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Nursery Production

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					Nursery facilities

NURSERY PRODUCTION
Warm up
 What types of food and food products
 are produced here? What is this place
 considered?
Essential Question

 How are nurseries classified?
Nurseries Over Time

 1st started in the US 1644 Mass.
   Fruit tree industry
 Early 17 and 1800s
   Orchardists: nursery worker who deals with
   fruit trees
 Prince Nursery: 1757
   Sold trees to his neighbors
   Started commercial production
     produce for a specific market.
Nurseries start to grow

 Jackson and Perkins
   1864: specializing in small fruits
   1879: small roses
 Nurseries in Midwest have ties to big
  cities (New York)
 1890: 4500 nurseries over 173,000
  acres
 2/3 are small and supply local markets
Nurseries experience change and
still grow!
 1912; National Plant Quarantine Act
   Prohibited importation of certain plants
 Parcel Post
   Allowed for sending packages, starting mail
   order catalogs
 1974 CA is the largest producer
 Today: $5 billion annually
   CA, FL, VA, OR top producers
Changes in the Industry Today

 Increased efficiency through
 Production:
   1950s drip irrigation is introd, 1960s
    fertilizer injectors invented, 1970 trickle
    irrigation for fields
 Facilities:
   more energy efficient and
    environmentally sound building materials
Changes in the Industry Today

 Materials:
   New plant varieties, more designer plants
   patented, better fertilizers and chemicals
 Market
   More rapid delivery, computers, Internet,
   Martha Stewart, Rising interest in
   gardening
Categories of Nurseries
 Based on Types of Sales
   1. Retail nurseries sell products to the
    homeowner/general public.
   2. Wholesale nurseries sell to a retail or
    broker nursery. This is the most rapidly
    growing segment of the nursery industry.
   3. Mail order nurseries sell their product
    through the mail system using catalogs to
    market their product. May be wholesale or
    retail.
   4. Broker or re-wholesaler is a nursery that
    functions as a middleman to connect buyers
    with specific plant material. They sell their
    product at wholesale level prices.
Categories of Nurseries
 By job description
   1. Landscape nurseries specialize in selling
    and often installing landscaping plant
    materials.
   2. Nursery only nurseries only sell landscape
    plant material.
   3. Garden center nurseries sell their
    product retail. Have an expanded product
    line including garden tools, seeds,
    fertilizers, craft items, and other
    horticultural products.
Categories of Nurseries

 By product produced
   1. Field grown —specifically trees,
    shrubs, or other landscape plants grown
    in a field to a saleable size.
   2. Containerized—plants grown in
    containers to a saleable size.
   3. Both containerized and field grown.
   4. Specialty crop—examples might
    include aquatic plants, turf, marsh
    plants, etc.
Categories of Nurseries

 By Crop produced
   Fruit
   Ornamental
     Roses, Shade and flowering plants, Shrubs,
      groundcovers
   Forest and conservation
     Reforestation, conservation efforts
   Linear plants
     Grown for propagation/production of new
      plants
Activity

 Vocabulary activity
 Each group represent in a poster
  drawing a category of nursery
  production.
   Use only pictures to represent.
Warm Up
 What do you think could have happened
 to this tree?
Essential Question

 What are common costs in Nurseries?
Specialty Nurseries
 Research
 Quarantine:
   Hold plant material from outside the US
 Re-wholesale
 Non-for-profit
 Educational- high schools, colleges, etc
 Governmental
Costs in Nursery Industry
 Land Cost: largest most important business
  purchase
 Labor—This is the business workforce
   paid, hourly, salaried, commission or piece
    rate.
 Transportation and market: can determine
  the success or failure of a market
 Utilities
   availability, cost, type
 Competition: anyone competing for your
  companies $
Environmental effects on Nurseries

 Environment: effects the growth of
  plant
   Temperature: regulated by wind, solar
   radiation, humidity
     Maximum(highest), Minimum(lowest), Average
     Hardiness: plant’s ability to withstand cold
      temps
   Moisture: water in the form of rainfall or
   irrigation
     Maintains turgid in plants
Environmental effects continued…

 Moisture continued
   Distribution: heavy rainfall= leaching, slower
    plant growth, increase in pathogens.
   Quality: pH levels, fertility, chemicals
   Quantity: How much? When?
 Wind
   Evaporation: liquid to gas
   Erosion: surface material transported
   elsewhere
Environmental effects continued…

 Soil type and topography
   Drainage: removal of excess water
   pH
   Holding capacity: water and air the soil can
   hold for a certain time
 Air quality
 Plant pests
 Natural light
Nursery Tools and Types
 Production: bring plant to sellable size
   Shade houses: protect plants from wind,
    temperature extremes, rain, hail, and
    sun. Made of wood lath or shade cloth.
   Overwintering houses: keeping plants
    above ground over winter
   Cold storage: cold storage for crops
   Shipping and Receiving
   Head house
   Storage areas
   Business offices
Nursery Tools and types
 Propagation: production of new plants
   Cold frame: wooden or concrete block
    frame with a glass or polyethylene cover
    that is heated by the sun.
     germinating seeds, rooting cuttings,
      overwintering plants
   Hot frame: similar to a cold frame but
   has additional heat supplied by electric
   cables or hot water pipes.
     germinating seeds, rooting cuttings or
      overwintering more temperate plants.
Hardiness Zone
 Used by nursery operators to
  productively grow plants
 Zone Map
   ID 11 zones in the US by average minimum
    temps
   Produced by USDA, always updated
 Importance
   Young plants & container plants are more
    sensitive to temps
   Helps with plant selection
   Your zone will determine what plants you
    grow and precautions you need to take
Hardiness Zone Map
                             Head house
Vocabulary                   Hotbed
                             Liner plant
                             Mail order nurseries
 Broker or re-wholesaler
                             Mass-marketers
 Cold frame
                             Moisture
 Cold storage
                             Orchardist
 Commercial production
                             Over wintering
 Competition
                             Quarantine
 Containerized
                             Retail nurseries
 Drainage
                             Shade houses
 Erosion
                             Turgid
 Evaporation
                             Wholesale nurseries
 Field grown
 Garden center nurseries
 Hardiness
Activities
 Review Quiz 1
 Vocabulary?
Producing Nursery Crops

NURSERY PRODUCTION
Warm Up

 Which of these are produced in a
  nursery?
Essential Question

 What are the proper nursery field
  practices?
Lining Out
 Definition: the process of transplanting
  seedlings or cuttings into the field to
  grow to a saleable size.
 Transplanting: moving plants from one
  location to another
 Linear stock/ Linear plant: refers to
  plants that are lined out
Linear Plants/ Linear Stock

 Stem cuttings:
   Hardwood: deciduous and evergreen
   Semi- hardwood
   Herbaceous
 Leaf cuttings
 Leaf-bud cuttings
 Root-cuttings
 Seedlings
Seedlings: Review

 Treated prior to planting
 Scarification: breaking or softening the
  seed coat to allow the absorption of
  moisture
 Stratification: chilling the seeds before
  germination
Lining out Methods

 Prepare land before transplanting
   grading, rototilling, soil testing, pre-
    plant fertilization
 Check for disease or damage
 Set at proper depth
 Pack soil around the transplant
 Water transplants immediately
 Fertilizer when appropriate
Proper Nursery Practices
 Watering
   Very important, 80% of plant is water,
    cooling, plant growth
   Need of water influenced by:
     Weather, wind, soil, time of year, and plant
   Irrigation: watering artificially
 Fertilizing
   Prior to planting liners
   Test soil
   pH 6.5-7.5
Proper Nursery Practices continued…
   Staking: attaching an upright support to
    the tree
   Pruning
     Correct structural weakness, shape young
     trees
       Leader: main growing point and the tip end of
        the trunk, supports the canopy of the tree
     Prune deciduous trees in winter
Proper Nursery Practices …
 Root-Pruning:
   Done year before plant is harvested
   U shaped blade cuts roots
   Helps plant grow, without an extensive root
   system (easy to transplant)
 Weed control
 Seedling and liner production
   Pre-plant—soil pasteurization, soil
    fumigation, pre-emergent herbicides.
   Post-plant—herbicides in spring, summer,
    and fall.
Proper Nursery practices
 Weed Control
   Container production
     Pre-plant—soil pasteurization, soil fumigation,
      pre-emergent herbicides.
     Post-plant—herbicides in spring, summer, and
      fall.
   Field production
     Summer annual weeds—pre-emergent
      herbicide.
     Perennial weeds—fall application of herbicide.
Nursery Schedules
 Activity


 Groups will be given a type of plant
  produced in a nursery setting
 Represent the paragraph in photographs
   Each paragraph is describing a schedule for
   caring of nursery plants
Warm Up

 What do all these have in common?
Essential Question

 What are common nursery pests?
Common Pests
 Pests can become a LARGE problem
 quickly
  Insects
  Weeds
  Disease
Common Pests- Animals

  Rabbits                   Deer
    Damage: chew bark,        Damage: trample
     eat shoots                 small plants, eat
    Control: enclosures,       soft new growth
     repellents,               Control : diversion
    Favorite Plants:           feeders, repellents
     fruit trees, crab         Favorite:
     apples, flowering          arborvitae plants,
     dogwood, and sweet         birches
     gum
Common Pests

 Mice                          Humans
   Damage: Girdle               Damage: physical and
   plants, dig holes              mechanical damage
       chew the bark at the     Control:
        base of the plant         EDUCATION!!!
        disrupting moisture      Favorite Plants:
        and energy flow
                                  unable to determine
   Control: removal of
    habitat (weeds etc)
   Favorites: birches,
    arborvitae
Common Pests: Winter Injury
 Usually aesthetic and minor
   Damage: broken branches, frozen apical
    growth/buds, lower bark damage, frost
    cracks (prone to thin barked trees) and
    frost heaving
   Control: proper plant selection, wind breaks,
    anti-desiccants
     Chemicals sprayed on the plant to conserve
      moisture
   Favorite Plants: evergreens or containerized
   plants
Nursery Tools
 Hand tools
   Spade- harvests plant material
   Shovel- removal of soil, mulch, etc
   Hand pruners- for small jobs
   Small pruning saw- large to medium
    branches
   Caliper- measures tree trunk diameter
Nursery Tools

 Mechanical
   Computers
   Planters
   Tree diggers
   Lifting and loading
   Packaging and potting
Activities
 Make an instructional/education
  brochure about common pests
   Include what the pest is, the damage and
   what it looks like, control methods and how
   to implement them, favorite plants of the
   pests
 Review Quiz 2
Vocabulary

   Diversion feeding stations
   Girdling
   Irrigation
   Leader
   Liner stock or liner plants
   Lining out
   Repellents
   Scarification
   Soil pH
   Stratification
   Transplanting
Packaging Nursery Products

NURSERY PRODUCTION
Warm Up
 Why are these easy and safe to
 transport?
Essential Question

 What are the 3 types of packaging?
Types of Packaging

 A. Bare root involves harvesting trees
  without taking soil from the field.
 B. Balled and burlapped harvesting
  plants with a soil ball around the roots.
  This is usually covered with burlap.
 C. Containerized plants that are grown
  and then sold while in containers. The
  containers may be made of peat, clay, or
  plastic.
Bare Root!
Balled and Burlapped
Ball and Burlap- Guidelines
 1. This procedure can be done at any
  time of the growing season, but is most
  successful in the spring and fall.
 2. Most of the tree’s feeder roots are
  in the top 12–15 inches of topsoil, and
  that up to 60 percent of the feeder
  roots can extend beyond the tree’s drip
  line.
 3. B&B plants may lose up to 95 percent
  of feeder roots during transplanting.
Ball and Burlap- Guidelines

 4. The materials needed for B&B are a
  spade, twine, burlap, nursery pinning
  nails, a caliper, and a pair of hand
  pruners or a knife.
 5. B&B may also be done with a
 mechanical digger. Requires employee
 training
Containerized
                            Disadvantages
Bare Root
                             a. Can only be used with
                                smaller stock.
Advantages                     b. Limited
 a. Harvested plants are       digging/transplanting
  lightweight.                  time.
 b. Shipping is more          c. Special storage
  economical.                   facilities needed.
 c. Initially less            d. Only successful with
  expensive to produce.         certain plants.
 d. Can be dug in             e. Possible decay in
  dormant seasons.              storage.
                               f. Only used with
                                deciduous plants.
B&B                         Disadvantages
                             a. May need specialized
                                equipment.
Advantages                     b. Soil conditions can
 a. Can be dug and held        limit work.
  for a period of time.        c. Soil balls are heavy
 b. Digging and                and large.
  transplanting season         d. Product is hard to
  can be extended.              move.
 c. Better for difficult      e. Shipping is expensive.
  to transplant species.       f. More skilled labor is
 d. Larger plants can be       needed.
  harvested.                   g. Long production cycle
                                (2–10 years).
Containerized
Advantages                      Disadvantages
 a. Rapid production            a. Can only be used with
    cycle.                          smaller stock.
   b. Faster turnover of          b. Soil dries out quickly.
    invested capital.              c. Susceptible to
   c. Plants are more              cold/winter damage.
    uniform.                       d. Plants can become
   d. Reduced shipping             pot bound.
    weight.                        e. Growing media must
   e. No need for land             be provided
    rotation.                      f. Susceptible to
   f. Greater number of            blowing over.
    plants in a smaller area.      g. More irrigation
   g. Less handling damage.        needed.
Activity- Writing Assignment
 Choose 1 type of packaging previously
  discussed.
 Write 20 sentences
   1. Describe why you chose this type of
    packaging.
   2. Describe why you WOULD NOT
    choose the 2 other types of packaging.
 Use the advantages and
 disadvantages listed in your notes.
Storing Nursery Stock
   A. Common or air-cooled storage—
    These are insulated underground or
    frame structures where air is pulled
    through to cool the plants, but the air is
    not cooled mechanically.
   B. Cold/refrigerated storage—These
    are separate buildings or large rooms
    that are mechanically kept at 27–29°F
    or 32–40°F, depending upon the stored
    materials.
     Plant tissue must be mature before storing,
     this usually occurs after the first major fall
     frost. Leaves are removed before storage.
Defoliation
   The mechanical, chemical, or cultural
    removal of leaves.
     Done before storage
   Methods
     1. Chemical – leaves fall off after being
      sprayed
     2. Mechanical beaters- plant fed into a
      machine that removes leaves
     3. Gas Chambers- airtight chambers filled
      ethylene gas cause leaves to drop
     4. Sweating – plants loosely bundled, heat
      builds causing leaves to fall off
Storage Guidelines
 1. In the initial handling after plants
  have been harvested, they are
  immediately graded and sorted, and
  then either stored or merchandised.
 2. Labeled and graded by size. Small
  sized
 3. When storing, plants are usually
  stacked on wooden pallets in ricks
  (stalls) laid horizontally, with their
  roots to the aisles.
Storage Problems

 Drying of Roots
 Mold development
Measuring Trees

 Caliper: tool shaped like a pair of
  tweezers
 Standard way to measure trees in the
  industry
Activity
 Represent in a cartoon strip the
  directions for ball and burlapping trees
 No words!
Vocabulary
 Balled and burlapped
 Bare root
 Caliper
 Cold/refrigerated storage
 Common or air-cooled storage
 Containerized
 Defoliation
 Gas chambers
 Mechanical beaters
 Sweating
Activity

 Review Quiz 3
Nursery Business

NURSERY PRODUCTION
Warm Up

 In this photo, what ways is money being
  used or gained?
Essential Question

 What are some of the jobs a nursery
  worker might perform?
Common Characteristics Of
Nursery Jobs
 1. Most of the work is done outside.
 2. Sometimes seasonal
   busy seasons are spring and fall.
 3. Ways to gain training for this job.
   a. Junior college or trade school
   b. Four year college or university
   c. On the job training
Common Nursery Job Tasks
 1. Plant propagation
 2. Soil preparation
 3. Potting/transplanting
 4. Watering and fertilizing
 5. Pest control
 6. Pruning
 7. Harvesting and storing
 8. Grading
 9. Packaging and shipping
Nursery Occupations

 President/owner—Responsible for all
  aspects of the business.
 B. Vice-president—This person or
 people make decisions about the
 operation of the nursery—
   including personnel, facilities, finances, etc.
   They are usually in charge of
   marketing,production, or management.
Nursery Occupations

 . Supervisor—This is the plant
 production decision maker.
 Supervisors may specialize in
 propagation, pest control, equipment,
 pruning, sales, planting, harvesting, or
 shipping.
Nursery Occupations
 D. Assistant supervisors—They may be
 responsible for a specific job, crop, or
 nursery area.
   report to a supervisor.
 E. Crew leaders—They are usually in
 charge of a group of workers and/or
 a specific crop.
   responsible for the training of the crew.
 F. Crew members—Entry level
 positions—These workers work
 directly with production of plants.
Nursery Business Records

 Inventory of stock
   Usually this is taken annually, and verified
   through sales and dump records. It can also
   be used for tax and ordering purposes.
 B. Sales, shipping, and delivery receipts
   These records keep track of where the
   money goes and comes from. They are
   usually referred to as invoices.
Nursery Business Records

 Local, Federal and State Business forms
   1. Payroll records—Tax forms, W2’s, work
    permits, and employment records.
   2. Licenses—Pesticide certification, vehicle
    registration, and business.
   3. Insurance—Workmen’s compensation,
    liability, and premium payments.
   4. OSHA information and regulation dealing
    with worker safety.
Nursery Business Records

 Pesticide records—This includes an
  inventory of chemicals and material
  safety data sheets, quarantine, nursery
  inspection, and training program
  records.
Nursery Advertising

 Goals of advertising
   1. Sell products
   2. Get customers into the store
   3. Introduce new products
   4. Create an interest or demand for a
    product
   5. Create public awareness of a product or
    company
Elements of Advertising

 Advertising—Advertising is describing
 a product in order to entice the
 customer to buy it. Advertising can be
 a large cost in running a nursery
 business, but its importance cannot be
 overlooked. Money spent on effective
 advertising is money well spent. This can
 be considered ―educating‖ the
 consumer.
Elements of Advertising
 Marketing—Marketing means all
  functions involved in the buying or
  selling of goods or services.
 3. Merchandising—Merchandising is
  planning, advertising, and other
  activities involved in promoting the sale
  of a product.
 4. Image—This is the impression your
  business gives to consumers. It can be
  good, bad, or indifferent. Advertising
  and marketing should strive to make it a
  good image.
Types of Advertising

 Print and visual—These ads are available
  in our society’s media venues.
   Magazine ads, newspapers, flyers,
   brochures, billboards, direct mail, in store
   ads, bumper stickers, plant tags, etc. Radio,
   T.V., and Internet ads are popular forms of
   electronic advertising.
Types of Advertising

 Business materials—These ads have a
  main goal of getting the name of the
  company out to the customer, but they
  may also be used to advertise a product.
  Signs in front of the store, business
  cards, yellow page ads, Internet web
  sites, employee uniforms, signs on
 equipment, etc.
Vocabulary

 Advertising
 Crew leader
 Crew members
 Invoices
 Marketing
 Merchandising
 Supervisor
Activities

 Design a Nursery Advertisement
 Review Quiz 4

				
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