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Medical terminology - DOC


									                     Medical terminology
Lecture:2                                                   Dr:-Fatima

dental anatomy, the science of the structure of the teeth and the relationship of
their parts. The study involves macroscopic and microscopic components

dentist, a person who is training to diagnose and treat abnormalities of the teeth,
gums, and underlying bone, including conditions caused by disease, trauma, and

dentistry, the evaluation, diagnosis, and/or treatment (nonsurgical, surgical, or
related procedures) of diseases, disorders, and/or conditions of the oral cavity,
maxillofacial area, and/or the adjacent and associated structures and their impact on
the body;

Branch of dentistry
1-operative dentistry

2- preventive dentistry

3- prosthetic dentistry

4- periodontic dentistry

5- orthodontic dentistry
Gentral dental term

Abutment a tooth, root, or implant used for support and retention of a fixed or
removable prosthesis.

Adaptation 1. an alteration that an organ or organism undergoes to adjust to its
environment. 2. a close approximation of a tissue flap, an appliance, or a restorative
material to natural tissue. 3. an accurate adjustment of a band or a shell to a tooth. 4. a
condition in reflex activity marked by a decline in the frequency of impulses when
sensory stimuli are repeated several times
Abscess a localized accumulation of suppuration in a confined space formed by
tissue disintegration

types of abscess, alveolar abscess, apical abscess, gingival abscess a
superficial periodontal abscess occurring within the free gingival sulcus surrounding
the tooth, frequently caused by the impaction of food.

Peri apical abscess, an abscess involving the apical region of the root, alveolus,
and surrounding bone as a result of pulpal disease.

Adams' clasp, n a retention clasp to stabilize removable appliances by engaging the
mesiobuccal and distobuccal surfaces of buccal teeth
abstraction teeth or other maxillary and mandibular structures that are inferior to
(below) their normal position; away from the occlusal plane.

Abnormal tooth mobility excessive movement of a tooth within its socket as a
result of changes in the supporting tissues caused by injury or disease.

Abrasion 1. the abnormal wearing away of a substance or tissue by a mechanical
process. 2. the pathologic wearing away of tooth structure by an external mechanical
source, most commonly incorrect toothbrushing methods.

Occlusal Adjustment a grinding of the occluding surfaces of teeth to develop
harmonious relationships between each other, their supporting structures, muscles of
mastication, and temporomandibular joints
aglossia a developmental anomaly in which a portion or all of the tongue is absent.
Agnathia an absence of the mandible
alginate a salt of alginic acid (e.g., sodium alginate), which, when mixed with water
in accurate proportions, forms an irreversible hydrocolloid gel used for making
impressions or molds of the dentition.
alloy 1. a solution composed of two metals dissolved in each other when in the liquid
state. n 2. the product of the fusion of two or more metals.
alveolectomy process of removal of alveolarbone

alveolitis, the inflammation of a tooth socket
amalgam (dental amalgam alloy), an alloy, one of the constituents of which is
amalgam tattoo a solitary discrete gray, blue, or black discoloration of tissue
usually located in the gingiva, alveolar ridge, or buccal mucosa caused by small
amounts of dental amalgam that became embedded under the surface.
amalgamation n the formation of an alloy by mixing mercury with another metal
or other metalsis unsightly,
ameloblast an an epithelial cell associated with the enamel organ that, during tooth
development, secretes enamel matrix.
amelogenesis, the process during which the enamel matrix is formed by

amelogenesis imperfecta, a broad category of developmental disturbances in
the structural formation of enamel. The disease is divided into four main types (type
1, Hypoplastic; type 2, Hypomaturation; type 3, Hypocalcified; type 4, mixed) and 15
subtypes, which range from mild to severe.
anesthesia the loss of feeling or sensation, especially loss of tactile sensibility, with
or without loss of consciousness, resulting from the use of certain drugs or gases that
serve as inhibitory neurotransmitters.
angle, cusp 1. the angle made by the slopes of a cusp with the plane that passes
through the tip of the cusp and is perpendicular to a line bisecting the cusp; measured
mesiodistally or buccolingually. Half of the included angle between the buccolingual
or mesiodistal cusp inclines. n 2. the angle made by the slopes of a cusp with a
perpendicular line bisecting the cusp; measured mesiodistally or buccolingually.
ankylosis, bony, a joining of bone with tooth or bone with bone that causes total
loss of movement.
Anodontia the complete failure of teeth to form; the total absence of teeth.two types
of anodontia
1-partial anodontia nan obsolete term referring to hypodontia or oligodontia.
2-total anodontia, nan obsolete term referring to anodontia
anomaly an aberration or deviation from normal anatomic growth, development, or

dental anomaly an abnormality in which a tooth or teeth have deviated from normal
in form, function, or position.

Anteversion the tipping or tilting of teeth or other maxillary and mandibular
structures too far forward (anterior) from the normal or generally accepted standard.

Antrum a general term for cavity or chamber that may have specific meaning in
referencing certain organs or sites in the body. For example, referring to paranasal
sinuses, the maxillary sinus can be referred to as a maxillary antrum.

Aphagia the inability to swallow.

appliance a device used to provide function or therapeutic effect.

Aqueous containing or relating to water.

dental arch the composite structure of the dentition and alveolar ridge or the
remains thereof after the loss of some or all of the natural teeth.

edentulous dental arch, a dental arch from which all natural teeth are missing.
Also called the residual alveolar ridge

articulation 1. a joint where the bones are joined together. See also joint. 2. the
relationship of cusps of teeth during jaw movement.
Asepsis the condition of being without infection; of being free of viable pathogenic

Attrition the normal loss of tooth substance resulting from friction

baby bottle tooth decay a dental condition that occurs in children from 1 to 3
years of age as a result of being given a bottle at bedtime, resulting in prolonged
exposure of the teeth to milk, formula, or juice with a high sugar content

bifurcation the division of a tooth's roots into two parts or branches.

bleaching the use of a chemical oxidizing agent to lighten tooth discolorations.
Preferred term is whitening

bruxism the involuntary gnashing, grinding, or clenching of teeth. It is usually an
unconscious activity, whether the individual is awake or asleep; often associated with
fatigue, anxiety, emotional stress, or fear, and frequently triggered by occlusal
irregularities, usually resulting in abnormal wear patterns on the teeth, periodontal
breakdown, and joint or neuromuscular problems.

Bur a rotary cutting instrument of steel or tungsten carbide, supplied with cutting
heads of various shapes.

Burnishing a process related to polishing and abrading; the metal is moved by
mechanically distorting the normal space lattice. Commonly accomplished during the

calculus (dental)      a hard deposit on the exposed surfaces of the teeth and any oral
prosthesis within the oral cavity. It is composed of calcium phosphate.

canal, the portion of the root that contains the pulp tissue and is surrounded by

Caries dental Decay

the decay of a tooth. term is cavity
cemental caries (root surface), n the decay of the cementum that occurs as a
result of gingival recession and exposure of the root surface. See also caries, cervical

enamel caries the decay that occurs in the enamel of a tooth because of a fissure or
the collection of bacterial plaque. It appears first as white spots, which later darken to

Cariogenic contributing to the advancement of caries. Often used in the context of
describing sugary foods.

Cariogenesis the process during which cavities develop in teeth

Cellulites a diffuse inflammatory process that spreads along facial spaces

cement, n a material that produces a mechanical interlocking effect on
hardening.planes and through tissue spaces without gross suppuration.

Cementoblast the cell that forms the organic matrix of cementum. Derived from
the inner aspect of the dental sac during the initial formation of cementum or from the
mesenchymal cell of the periodontal membrane after completion of primary
cementogenesis. The cementoblast, trapped within cellular cementum, becomes a

Cementogenesis the formation of cementum, the calcified connective tissue that
covers the roots of teeth, from the epithelial root sheath.

Cementum a specialized, calcified connective tissue that covers the anatomic root
of a tooth, giving attachment to the periodontal ligament

Centric objectionable as a noun) describing jaw and tooth relationships. See also
position, centric; relation, centric; occlusion, centric.

handpiece, straight, a handpiece whose axis is in line with the rotary instrument

Cementation attachment of an appliance or a restoration to natural teeth or
attachment of parts by means of a cement
clasp, bar, n a clasp with arms that are bar-type extensions from major connectors
or from within the denture base; the arms pass adjacent to the soft tissues and
approach the point of contact on the tooth in a cervicoocclusal direction.

Decalcification nan older term for the loss or removal of calcium salts from
calcified tissues. Newer term is demineralization

deciduous that which will be shed (exfoliated). Older term pertaining specifically to
the first dentition. Preferred term is primary.

dental cooperative, n a dental facility organized to provide dental services for the
benefit of subscribers and not for profit. There is no discrimination as to who may
subscribe, and each subscriber has equal rights and voice in the control of the
cooperative. The operation of the cooperative usually rests with a lay board of
directors elected by subscribers

dental neglect, n the purposeful denial of the minimum amount of oral healthcare
or maintenance required to sustain functioning periodontium and teeths. The caretaker
may exhibit a disregard for the patient's health, and may focus primarily on pain relief
for the patient. It is considered a warning sign of possible child or elder abuse.

dental pathology, n that branch of dentistry that deals with all aspects of dental

dental public health, n may also be called public health dentistry. The science and
art of preventing and controlling dental diseases and promoting dental health through
organized community efforts. It is that form of dental practice that serves the
community as a patient rather than the individual. It is concerned with the dental
health education of the public, with applied dental research, and with the
administration of group dental care programs as well as prevention and control of
dental diseases on a community basis( community dentistry. )
denticle pulp nodule, pulpstone), a calcified body found in the pulp chamber of a

dentate having teeth

dentifrice tooth past to clean and polish the teeth. Contains a mild abrasive, a
detergent,&a flavoring agent

dentin portion of the tooth that lies subjacent to the enamel and cementum.

Dentition the natural teeth in position in the dental arches types of dentition

1-. deciduous dentition as, primary dentition

2- mixed dentitionthe teeth in the jaws after the eruption of some of the permanent
teeth but before all the primary teeth are exfoliated. This period usually begins with
the eruption of the first permanent molars and ends with the exfoliation of the last
primary tooth. Also called the transitional dentition. See also ugly duckling stage

3-permanent dentition, (secondary dentition, permanent teeth) the 32 teeth
of adulthood that either replace or are added to with the shedding (exfoliation) of the
primary teeth.

4-artificial dentition the artificial substitutes for the natural dentition. as denture

denture an artificial substitute for missing natural teeth and adjacent tissues

dentogenesis formation of the connective tissue, dentin, from odontoblasts during
the development of the tooth.

dentulous having the natural teeth present in the oral cavity. Opposite term:

root canal filling, material placed in the root canal system to seal the space
previously occupied by the dental pulp.
filling, treatment a temporary filling, usually of a sedative nature, used to allay
sensitive dentin before the final restoration of the cavity.

gingivitis, hemorrhagic the gingivitis characterized by profuse bleeding,
especially that associated with ascorbic

occlusion, 1. the act of closure or state of being closed.n 2. a contact between the
incising or masticating surfaces of the maxillary and mandibular teeth
mouthwash, a mouth rinse possessing cleansing, germicidal, or palliative
properties. Only some are approved by the ADA for treatment of gingivitis.

polishing the process of making a surface smooth and glossy or giving luster to a
surface, usually by friction.
restorative materials materials used to reconstruct the hard tissues of teeth lost
through trauma or disease.

 Types of restoration material
Temporary restoration an artificial prosthesis used for a limited period to provide
protective function and esthetics until a definitive prosthesis can be fixed into place

Porcelain restoration           an indirect restoration made from a ceramic material that
is cast in a laboratory prior to insertion in the oral cavity and finished during
Xerostomia dryness of the oral cavity resulting from functional or organic
disturbances of the salivary glands and lack of the normal secretion, primarily caused
by prescribed medications. Dryness, loss of basic environment, and resultant
overgrowth of oral microorganisms frequently lead to rampant caries(hyposalivation)
ulceration, the process of forming an ulcer or of becoming ulcerous.
                       Medical terminology
Lecture:3                                                               Dr:-Fatima

General medical terms
Abdomen:- the portion of the body between the thorax and the pelvis.
abduction, the process of abducting; opposite of adduction.
adduction, the process of bringing two objects toward each other; the opposite of

1. the passage of a substance into the interior of another by solution or penetration.

2. the taking up of fluids or other substances by the skin, mucous surfaces, absorbent
vessels, or dental materials so that they are removed.

3. the process by which radiation imparts some or all of its energy to any material
through which it passes.

abstinence self-restraint, especially from harmful substances

dehydration 1. the removal of water (from the body or tissue). 2. a decrease in
serum fluid coupled with the loss of interstitial fluid from the body. It is associated
with disturbances in fluid and electrolyte balance.

Diabetes a deficiency condition involving carbohydrate metabolism and
characterized by increased urination
fermentation a chemical change that is brought about in a substance by the action of
an enzyme or micro-organism, especially the anaerobic conversion of foodstuffs to
certain products such as acetic fermentation, alcoholic fermentation.

fertility the ability to reproduce
acellular not composed of or having cells

Acinus 1. saclike cavity present in a gland or the lungs.

hypoxia, metabolic a type resulting from an increased tissue demand for oxygen.

1. a substance that increases rapidity of action or function

2. a catalyst or other substance that hastens a chemical reaction (e.g., for example,
NaCl added to water and plaster to hasten the set).

3. a film-developing solution of potassium hydroxide or sodium carbonate used to
enlarge the emulsion and to establish an alkaline

acidemia a decreased pH level of the blood, irrespective of changes in the blood

acidosis pathologic disturbance of the acid-base balance of the body characterized
by an excess of acid or inadequate base. Causes include acid ingestion, increased acid
production such as that seen in diabetes mellitus or starvation, or loss of base through
the kidneys or intestine.

Infection an invasion of the tissues of the body by disease-producing
microorganisms and the reaction of these tissues to the microorganisms and/or their
toxins. The mere presence of microorganisms without reaction is not evidence of
jaundice a condition characterized by an abnormal accumulation of bilirubin (red
bile pigment) in the blood and manifested by a yellowish discoloration of the skin,
mucous membranes, and cornea. It presents with hemolytic anemias, biliary
obstruction, hepatitis, cholangiolitis, and cirrhosis of the liver. Oral mucosa may be

Acromegaly condition caused by hyperfunction of the pituitary gland in adults.
Characterized by enlargement of the skeletal extremities, including the feet, hands,
mandible, and nose
Cancer a malignant neoplasm. The term is sometimes incorrectly used to include
any neoplasm, whether benign or malignant. Carcinoma and sarcoma are more
specific terms.

Action potential n electric impulse consisting of a selfpropagating series of
polarizations and depolarizations, transmitted across the cell membranes of a nerve
fiber during the transmission of a nerve impulse

Acuity harpness; clearness; keenness.

Auditory acuity, n the sensitivity of the auditory apparatus; sharpness of hearing.
The ability to hear a given tone with respect to the degree of intensity required to
produce a sensation that is just perceptible

Acute adj pertaining to a traumatic, pathologic, or physiologic phenomenon or
process having a short and relatively severe course. Antonym: chronic

Adjuvant an auxiliary active ingredient that supports the action of the basic drug.
Amenorrhea the absence or abnormal cessation of the menstrual cycle.
Amoeba protozoa that uses extensions of its cytoplasm, called pseudopodia, to
move. Some varieties of amoebae are implicated in human infection. Also spelled
Amorphous having no specific space lattice, the molecules being distributed at
Anabolism the constructive process by which substances are converted from simple
to complex forms by living cells; constructive metabolism.
Analgesia an insensibility to pain without loss of consciousness; a state in which
painful stimuli are not perceived or interpreted as pain; usually induced by a drug,
although trauma or a disease process may produce a general or regional analgesia.
Adolescence the period of development between the onset of puberty and
adulthood. This period is generally marked by the appearance of secondary sex
characteristics, usually from 11 to 13 years of age, and spans the teen years
Adrenalectomy the surgical removal of one or both of the adrenal glands or the
resection of a portion of one or both of the adrenal glands.
Adsorption a natural process whereby molecules of a gas or liquid adhere to the
surface of a solid.
adverse reactions unfavorable reactions resulting from administration of a local
anesthetic; responsible factors include the drug used, concentration, and route of
cartilage, na derivative of connective tissue arising from the mesenchyme. Typical
hyaline type is a flexible, rather elastic material with a semitransparent, glasslike
appearance. Its intercellular substance is a complex protein (chondromucoid) through
which is distributed a large network of connective tissue fibers.

Agenesis the defective development or congenital absence of parts.
Agranulocytosis a decrease in the number of granulocytes in peripheral blood
resulting from bone marrow depression by drugs and chemicals or replacement by a
neoplasm. Oral lesions are ulceronecrotic, involving the gingivae, tongue, buccal
mucosa, or lips. Regional lymphadenopathy and lymphadenitis are prevalent
Airway 1. a clear passageway for air into and out of the lungs. 2. a device for
securing unobstructed respiration during general anesthesia or in states of
Ala winglike cutaneouscovered cartilaginous structure on the lateral aspect of the
external naris of the nose.
Alkalosis a disturbance of acid-base balance and water balance, characterized by an
excess of alkali or a deficiency of acids.
alopecia the loss of hair. Various types with varying causes.
Anemia a term indicating that the concentration of hemoglobin or the number of red
blood cells is below the accepted normal value with respect to age and gender. In true
anemia the total concentration of hemoglobin, or the total number of erythrocytes, is
below normal regardless of concentration values. Symptoms, which may not be
evident, include weakness, pallor, anorexia, and those related to the cause of the
Adhesion 1. the attraction of unlike molecules for one another. 2. the molecular
attraction existing between surfaces in close contact. 3. the condition in which a
material sticks to itself or another material
anorexia,(anohrek´seeuh), n the partial or complete loss of appetite for food
antibodies that react with it when introduced parenterally into an individual or species
to which it is foreign

antibiotic,(an´tibaiot´ik), n an organic substance produced by one of several
microorganisms, especially certain molds, that is capable, in low concentration, of
destroying or inhibiting the growth of certain other microorganisms

antigen a substance(forgien)

, usually a protein, that elicits the formation of antibody

cardiac relating to the heart

artery, n a blood vessel through which the blood passes away from the heart to the
various structures.

Bacteremia 1. the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream. It may be transient,
intermittent, or continuous. Transient bacteremia may result from dental procedures
such as extraction and adult prophylaxis or it may accompany the early phases of
many infections. Continuous bacteremia is a feature of endocarditis. n 2. the presence
of bacteria in the blood (e.g., as occurs during adult prophylaxis of a patient with the
risk of complications due to bacteremia).

bacteria 1. small, unicellular microorganisms of the kingdom Monera. The genera
vary morphologically, being spheric (cocci), rod-shaped (bacilli), spiral (spirochetes),
or comma-shaped (vibrios). n 2. the phylum in which these microorganisms are

Atrophy a progressive, acquired decrease in the size of a normally developed cell,
tissue, or organ. Atrophy may result from a decrease in cell size, number of cells, or

benign condition that, untreated or with symptomatic therapy, will not become life
threatening. It is used particularly in relation to tumors, which may be benign or
malignant. They do not invade surrounding tissues and do not metastasize to other
parts of the body. The word is slightly imprecise, as some can, due to mass effect,
cause life-threatening complications

biopsy,(bai´opsee), n the removal of a tissue specimen or other material from the
living body for microscopic examination to aid in establishing a diagnosis

biosynthesis, n the formation of a chemical compound by enzymes

cachexia n the weakness, loss of weight, atrophy, and emaciation caused by severe
or chronic disease such as with AIDS.polishing of soft golds
                       Medical terminology
Lecture:1                                                       Dr:-Fatima
Medical terminology deal with the terms usually used in medicine and dentistry
 Anatomical position:- it is position in which the face and eyes are directed
forwards& the hand by the sides with palms directed forwards.
We have three planes in anatomical position

1- sagittal plane or the median :- its vertical plane which divided any body into left
and right halves

2-coronal plane:- is vertical plane at right to median

3- transverse or horizontal plane :- its any plane at right angle to both
Related to these planes are the following paired points on anatomical position

* medial :- closer to the midline of the body opposite to lateral

*lateral :- its point further from midline of the body

* anterior :- near the frontal surface of the body example :- anterior teeth

* posterior :- near the far surface of the body example :- posterior teeth

*superior :- near the highest point of the body

*inferior :- near the lowest point of body

The same word

Ventral =anterior

Dorsal = posterior

Cephalic = toward the head

Caudal = toward the tail

Upper jaw = maxilla

Lower jaw = mandible :- horse shoe shaped bone consist of the body and rami

Term usually used in dental anatomy

Proximal surface :- mean the mesial surface & distal surface of tooth

Labial surface:- directed toward the inner surface of the lips .Buccal         surfaces:-
directed toward the inner surface of cheeks

Lingual surfaces this terms used in the lower teeth directed toward the tongue

Palatal surfaces this term used in upper teeth directed toward palate

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