The Southwest by shuifanglj


									The Southwest...

The region

The environment
Every part of the environment has been inhabited and managed by Native peoples over
thousands of years.
   - dry and arid
   - intense rainfall in the summer
   - landscape is deceptively barren
   - many plants and animals
   - agriculture remains important

The lifestyle
•Primarily an agricultural lifestyle
•Water reliance on irrigation & rain cisterns
•Food sources supplemented with hunting and gathering
•Sedentary villages and town sites
•Extensive trade and communication routes
•Sophisticated material culture
The People
Four main groups of tribes
      The Pueblos
      The “pai” tribes
      The Pima and Papago
      The Navajo and Apache

The Pueblos
Pueblos are located in Arizona and New Mexico.
       - Sandia Pueblo
       - Santo Domingo Pueblo
       - Cochiti Pueblo
       - Santa Ana Pueblo
       - Zia Pueblo
       - Jemez Pueblo
       - Acoma Pueblo
       - Isleta Pueblo
       - San Felipe Pueblo
       - Picuris Pueblo
       - San Juan Pueblo
       - Zuni Pueblo
       - Taos Pueblo
       - Laguna Pueblo
       - San Ildefonso Pueblo
       - Santa Clara Pueblo
       - Pojoaque Pueblo
       - Nambe Pueblo
       - Tesuque Pueblo
       - Hopi Pueblo

The “pai” tribes
There are 13 bands of “pai” tribes:
                      - Havasupai
                      - Hualapai
                      - Yavapai
The Pima and Papago
Known by their traditional name of Tohono O’Odham.
They are the descendants of the Hohokam prehistoric cultural group.

Navajo and Apache
Migrated to the Southwest region maybe 600-1000 years ago.
Came from the Subarctic region of Canada, speak Athabaskan languages.
Settled in the Southwest and quickly adapted to the new environment.
Adapted their cultures to the environment very successfully.

Textile Arts – Navajo Rugs
Weaving remains primarily a female art.
Designs and techniques are passed down the generations.

Getting ready to weave
Processing wool takes a lot of work…
–Shearing the sheep
–Carding the wool
–Cleaning and sorting
–Spinning the raw wool into yarn
–Collecting dye materials
–Making the dye
–Dyeing the yarn
Then you string the loom and start to weave.

Weaving districts
•Some rugs are identified by region.
•Trading posts have become associated with regions and rug designs.
•Some designs are produced exclusively by certain families, other designs are found
across the reservation.
•Designs and styles have changed over time.

Rugs – geometric patterns

Rugs – intricate and complex
Rugs – difficult colors to produce

Germantown reds
•The town of Germantown Pennsylvania produced red woollen textiles in their mills.
•These textiles became popular trade items in the Southwest.
•They were desirable because weavers would unravel the yarn and re-use it in Navajo
•Red is a difficult color to produce with vegetal dyes.

Rugs – analine and vegetal dyes

Rugs can tell stories and record events.
Rugs woven after the events of September 11, 2001

Weaving the rug…
Vertical looms

Silverworking Traditions
•Techniques were learned during Spanish occupation.
•Learning was passed from one Native community to the next.
•Early silverwork looked very similar in design and style.
•Distinctive design and style developed over time with specific tribal association.

Navajo Stamped Designs
Designs are pressed, or stamped, into the silver in order to create patterns.

Navajo stone setting
Generally characterized by large naturally shaped stones in larger settings.

Squash Blossom necklaces

Concho Belts

Coral and Turquoise Strands

Turquoise ranges in color from pale to vivid blue, as well as dark green and black.
White and yellow turquoise are rare, but do occur.

Hopi Overlay
Overlay solders one piece of sheet silver on top of another to produce a relief effect that
is enhanced with a patina.

The overlay technique
Hopi Mosaic
An ancient tradition which continues today. Tiny pieces of stone and shell are precisely
fit together to create a complex artform.

Zuni Silverworking

Inlay and Channelwork

Petit Point with coral

Petit Point with turquoise

Sand Casting
Made using a sand mold and pouring molten silver into the form.
One of the earliest techniques used in Native metalworking.

Navajo Sandpaintings
Traditionally used as a part of healing ceremony, these have been adapted for commercial
art trade.
Some designs represent older motifs from traditional origins.
Some designs are very modern in content and presentation.

Zuni Fetish Carvings




Southwest Basketry
Important for food collection and storage, and a social aspect of tribal culture.

Horsehair Basketry – Papago

Basketry - Hopi

Basketry – Navajo

Basketry – Apache

Traditional Pottery Construction
Clay must be gathered and processed.
The shape of the pot must be built up with coils.
Tools like these shapers are used to smooth and scrape the surface of the pot.
The completed pot can then be decorated.
Different techniques can be used to decorate pots.
Firing the pot can alter the appearance and makes the pot more durable.

Making Coiled Pottery
Coiled pottery takes patience and dexterity to produce.
It is decorated with various techniques.

Pottery Decoration
•There are many ways to decorate a piece of pottery. The exterior can be painted, carved,
or embossed.

Etched pottery

Incised pottery

Monochromatic finish

Polychromatic finish

Corrugated finish

Black-matte-on-shiny-black finish

Traditional designs

Non-traditional designs

Modern Pueblo pottery

Pottery - Navajo

Pottery - Hopi

Pottery – Zuni

Pottery Sculpture

Kachina Dolls
Were used as teaching devices for Pueblo children to learn the many kachina spirits.
During the Boarding School period they became important tools for retaining heritage.

Kachina Dolls – older blocky style

Kachina Dolls – sculptural style

Kachina Dolls – miniatures
Contemporary Southwest art

Modern Paintings

Modern Jewelry

Navajo Folk Art Carving

Southwest Artists

Hosteen Klah, Navajo

Nampeyo, Hopi

Lucy Lewis, Acoma

Maria Martinez, San Ildefonso

Charles Loloma, Hopi

Roxanne Swentzell,Santa Clara

Helen Hardin, Tewa

R.C. Gorman, Navajo

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