the following review by circling the correct answer to each question.

      1. The outline of silhouette of a hairstyle is known as the ______________________.
      a. Space                                              b. Line
      c. Form                                               d. design

      2. The form, design, and movement of a hairstyle is created by the ______________.
      a. Space                                            b. Lines
      c. Form                                             d. Design

      3. The area that hairstyle occupies is called its volume or ______________________.
      a. Space                                               b. Lines
      c. Form                                                d. design

      4. Lines that are parallel to the floor are known as _______________________.
      a. Vertical                                           b. Diagonal
      c. Horizontal                                         d. Curved

      5. Lines used to soften a design are ______________________.
      a. Vertical                                       b. Diagonal
      c. Horizontal                                     d. Curved

      6. Lines used to make a hairstyle appear longer and narrower are ______________________.
      a. Vertical                                         b. Diagonal
      c. Horizontal                                       d. Curved

      7. Lines positioned between horizontal and vertical which are used to create interest are
         ______________________.
      a. Vertical                                         b. Diagonal
      c. Horizontal                                       d. Curved

      8. An example of a line that is found in the blunt or one-length hairstyle cut is the
         ______________________ line.
      a. Single                                             b. Contrasting
      c. Transitional                                       d. Repeating

      9. Lines that meet at a 90-degree angle and create a hard edge are called
         ______________________ lines.
      a. Single                                           b. Contrasting
      c. Transitional                                     d. Repeating




Adapted from Milady’s Standard Cosmetology textbook and various unknown sources                               Page 13
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      10. Curved lines used to soften and blend horizontal or vertical lines are known as
          ______________________ lines.
      a. Single                                            b. Contrasting
      c. Transitional                                      d. Repeating

      11. Lighter and warmer colors are used to create the illusion of ______________________.
      a. Subtlety                                          b. Repetition
      c. Volume                                            d. Closeness

      12. Dark and cool colors move forward or toward the head and create the illusion of less
          ______________________ .
      a. Volume                                          b. Height
      c. Width                                           d. Strength

      13. When choosing haircolor, it should be compatible with the client’s ______________________.
      a. Eye color                                        b. Skin tone
      c. Family’s choice                                  d. Childhood dreams

      14. Wave patterns can be natural or created with styling techniques, chemical changes, curling irons
          or ______________________.
      a. Client’s desire                                   b. Stylist’s desire
      c. Hair brushing                                     d. Hot rollers

      15. Curly hair can be permanently straightened with ______________________ .
      a. Curling irons                                    b. Hair relaxers
      c. Pressing irons                                   d. Crimping irons

      16. Curly and extremely curly hair, do not reflect much light and could be
          ______________________ to the touch.
      a. Soft                                               b. Smooth
      c. Limp                                               d. coarse

      17. The five principles of hair design are proportion, balance, rhythm, emphasis and
          ______________________ .
      a. Symmetry                                             b. Asymmetry
      c. Harmony                                              d. Diagonal

      18. ______________________ wave patterns accent the face and are particularly useful when you
         wish to narrow a round head shape.
      a. Rough                                      b. Busy
      c. Smooth                                     d. numerous




Adapted from Milady’s Standard Cosmetology textbook and various unknown sources                               Page 14
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      19. An example of a line that is found in the blunt or one-length hairstyle cut is the
          ______________________ line.
      a. Single                                              b. Contrasting
      c. Transitional                                        d. Repeating

      20. The pattern that creates movement in a hairstyle is known as ______________________.
      a. Balance                                           b. Harmony
      c. Rhythm                                            d. emphasis

      21. _______________ is considered the most important of the principles of hair design.
      a. Balance                                      b. Harmony
      c. Rhythm                                       d. emphasis

      22. The ______________________ in a hairstyle is the place the eyes see first.
      a. Balance                                        b. Harmony
      c. Rhythm                                         d. emphasis

      23. Generally, the ideal face shape is said to be the ______________________ shape.
      a. Square                                              b. Round
      c. Oval                                                d. Pear

      24. The face is divided into ______________________ zones.
      a. One                                           b. Two
      c. Three                                         d. Four

      25. Creating the illusion of width in the forehead would be best for the ______________________
          face shape.
      a. Round                                              b. triangular
      c. oblong                                             d. diamond

      26. The aim of reducing the width across the cheekbone line is best for the
          ______________________ face shape.
      a. Round                                            b. triangular
      c. oblong                                           d. diamond




Adapted from Milady’s Standard Cosmetology textbook and various unknown sources                               Page 15
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The Art of Braiding
            Originated in Africa

             Highly regarded as an art form

             Signified social and marital status

             Distinguished one’s tribe, age, occupation, and religion

            Today communicates self-image and self-esteem

            Can be done on all face shapes

Working with Wet or Dry Hair

            It is best to braid hair when it is dry.

            When working with wet hair, allow for some shrinkage to avoid breakage or hair loss from
             pulling or twisting.

            Long hair is best braided dry; apply a leave-in conditioner.

            Pomades, gels, or lotions are used for control and a finished look.




Adapted from Milady’s Standard Cosmetology textbook and various unknown sources                               Page 16
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Activity: Braiding Board Project
Project: Each student will create a braiding board to practice the skills for the hair
braiding process.

You will need: 1 shoe box (square type is preferred)

                                        -     hole punch
                                        -     3 colored ropes


Step 1. Find the center of the top side and make a hole (using hole punch) measure 1
inch on either side and make one more hole.

Step 2: Find the center of both sides of the box, make a hole and measure 1 inch to
make a 2nd and 3rd hole. Measure 1 inch from those holes and make 2 more, so you
have 5 on each side. There are no holes along the bottom.

Step 3: Bottom flap: Cut open box on corner edge to work freely on flat box. You may
make a closure if you wish for when not in use.

Step 4: Preparing colored cords or ropes. Cut 1 and a half foot lengths of ropes.

                                        -     4 of one color
                                        -     4 of another color (2)
                                        -     5 of a third color (3)


Step 5: Attaching colored cords or ropes.

                                        -     Attach one of each color on the top of the board.
                                        -     Complete the colors to create a French braiding pattern.


Step 6: Practice – braid 3 strands at the top together.

             Create: - Regular braid using the top 3 strands, invisible and visible braid.




Adapted from Milady’s Standard Cosmetology textbook and various unknown sources                               Page 17
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Types of Braids


Two Strand Braid – Fishtail                          Two Strand Ponytail                  Four Strand Braid   Five Strand Braid




Invisible French                        Rope Braid                                Visible French Braid




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4 Strand Braid – Step by Step




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Invisible French Braid – Step by Step




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Visible French Braid




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Rope Braid




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                                                                                   BRAIDING RUBRIC - A
                  Tools
             Tail comb
             Paddle brush
             Elastic
             Towel
             Water bottle

              Expectations                                           French Braid                       Inverted Braid                    2 Strand Pony
                                                                      (Invisible)                           (Visible)                          Fishtail
       Assessment                                                Self          Teacher              Self              Teacher          Self            Teacher
All tools ready    /1                                          0 - .5 - 1     0 - .5 - 1          0 - .5 - 1         0 - .5 - 1      0 - .5 - 1       0 - .5 - 1
Brushed First      /1                                          0 - .5 - 1     0 - .5 - 1          0 - .5 - 1         0 - .5 - 1      0 - .5 - 1       0 - .5 - 1
Even sections      /1                                          0 – .5 - 1     0 – .5 - 1          0 – .5 - 1        0 – .5 - 1       0 – .5 - 1       0 – .5 - 1
Centred           /1                                           0 - .5 - 1     0 - .5 - 1          0 - .5 - 1         0 - .5 - 1      0 - .5 - 1       0 - .5 - 1
Smooth sections /2                                             0–1-2          0–1-2               0–1-2              0–1-2           0–1-2            0–1-2
Even tension      /2                                           0–1-2          0–1-2               0–1-2              0–1-2           0–1-2            0–1-2
Positive Attitude /1                                           0 - .5 - 1     0 - .5 - 1          0 - .5 - 1         0 - .5 - 1      0 - .5 - 1       0 - .5 - 1
Clean up          /1                                           0 - .5 - 1     0 - .5 - 1          0 - .5 - 1         0 - .5 - 1      0 - .5 - 1       0 - .5 - 1

Total                                /10                                          /10     /10              /10                 /10           /10              /10




Adapted from Milady’s Standard Cosmetology textbook and various unknown sources                                      Page 25
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                                                                                    BRAIDING RUBRIC-B
                  Tools
             Tail comb
             Paddle brush
             Elastic
             Towel
             Water bottle

            Expectations                                        Combination Braid                         Four strand Braid                    Rope Braid

       Assessment                                                Self                    Teacher         Self             Teacher          Self         Teacher
All tools ready    /1                                          0 - .5 - 1               0 - .5 - 1     0 - .5 - 1        0 - .5 - 1      0 - .5 - 1    0 - .5 - 1
Brushed First     /1                                           0 - .5 - 1               0 - .5 - 1     0 - .5 - 1        0 - .5 - 1      0 - .5 - 1    0 - .5 - 1
Even sections     /1                                           0 – .5 - 1               0 – .5 - 1     0 – .5 - 1        0 – .5 - 1      0 – .5 - 1    0 – .5 - 1
Centred           /1                                           0 - .5 - 1               0 - .5 - 1     0 - .5 - 1        0 - .5 - 1      0 - .5 - 1    0 - .5 - 1
Smooth sections /2                                             0–1-2                    0–1-2          0–1-2             0–1-2           0–1-2         0–1-2
Even tension      /2                                           0–1-2                    0–1-2          0–1-2             0–1-2           0–1-2         0–1-2
Positive Attitude /1                                           0 - .5 - 1               0 - .5 - 1     0 - .5 - 1        0 - .5 - 1      0 - .5 - 1    0 - .5 - 1
Clean up          /1                                           0 - .5 - 1               0 - .5 - 1     0 - .5 - 1        0 - .5 - 1      0 - .5 - 1    0 - .5 - 1

Total                                /10                                          /10          /10              /10                /10           /10           /10




Adapted from Milady’s Standard Cosmetology textbook and various unknown sources                                          Page 26
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        Basic Competencies Reference Guide


Skill        Ma n ag in g Le a rn in g                                        Co m m u n ic atin g Effe c tiv e ly             Working with Others                       Demonstrating Responsibility
Level

                    continually comes to class prepared for                    prepares and effectively presents accurate        continually leads where appropriate,      continually demonstrates responsibility in attendance.
                    learning.                                                 material.                                        encourages group performance.               continually punctual
                    continually follows detailed instructions                  continually motivates individuals.                continually provides positive             assignments are continually complete.
                    independently.                                             continually listens and responds effectively.   leadership.                                 continually demonstrates personal health and
                                                                               demonstrates positive interpersonal skills.                                               safety procedures.
 4                  demonstrates self-directions in learning,
                                                                                                                                                                           continually identifies hazards and their impact.
                    goal setting and goal achievement.
                    transfers and applies learning in new
                    situations.
                    provides leadership.

                    regularly comes to class prepared for                            regularly prepares and effectively          regularly leads where appropriate,        regularly demonstrates responsibility in attendance.
                    learning.                                                        presents accurate material.               usually encourages group                    regularly punctual.
                                                                                                                               performance.                                assignments are regularly complete.
                    follows detailed instructions without                            regularly motivates individuals.
                                                                                                                                 regularly provides positive               regularly, demonstrates personal health and
                    direction.                                                       listens and responds effectively.         leadership.                               safety procedures.
 3                  sets goals and establishes steps to achieve                      regularly demonstrates positive                                                       regularly identifies hazards and their impact.
                    them                                                             interpersonal skills.
                    transfers and applies knowledge, skills in
                    practical situations.
                    co-operates with others.


                    occasionally comes to class prepared for                         prepares and presents material.             occasionally leads, rarely encourages     occasionally demonstrates responsibility in attendance.
                    learning.                                                                                                  group performance.                          occasionally punctual.
                                                                                     occasionally motivates individuals.
                                                                                                                                 occasionally provides positive            assignments are occasionally complete.
                    occasionally follows instructions.                               occasionally listens and responds.        leadership.                                 occasionally, demonstrates personal health and safety
                    sets goals and establishes steps to achieve                      occasionally demonstrates positive                                                  procedures.
 2                  them with direction.                                             interpersonal skills.                                                                 occasionally identifies hazards and their impact.
                    occasionally applies knowledge, skills in
                    practical situations.
                    occasionally cooperates with others.


                    sporadically comes to class prepared for                         does not prepare material.                  does not lead, does not encourage         sporadically demonstrates responsibility in attendance.
                    learning.                                                                                                  group performance.                          sporadically punctual.
                                                                                     sporadically motivates individuals.
 1                                                                                                                               sporadically provides positive            assignments are sporadically complete.
                    sporadically follows basic instructions.                         sporadically listens and responds.        leadership.                                 sporadically demonstrates personal health and
                    sporadically identifies criteria for evaluating.                 sporadically demonstrates positive                                                  safety procedures.
                    sporadically cooperates with others.                             interpersonal skills.                                                                 sporadically identifies hazards and their impact.




        Adapted from Milady’s Standard Cosmetology textbook and various unknown sources                                                                 Page 27
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The Basics of Long Hair
Wet or Dry?
If possible, it is best to work with dry hair. The only exception would be one where the client wanted a
style that wasn't the best for her hair type. In this case, the hair requires dampening with water in a
spray bottle, and adding gel or mousse, to hold the hair in place. Working with dry hair means the client
doesn't have to walk around with wet hair. Also, as hair dries, it shrinks. If a braid is comfortable while
the hair is wet, it will get tighter and uncomfortable as the hair dries. This could cause a headache for
the client, which might result in your loss of a customer. Some stylists like to work with wet, gelled hair
because it is easier to make it neat. This is true only if you have not perfected a hand position that stops
the hair from sliding as you work with it. This hand technique will be discussed further in the book, and
you will find that wet hair is no longer required to achieve neatness.


Tools of the Trade


Back-combing
If possible, it is best to work with dry hair. The only exception would be
one where the client wanted a style that wasn't the best for her hair
type. In this case, the hair requires dampening with water in a spray
bottle, and adding gel or mousse, to hold the hair in place. Working
with dry hair means the client doesn't have to walk around with wet
hair. Also, as hair dries, it shrinks. If a braid is comfortable while the
hair is wet, it will get tighter and uncomfortable as the hair dries. This
could cause a headache for the client, which might result in your loss
of a customer. Some stylists like to work with wet, gelled hair because it is easier to make it neat. This is
true only if you have not perfected a hand position that stops the hair from sliding as you work with it.
This hand technique will be discussed further in the book, and you will find that wet hair is no longer
required to achieve neatness.

There are only two tools needed to work with long hair. They are:
1. A large 11" tail comb.
2. A square paddle brush.

The large tail comb is eleven inches long, and is made of bone with 1/4" of space between the teeth. It is
                                 used for detangling wet hair and for back-combing dry hair. The tail
                                 portion of this comb is 6" long, which is required for making entire head
                                 sections. It is also long enough to hold all the hair at one time.
                                 The square, anti-static, paddle brush is perfect for long hair for three
                                 reasons: First, these brushes usually have flexible rubber bristles. If you
                                 are brushing the hair and come to a knot, the tip will bend and release
                                 the hair rather than ripping through the knot which causes breakage.
                                 Second, the rubber bristles are seated in a padded base which gives
                                 when pressure is applied. This adds to the assurance that the hair is not


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damaged or broken. And finally, removing hair from these brushes is easier than with other brushes.
These are the only tools necessary when creating the long hair designs you'll find in this book. If you find
other tools that work better you, feel free to use them.

These styles use no teasing, but a few will require small amounts of back-combing. Back-combing is
done by placing a comb underneath a strand of hair. Starting very close to the base, roll the comb and
apply medium pressure going against the cuticle layer. Usually back-combing a strand once or twice is
all that is needed to create the fullness required for these styles. Your goal is to make the strand you are
back-combing fuller, and to prevent it from splitting or opening when you work with that strand.

            Step by step instructions on a variety of up-dos will be provided separate of this workbook.



Bobby Pins vs Hairpins
Bobby pins and hairpins look similar yet have a completely
different purpose. Bobby pins touch in the middle, and are
designed to hold weight. They are best suited when you need
to anchor a weighted curl, or when you change the direction
of the hair such as in the Bowtie or the French Twist with
backcombing. For direction changes, make sure the tips cross
each other. This gives them added strength in holding the hair
where you want it.

Hairpins are used to help place hair that has already been
secured with a bobby pin. For example, once a curl has been
placed and secured where you want it, you might decide to
spread the curl to make it wider. Spread the hair with your fingers, then secure with a hairpin to hold
the strands in the new position. A common question concerns the placement of pins in the hair. A basic
rule is to pin exactly where your fingers are holding the hair. Very often bobby pins are being inserted
next to the fingers holding the hair; when the stylist lets go, the hair moves to the new pinned position.
It takes a little practice, but it's worth it for perfect style placement every time.




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 ROLLER SETS
Rollers are used to create many effects of the curling iron and pin curl.

Parts of a roller curler:
It is important for you to identify the 3 parts of a roller.

Base: The panel of hair on which the roller is placed. The base
should be the same length and width as the roller. The type of the
base affects the volume.

Stem: The hair between the scalp and first turn of the roller. The
stem gives the hair direction and mobility.

Curl: The hair that is wrapped around the roller. It determines the
size of the wave or curl.



There are three different types of rollers:

       1. Magnetic or plastic rollers which are put into wet hair and secured with a roller clip.
          They generally give a stronger set that lasts longer than other types of roller sets.


       2. Velcro rollers which are put into the hair when it is dry and are used mainly for volume.


       3. Hot rollers which are also put into dry hair and provide a more curly set than Velcro
          rollers.




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Roller Placement
The size of the roller and how it sits on its base, will determine the volume achieved. The
general rule of thumb is the larger the roller, the greater the volume.



There are 3 kinds of bases:

                 On base.                                                        Half base.                       Off base.
   For full volume, the roller sits                                  For medium volume, the roller     For the least volume, the roller
   directly on its base. (Over direct                                sits halfway on its base, and     sits completely off the base.
   the strand slightly in front of the                               halfway behind the base. Hold     Hold the strand 45 degrees
   base and roll the hair down to                                    the strand straight up from the   down from the base and roll
   the base. The roller should fit on                                head and roll the hair down.      the hair down.
   the base.




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Assignment: History of the Pin Curl
             You will research the history of the pin curl. What was hair like during this era? What was this
             era? What replaced or followed the pin curl? When did finger waves become fashionable?
             Describe hairstyles through the 60’s, 70’s and the 80’s. (You may add pictures) Did you find a
             change through these eras? Are any of these decades similar to the styles that are worn today?



             Hand in a written summary, neatness and spelling counts.

             Worth: 30 marks




Assignment: Design a Tool
             In groups of 2-3, design a styling tool that could have been helpful in the past eras or an
             implement for today or something futuristic. Actual construct your own new implement (tool).
             Using scrap materials such as paper towel, Kleenex box, rubber bands, pipe cleaners, egg
             cartons, or even a paper mache technique. Make it as durable as possible. Be creative and have
             FUN!

             Worth: 50 marks.




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             Rubric for Pin Curl history & Tool design

             Design Challenge                                                                                                           Student:
             Categories     Incomplete                                            Level 1 (50-59%)           Level 2 (60-69%)           Level 3(70-79%)              Level 4 (80-100%)
             Written                       Was unable to                          Able to explain the        Somewhat able to           Able to appropriately        Able to effectively
                                           communicate the history                information with some      explain information of     explain information on       explain information on
                                           of the pin curl. Lacking               difficulty also the        written assignment.        the history of a pin curl.   the history of a pin curl.
                                           in neatness and many                   spelling and neatness      Neatness and spelling      Neatness and spelling        Neatness is outstanding
                                           errors in spelling                     needs to improve.          need some                  have shown great             and spelling shows no
                                                                                                             improvement.               improvement.                 errors.
             Design                        Unable to complete a                   Able to select a design    Somewhat able to select    Able to appropriately        Able to effectively plan
                                           design related to the                  with some difficulty.      and portray a design.      plan and portray a           and portray an
                                           assignment.                                                                                  design.                      outstanding design.
             Creativity                    Shows no original                      Difficulty in portraying   Somewhat able to           Able to appropriately        Able to show an
                                           thought or creativity in               creativity in design.      express creativity in      show creativity in design.   outstanding amount of
                                           design.                                                           design.                                                 thought and creativity in
                                                                                                                                                                     design.
             Functionality                 Shows no functionality                 Shows difficulty in        Somewhat able to show      Able to appropriately        Able to portray
                                           in design.                             portraying functionality   functionality within the   show that the design has     outstanding
                                                                                  in design.                 design.                    potential for great          functionality in design.
                                                                                                                                        functionality.
             Overall                       Shows no effort in                     Shows difficulty in        Somewhat able to show      Able to appropriately        Able to show
             completion                    project. Incomplete.                   portraying a complete      that effort has been put   show great potential in      outstanding completion
                                                                                  project.                   into completion of the     completion of the            of the project.
                                                                                                             project.                   project.




Adapted from Milady’s Standard Cosmetology textbook and various unknown sources                                                             Page 33
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Safety:
       1. Make sure that all rollers and clips are clean and sanitary to use.
       2. When using hairspray while setting the hair, make sure that you direct the spray at the
          hair and away from the face.
       3. Hot rollers can easily burn both you and your client so make sure that you handle them
          carefully (usually the prongs sticking out of the roller are not hot like the center and you
          can pick them up by holding these) and do not put them directly against the clients
          skin.
       4. Do not overheat the hair when you place the client under the dryer.
       5. Put everything away when you are finished using it.
       6. Make sure that the metal roller clips do not touch the scalp or ear since they get very
          hot from the heat of the dryer.




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Activity: Wet Styling
Starting in the text books on page 304 of the Milady textbook, answer the following
questions.

1. List the six tools required for wet hairstyling.

_____________                                           _____________                ______________

_____________                                           _____________                ______________

2. A finger wave is _________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

3. What does fingerwaving help develop?

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

4. Pin curls serve as the basis for ______________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

5. Name the three parts of a finger wave and give a description of each.

___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________




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6. What are the three classifications of curl mobility? Give a description of
each. ______________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

7. Roller curls are used to create ____________________________________

___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________

8. What are the three advantages of rollers over pin curls?

___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________

9. List the three parts of a roller curl and give a description of each.

___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________

10. The relationship between the _______________ and the
_____________________ will determine whether the result will be a C shape, a wave, or
a curl.

11. Draw an example of each of the three shape curls.

                   C-shape                                                        Wave                     Curl




12. The ___________ and how it is ________________ on its _______________ will
determine the _____________ achieved.

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13. What are the three kinds of bases and give a description of each.

___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________

15. Draw the angle at which you would hold the angle of the hair to
achieve the following.

Full Volume                                                Medium Volume                Less Volume




16. List the implements needed for a wet set with rollers.

___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________

17. What are the two best ways to create lift and increase volume?

______________________________________________________________

18. What is the purpose of back-combing and back brushing?

___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________




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19. How has these techniques changed since the 1950's?

___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________

20. What are the implements needed for combing out a wet set?

__________________                                                            _____________________

__________________                                                           _____________________




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Roller Set Design Techniques

Roller Set #1




_____________________________________________________________________________________




Roller Set #2




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Roller Set #3




_____________________________________________________________________________________




Roller Set #4




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Roller Set #5




_____________________________________________________________________________________




Roller Set #6




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Roller Set #7




_____________________________________________________________________________________




Roller Set #8




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Roller Set #9




_____________________________________________________________________________________




Roller Set #10




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   Activity: Rubric for Roller Set Design Techniques
   Choose 3 different sets and have your teacher grade them. Let the style overnight air dry to follow
   through with a comb-out.


                                               Roller Set ___                        Roller Set ___         Roller Set ___

No fish hooks (5)




Proper placement
of Clips (2)


Proper placement
of rollers (5)

Proper use of
tools (5)

Even Sections (4)




Comb-out (6)




Clean Up (3)




          TOTAL (30)




   Adapted from Milady’s Standard Cosmetology textbook and various unknown sources                                 Page 44
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Long Hair Up Do

Mark: ______________ /80 marks

Excellent =4 Very good = 3 Satisfactory = 2 Not satisfactory = 1 Request help = 0

                                                                                           0     1      2     3         4

ROLLER PLACEMENT

                   o      Appropriate for style being created


                   o      Appropriate roller size for amount of curl desired


                   o      Base size appropriate for type of style


                   o      Rollers pinned at center base


                   o      Clean partings


                   o      Hair wound neatly around rollers


                   o      Tension


                   o      Creativity


                                                                                           0     1      2     3         4

COMB-OUT

                   o      Even/Proportional


                   o      Balance


                   o      Bobby pins hidden




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                   o      Bobby pins snug (hairstyle not loose)


                   o      Herring bone bobby pins


                   o      No dents


                   o      Sufficient amount of back combing


                   o      Completed within time limit


                   o      Creativity


                   o      Finishing


Efficiency

                   o      Effective use of time


Clean-up

                   o      Supplies sanitized and put in proper place



Total: _____________

Comments:




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Activity: Client Consultation

The design process is collaboration between stylist and client, beginning with the client consultation.
Ellen, a new client at the salon, has just met Nicole, who is going to style her hair.

Write out a sample dialogue that should/could occur between the two people.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Adapted from Milady’s Standard Cosmetology textbook and various unknown sources                               Page 47
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Activity: Wedding Hair Disaster
My wedding has been planned for the past two years (for Dec of this
year). My bridesmaids and I have been growing our hair for almost
two year so that we could have long flowing locks to go with the theme
of the wedding. I have always been complimented on my lovely hair,
but felt my hair needed a bit of curl for the wedding. I thought if I got a
perm now, it would still have a nice wave by the time December comes.

I requested a consultation with the hairdresser who assured me that (when I told her I home
colored my hair and asked if my hair was suitable for a perm) that it was strong hair and the
perm would look lovely and that she would charge me $140. So I went ahead and had the perm.

I felt the apprentice left the solution on for too long, they didn’t check my hair for a long time and
after they checked it the apprentice did not do a thorough in rinsing the solution off - especially
the nape area. When they were taking the rods out my hair was breaking off so they had to cut
some off (that upset me!). They gave me a complimentary card for a treatment and told me to
come back next week.

I said I wanted to go home and let it dry naturally - well by the time it dried naturally it dried into
a big dried out fuzz ball sticking straight up into the air! I did not sleep all night and first thing in
the morning I went back to the salon in tears.

They gave me a free treatment - said it looked over processed and I went back four times (free
treatments) with no improvement, each time they had to cut more hair off/or it just broke off -
most of the underneath hair had to be cut off at the scalp! I have been too embarrassed to be
seen in public or go to work.

I have spent hundreds of dollars with "fixing protein products etc" which hasn't helped much.
Other hairdressers tell me when the hair is damaged to this extent the best thing is to cut it all
off. I have postponed my wedding as I have lost my confidence and feel I would have an
unhappy wedding day looking like this. I have considered a wig--- that may be the next option. I
have not been back to the original hairdressers as I cannot face it, but have written a letter of
complaint to them




Adapted from Milady’s Standard Cosmetology textbook and various unknown sources                               Page 48
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Can I Complain To the Salon?
Write out in essay format, a sample dialogue that should occur.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________




Adapted from Milady’s Standard Cosmetology textbook and various unknown sources                               Page 49
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Activity: You and Your Hair
Are you completely happy with your hair? What woman is? Either your
hair is too straight, too curly, too long to be an ice-cool blonde or vice
versa. In fact, in a perverse way we always want the opposite of what we
have.

Hairdressers and hair care manufacturers have kept pace with the demands of the modern
woman, and now virtually anyone with straight hair can go curly, and literally any colour under
the sun is possible, from subtle chestnut to fuchsia pink. But before we get carried away raven-
haired locks, let’s take a look at your hair in its natural state and see what you can do to improve
it.

WORKING FROM THE INSIDE OUT

      Over the last few years a great deal has been written about the importance of a healthy
diet and regular exercise. Indeed, hardly a month goes by without one of the popular woman’s
magazines bringing to our attention just how unfit we all are. These days it is impossible to
avoid the fact that a balanced diet and exercise not only help you to maintain a healthy body
internally, but also keep those outward signs of good health: clean skin, bright eyes, strong nails
and glossy, bouncy hair, in tip top condition.

      Eyes, skin, nails and hair are perfect indicators of how well we are functioning. If you are
feeling a little off color, your skin begins to look pale and sallow; the eyes become dull and lose
their sparkle; nails suddenly start to flake and your hair lacks luster, becoming limp and lifeless.
We have all looked in a mirror when we have felt under the weather and seen these signs for
ourselves. Obviously this indicates that when goes on inside is soon reflected on the outside
and logically, a poor diet which does not give the body all the nutrients it needs to function
properly, will soon take its toll on our hair and skin.

      How can diet affect your skin? Once your hair appears above the surface of the scalp it is
already dead, so it’s beneath the skin that all the action takes place. The indentation in the skin
from which hair protrudes is called the hair follicle and at the base of the follicle is a minute
nodule called the papilla. Very simply, the papilla is like a small factory producing and feeding
the cells, which form our hair. So, even if you do accidentally pull out some of your hair by the
roots, providing the papilla is still functioning, the hair will grow again. For our small factory to
work properly it needs an efficient blood supply, which it turn carries the basic requirements to
ensure continued factory production-digested protein (amino-acids). Stop supplying the basic
raw materials and like any factory, it will slowly stop producing and eventually grind to a halt.

      This does not mean that you have to live on a diet of pure protein for your hair’s sake. In
fact this would be extremely bad for you. Simply ensure that you have a healthy diet- plenty of
fresh fruit, lean meat, vegetables and salads. High grade proteins such as fish, eggs, cheese,
milk and meat are particularly beneficial, as they are rich in nitrogen and sulphur essential for
healthy hair growth. Avoid too many sweets, chocolates, cakes and biscuits and beware of
being too heavy-handed with animal fats. Drink plenty of water, at least eight glasses a day to


Adapted from Milady’s Standard Cosmetology textbook and various unknown sources                               Page 50
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clear your system and remember to include some whole-wheat cereal, bread or bran in your diet
to supply the necessary fiber content.

      If the thought of exercise makes you groan, then just think of the good it will do you.
Working out to music can be fun. Pretend you are auditioning for a dance group such as “Hot
Gossip” rather than doing repetitive, boring physical jerks and enjoy yourself. Remember as you
leap around, that your oxygen intake increases, your pulse rate raises and your circulation is
stimulated. As efficient circulation means that every part of your body is being well supplied with
blood; this includes the blood vessels (capillaries), which supply the papilla with its raw material:
digested protein.

    Now we come to a very important point; learn to relax. Tension and nervous strain not only
makes you irritable, even ill at times, but can also bring about disorders of the hair and scalp. I
know it is not easy in this day and age, but try to pace yourself, organize your day and count to
                     ten when you feel the pressure building up. Incidentally exercise is a
                     marvelous way of working off nervous energy and clearing the mind.

                                        Having dealt with the way you can help your hair from the inside, we
                                   can now concentrate on the part which is visible; the hair shaft.

                            Every strand of hair consists of three basic layers. The outer layer is
                      called the cuticle and plays an important part in how our hair looks and
feels. This layer could be compared to the scales of a fish. It consists of a series of overlapping
scales, which may be up to seven layers in thickness. The cuticle protects the structure of the
cortex; here we find nearly all our natural color pigment, melanin. It is this layer, which provides
the hair with its strength, texture and elasticity. In fact, curly and all types of hairstyling depends
on temporary alterations to the structure of the cortex. In the centre, which is the medulla; the
function of the medulla is unknown and in some cases it is missing altogether. But don’t worry
whether you have a medulla or not, the hair doesn’t seem to suffer without it.

      On average we have 90,000 to 140,000 strands of hair on our heads. Naturally blond
people have slightly more than brunettes and the people with lower than average hair density
are usually the red-heads. Strongly, redheads often look as though they have thick hair because
it tends to be a course texture, while blondes will have fine hair, which can look limp and thin.

     This brings us neatly to texture and density, two terms, which are often confused. Texture
generally refers to the quality of one single strand and density to the amount of hair on your
head. Density is the amount of hairs per square inch. These two terms are very important to
your when deciding on a new hairstyle.

      Fine hair tends to be soft and flyaway; if it is thin as well then styles usually work best, and
a soft perm will add body giving the appearance of thicker hair. Fine, thick (dense) hair can be
grown longer and works well when cut into short or long bob lines.

     If your hair is fine but naturally curly, then use the curl as much as possible. Curly styles
are so attractive that it is a shame to spend time and money creating a sleek style.


Adapted from Milady’s Standard Cosmetology textbook and various unknown sources                               Page 51
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      Medium-textured hair is very versatile, responding well to perms, setting and blow-drying.
Virtually any style is suitable, depending on your physical characteristics.

                                             Coarse hair often looks thick and heavy, think of redheads or oriental
                                      girls. Sharp, geometric cuts can look superb but if your hair is on the thin
                                      side, stick to reasonably short styles. Naturally curly, coarse hair is inclined
                                      to have a mind of its own and needs careful cutting to prevent it from
                                      looking bushy and unruly.



                             By now you should have a good idea as to the quality and texture of
                       your hair. Sit down in front of the mirror and try to be really objective. Do
you have masses of hair or is it only wishful thinking? If a single strand of hair feels pure as silk
then it is probably fine-textured. If, on the other hand, it feels more like a strand of cotton then it
means you are blessed with coarse hair. Medium-textured hair falls somewhere in between.
Having assessed your hair you should try to accept it, along with all its limitations. Learn to be
happy with what nature has given you and work with it rather than against it.

      As mentioned earlier, hairdressers and manufactures can work wonders combining good
products and expert skills but it’s your understanding of the basic raw material that makes the
difference.

       One interesting fact that proves just how individual we all are is
the use of hair in crime detection. Some experts claim that a strand of
hair from a suspect when subjected to certain tests can identify
characteristics, including age, sex, blood group, illness and drug use.
So when you hear the phrase, “No two heads are alike”, and you will
know that it is true.




Adapted from Milady’s Standard Cosmetology textbook and various unknown sources                                 Page 52
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          You and Your Hair Questions
       After reading the article, answer the following questions on the following piece of paper in
full proper sentences – grammar and spelling count.



          1. What is your hair color and how much body or curl do you have?
          2. What are the four signs of good health?
          3. What are the four indicators that we are functioning well?
          4. If you are not feeling well what do the following look like? (skin, eyes, nails, and hair)
          5. Where is the hair fed and produced?
          6. What is a healthy diet?
          7. What should you avoid?
          8. How much water should you drink daily?
          9. What does exercise do for your body?
          10. Name three things you do to help yourself relax?
          11. Name the three layers of the hair and describe their function?
          12. How many strands of hair are on our heads?
          13. Name the hair color that is most dense and least dense.
          14. Define texture and density.
          15. What kind of hair do you have? Describe its texture and density.
          16. What are the five characteristics that can be determined with certain tests done on the
                hair?
          17. Find a partner and write down their name. Analyze their hair and describe their texture
                and density.
          18. Does your partner agree with you? Why/why not?




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          Notes:




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                                                                                  Principles of Hair Design TXJ3E

          Notes:




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                                                                                  Principles of Hair Design TXJ3E


REVIEW
             1. No matter what the client says during a client consultation, what he or she really
                wants is a style that is ____________________ and easy to maintain.

             2. Open center curls produce even, ________________ waves and uniform curls.

             3. In __________________ finger waving, ridges are parallel around the head.

             4. One complete turn-around the roller will create a ___________________ curl.

             5. The art of shaping and directing the hair into alternate parallel waves and designs is
                ________________________

             6. The three parts of a pin curl are the _______________, ________________, and
                ____________________.

             7. The finished result will be determined by the ____________________- you place the
                stem of the curl.

             8. Curls formed in the opposite direction of the movement of the hands of a clock are
                known as _______________________.

             9. Forcing a strand of hair through a comb while applying pressure with the thumb on
                the back of the comb to create tension is called ______________________.

             10. _________________ are used to create many of the same effects as stand-up pin
                 curls.

             11. Two and a half turns around the roller will create __________________.

             12. Curls formed in the same direction as the movement of the hands of a clock are
                 known as ____________________.

             13. The most commonly shaped base you will use is the ______________ base.

             14. Cascade or ________________ curls are used to create height.

             15. For the least volume, the rollers sits ______________ base.

             16. Tools and implements required in wet hairstyling include rollers, clips, combs,
                 brushes and _________________.

             17. Waving lotion makes the hair ________________ and keeps it in place during the
                 finger waving procedure.

             18. A _______________ curl allows for the greatest mobility.

             19. Waving lotion is applied to one side of the head at a time to prevent
                 ________________.

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                                                                                  Principles of Hair Design TXJ3E

             20. _____________ provide the bases for patterns, lines, waves, curls and rolls that you
                 can use to create hairstyles.

             21. Closed center curls produce waves that ______________ in size.

             22. Do not try to increase the height or depth of a ridge by _______________ or
                 ______________ with fingers.

             23. Waving lotion is made from ______________________ gum.

             24. A loose roller will lose its ________________ and result in a weak set.

             25. Secure finger waves with ____________________ if needed.

             26. In ____________________ finger waving, ridges run up and down the head.

             27. Back brushing is also known as _________________.

             28. _________________ is a firm-bodied and usually clear or transparent product that
                 comes in a tube or bottle and has a strong hold.

             29. To ensure that the curl holds firmly, it should be __________________ correctly.

             30. Pin curls recommended at the side front hairline for smooth upsweep effect are
                 _________________ bases.

             31. Pin curls sliced from a shaping without lifting hair from the head are referred to as
                 __________________ curls.

             32. For full volume, the roller sits __________________ base.

             33. Large stand-up pin curls on a rectangular base with large center openings are known
                 as __________________curls.

             34. Teasing, ratting, matting, or French lacing are also known as __________________.

             35. ___________________ or wax add considerable weight to the hair by causing
                 strands to join together.

             36. A _____________ stem curl produces a tight, firm, long lasting curl.

             37. _____________________ add gloss and sheen to the hair while creating textural
                 definition.

             38. A _____________________ curl is a wave behind the ridge.

             39. The most widely used hairstyling product is hair spray or __________________
                 spray.




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                                                                                         Principles of Hair Design TXJ3E


Word Bank for Review
Words or terms may be used more than once or not at all.

Anchored                                    Decrease                              Invisible            Ridge
Arc                                         Direction                             No                   Rollers
Back combing                                Drying                                Oblong               Ruffing
Barrel                                      Finger waving                         Off                  Shallow
Base                                        Flattering                            On                   Silicone shiners
C-shaped                                    Full                                  Pinching             Smooth
Carved                                      Gel                                   Pin curls            Square
Circle                                      Karay                                 Pins                 Stand-up
Circular                                    Finishing                             Pliable              Stem
Clockwise                                   Full                                  Pomade               Tapered
Counterclockwise                            Hairpins                              Pushing              Tension
Curls                                       Horizontal                            Rectangular          Vertical
cylinder                                    Indentation                           Ribboning            Visible




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