Nursery Production

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					Nursery facilities

Warm up
 What types of food and food products
 are produced here? What is this place
Essential Question

 How are nurseries classified?
Nurseries Over Time

 1st started in the US 1644 Mass.
   Fruit tree industry
 Early 17 and 1800s
   Orchardists: nursery worker who deals with
   fruit trees
 Prince Nursery: 1757
   Sold trees to his neighbors
   Started commercial production
     produce for a specific market.
Nurseries start to grow

 Jackson and Perkins
   1864: specializing in small fruits
   1879: small roses
 Nurseries in Midwest have ties to big
  cities (New York)
 1890: 4500 nurseries over 173,000
 2/3 are small and supply local markets
Nurseries experience change and
still grow!
 1912; National Plant Quarantine Act
   Prohibited importation of certain plants
 Parcel Post
   Allowed for sending packages, starting mail
   order catalogs
 1974 CA is the largest producer
 Today: $5 billion annually
   CA, FL, VA, OR top producers
Changes in the Industry Today

 Increased efficiency through
 Production:
   1950s drip irrigation is introd, 1960s
    fertilizer injectors invented, 1970 trickle
    irrigation for fields
 Facilities:
   more energy efficient and
    environmentally sound building materials
Changes in the Industry Today

 Materials:
   New plant varieties, more designer plants
   patented, better fertilizers and chemicals
 Market
   More rapid delivery, computers, Internet,
   Martha Stewart, Rising interest in
Categories of Nurseries
 Based on Types of Sales
   1. Retail nurseries sell products to the
    homeowner/general public.
   2. Wholesale nurseries sell to a retail or
    broker nursery. This is the most rapidly
    growing segment of the nursery industry.
   3. Mail order nurseries sell their product
    through the mail system using catalogs to
    market their product. May be wholesale or
   4. Broker or re-wholesaler is a nursery that
    functions as a middleman to connect buyers
    with specific plant material. They sell their
    product at wholesale level prices.
Categories of Nurseries
 By job description
   1. Landscape nurseries specialize in selling
    and often installing landscaping plant
   2. Nursery only nurseries only sell landscape
    plant material.
   3. Garden center nurseries sell their
    product retail. Have an expanded product
    line including garden tools, seeds,
    fertilizers, craft items, and other
    horticultural products.
Categories of Nurseries

 By product produced
   1. Field grown —specifically trees,
    shrubs, or other landscape plants grown
    in a field to a saleable size.
   2. Containerized—plants grown in
    containers to a saleable size.
   3. Both containerized and field grown.
   4. Specialty crop—examples might
    include aquatic plants, turf, marsh
    plants, etc.
Categories of Nurseries

 By Crop produced
   Fruit
   Ornamental
     Roses, Shade and flowering plants, Shrubs,
   Forest and conservation
     Reforestation, conservation efforts
   Linear plants
     Grown for propagation/production of new

 Vocabulary activity
 Each group represent in a poster
  drawing a category of nursery
   Use only pictures to represent.
Warm Up
 What do you think could have happened
 to this tree?
Essential Question

 What are common costs in Nurseries?
Specialty Nurseries
 Research
 Quarantine:
   Hold plant material from outside the US
 Re-wholesale
 Non-for-profit
 Educational- high schools, colleges, etc
 Governmental
Costs in Nursery Industry
 Land Cost: largest most important business
 Labor—This is the business workforce
   paid, hourly, salaried, commission or piece
 Transportation and market: can determine
  the success or failure of a market
 Utilities
   availability, cost, type
 Competition: anyone competing for your
  companies $
Environmental effects on Nurseries

 Environment: effects the growth of
   Temperature: regulated by wind, solar
   radiation, humidity
     Maximum(highest), Minimum(lowest), Average
     Hardiness: plant’s ability to withstand cold
   Moisture: water in the form of rainfall or
     Maintains turgid in plants
Environmental effects continued…

 Moisture continued
   Distribution: heavy rainfall= leaching, slower
    plant growth, increase in pathogens.
   Quality: pH levels, fertility, chemicals
   Quantity: How much? When?
 Wind
   Evaporation: liquid to gas
   Erosion: surface material transported
Environmental effects continued…

 Soil type and topography
   Drainage: removal of excess water
   pH
   Holding capacity: water and air the soil can
   hold for a certain time
 Air quality
 Plant pests
 Natural light
Nursery Tools and Types
 Production: bring plant to sellable size
   Shade houses: protect plants from wind,
    temperature extremes, rain, hail, and
    sun. Made of wood lath or shade cloth.
   Overwintering houses: keeping plants
    above ground over winter
   Cold storage: cold storage for crops
   Shipping and Receiving
   Head house
   Storage areas
   Business offices
Nursery Tools and types
 Propagation: production of new plants
   Cold frame: wooden or concrete block
    frame with a glass or polyethylene cover
    that is heated by the sun.
     germinating seeds, rooting cuttings,
      overwintering plants
   Hot frame: similar to a cold frame but
   has additional heat supplied by electric
   cables or hot water pipes.
     germinating seeds, rooting cuttings or
      overwintering more temperate plants.
Hardiness Zone
 Used by nursery operators to
  productively grow plants
 Zone Map
   ID 11 zones in the US by average minimum
   Produced by USDA, always updated
 Importance
   Young plants & container plants are more
    sensitive to temps
   Helps with plant selection
   Your zone will determine what plants you
    grow and precautions you need to take
Hardiness Zone Map
                             Head house
Vocabulary                   Hotbed
                             Liner plant
                             Mail order nurseries
 Broker or re-wholesaler
                             Mass-marketers
 Cold frame
                             Moisture
 Cold storage
                             Orchardist
 Commercial production
                             Over wintering
 Competition
                             Quarantine
 Containerized
                             Retail nurseries
 Drainage
                             Shade houses
 Erosion
                             Turgid
 Evaporation
                             Wholesale nurseries
 Field grown
 Garden center nurseries
 Hardiness
 Review Quiz 1
 Vocabulary?
Producing Nursery Crops

Warm Up

 Which of these are produced in a
Essential Question

 What are the proper nursery field
Lining Out
 Definition: the process of transplanting
  seedlings or cuttings into the field to
  grow to a saleable size.
 Transplanting: moving plants from one
  location to another
 Linear stock/ Linear plant: refers to
  plants that are lined out
Linear Plants/ Linear Stock

 Stem cuttings:
   Hardwood: deciduous and evergreen
   Semi- hardwood
   Herbaceous
 Leaf cuttings
 Leaf-bud cuttings
 Root-cuttings
 Seedlings
Seedlings: Review

 Treated prior to planting
 Scarification: breaking or softening the
  seed coat to allow the absorption of
 Stratification: chilling the seeds before
Lining out Methods

 Prepare land before transplanting
   grading, rototilling, soil testing, pre-
    plant fertilization
 Check for disease or damage
 Set at proper depth
 Pack soil around the transplant
 Water transplants immediately
 Fertilizer when appropriate
Proper Nursery Practices
 Watering
   Very important, 80% of plant is water,
    cooling, plant growth
   Need of water influenced by:
     Weather, wind, soil, time of year, and plant
   Irrigation: watering artificially
 Fertilizing
   Prior to planting liners
   Test soil
   pH 6.5-7.5
Proper Nursery Practices continued…
   Staking: attaching an upright support to
    the tree
   Pruning
     Correct structural weakness, shape young
       Leader: main growing point and the tip end of
        the trunk, supports the canopy of the tree
     Prune deciduous trees in winter
Proper Nursery Practices …
 Root-Pruning:
   Done year before plant is harvested
   U shaped blade cuts roots
   Helps plant grow, without an extensive root
   system (easy to transplant)
 Weed control
 Seedling and liner production
   Pre-plant—soil pasteurization, soil
    fumigation, pre-emergent herbicides.
   Post-plant—herbicides in spring, summer,
    and fall.
Proper Nursery practices
 Weed Control
   Container production
     Pre-plant—soil pasteurization, soil fumigation,
      pre-emergent herbicides.
     Post-plant—herbicides in spring, summer, and
   Field production
     Summer annual weeds—pre-emergent
     Perennial weeds—fall application of herbicide.
Nursery Schedules
 Activity

 Groups will be given a type of plant
  produced in a nursery setting
 Represent the paragraph in photographs
   Each paragraph is describing a schedule for
   caring of nursery plants
Warm Up

 What do all these have in common?
Essential Question

 What are common nursery pests?
Common Pests
 Pests can become a LARGE problem
  Insects
  Weeds
  Disease
Common Pests- Animals

  Rabbits                   Deer
    Damage: chew bark,        Damage: trample
     eat shoots                 small plants, eat
    Control: enclosures,       soft new growth
     repellents,               Control : diversion
    Favorite Plants:           feeders, repellents
     fruit trees, crab         Favorite:
     apples, flowering          arborvitae plants,
     dogwood, and sweet         birches
Common Pests

 Mice                          Humans
   Damage: Girdle               Damage: physical and
   plants, dig holes              mechanical damage
       chew the bark at the     Control:
        base of the plant         EDUCATION!!!
        disrupting moisture      Favorite Plants:
        and energy flow
                                  unable to determine
   Control: removal of
    habitat (weeds etc)
   Favorites: birches,
Common Pests: Winter Injury
 Usually aesthetic and minor
   Damage: broken branches, frozen apical
    growth/buds, lower bark damage, frost
    cracks (prone to thin barked trees) and
    frost heaving
   Control: proper plant selection, wind breaks,
     Chemicals sprayed on the plant to conserve
   Favorite Plants: evergreens or containerized
Nursery Tools
 Hand tools
   Spade- harvests plant material
   Shovel- removal of soil, mulch, etc
   Hand pruners- for small jobs
   Small pruning saw- large to medium
   Caliper- measures tree trunk diameter
Nursery Tools

 Mechanical
   Computers
   Planters
   Tree diggers
   Lifting and loading
   Packaging and potting
 Make an instructional/education
  brochure about common pests
   Include what the pest is, the damage and
   what it looks like, control methods and how
   to implement them, favorite plants of the
 Review Quiz 2

   Diversion feeding stations
   Girdling
   Irrigation
   Leader
   Liner stock or liner plants
   Lining out
   Repellents
   Scarification
   Soil pH
   Stratification
   Transplanting
Packaging Nursery Products

Warm Up
 Why are these easy and safe to
Essential Question

 What are the 3 types of packaging?
Types of Packaging

 A. Bare root involves harvesting trees
  without taking soil from the field.
 B. Balled and burlapped harvesting
  plants with a soil ball around the roots.
  This is usually covered with burlap.
 C. Containerized plants that are grown
  and then sold while in containers. The
  containers may be made of peat, clay, or
Bare Root!
Balled and Burlapped
Ball and Burlap- Guidelines
 1. This procedure can be done at any
  time of the growing season, but is most
  successful in the spring and fall.
 2. Most of the tree’s feeder roots are
  in the top 12–15 inches of topsoil, and
  that up to 60 percent of the feeder
  roots can extend beyond the tree’s drip
 3. B&B plants may lose up to 95 percent
  of feeder roots during transplanting.
Ball and Burlap- Guidelines

 4. The materials needed for B&B are a
  spade, twine, burlap, nursery pinning
  nails, a caliper, and a pair of hand
  pruners or a knife.
 5. B&B may also be done with a
 mechanical digger. Requires employee
Bare Root
                             a. Can only be used with
                                smaller stock.
Advantages                     b. Limited
 a. Harvested plants are       digging/transplanting
  lightweight.                  time.
 b. Shipping is more          c. Special storage
  economical.                   facilities needed.
 c. Initially less            d. Only successful with
  expensive to produce.         certain plants.
 d. Can be dug in             e. Possible decay in
  dormant seasons.              storage.
                               f. Only used with
                                deciduous plants.
B&B                         Disadvantages
                             a. May need specialized
Advantages                     b. Soil conditions can
 a. Can be dug and held        limit work.
  for a period of time.        c. Soil balls are heavy
 b. Digging and                and large.
  transplanting season         d. Product is hard to
  can be extended.              move.
 c. Better for difficult      e. Shipping is expensive.
  to transplant species.       f. More skilled labor is
 d. Larger plants can be       needed.
  harvested.                   g. Long production cycle
                                (2–10 years).
Advantages                      Disadvantages
 a. Rapid production            a. Can only be used with
    cycle.                          smaller stock.
   b. Faster turnover of          b. Soil dries out quickly.
    invested capital.              c. Susceptible to
   c. Plants are more              cold/winter damage.
    uniform.                       d. Plants can become
   d. Reduced shipping             pot bound.
    weight.                        e. Growing media must
   e. No need for land             be provided
    rotation.                      f. Susceptible to
   f. Greater number of            blowing over.
    plants in a smaller area.      g. More irrigation
   g. Less handling damage.        needed.
Activity- Writing Assignment
 Choose 1 type of packaging previously
 Write 20 sentences
   1. Describe why you chose this type of
   2. Describe why you WOULD NOT
    choose the 2 other types of packaging.
 Use the advantages and
 disadvantages listed in your notes.
Storing Nursery Stock
   A. Common or air-cooled storage—
    These are insulated underground or
    frame structures where air is pulled
    through to cool the plants, but the air is
    not cooled mechanically.
   B. Cold/refrigerated storage—These
    are separate buildings or large rooms
    that are mechanically kept at 27–29°F
    or 32–40°F, depending upon the stored
     Plant tissue must be mature before storing,
     this usually occurs after the first major fall
     frost. Leaves are removed before storage.
   The mechanical, chemical, or cultural
    removal of leaves.
     Done before storage
   Methods
     1. Chemical – leaves fall off after being
     2. Mechanical beaters- plant fed into a
      machine that removes leaves
     3. Gas Chambers- airtight chambers filled
      ethylene gas cause leaves to drop
     4. Sweating – plants loosely bundled, heat
      builds causing leaves to fall off
Storage Guidelines
 1. In the initial handling after plants
  have been harvested, they are
  immediately graded and sorted, and
  then either stored or merchandised.
 2. Labeled and graded by size. Small
 3. When storing, plants are usually
  stacked on wooden pallets in ricks
  (stalls) laid horizontally, with their
  roots to the aisles.
Storage Problems

 Drying of Roots
 Mold development
Measuring Trees

 Caliper: tool shaped like a pair of
 Standard way to measure trees in the
 Represent in a cartoon strip the
  directions for ball and burlapping trees
 No words!
 Balled and burlapped
 Bare root
 Caliper
 Cold/refrigerated storage
 Common or air-cooled storage
 Containerized
 Defoliation
 Gas chambers
 Mechanical beaters
 Sweating

 Review Quiz 3
Nursery Business

Warm Up

 In this photo, what ways is money being
  used or gained?
Essential Question

 What are some of the jobs a nursery
  worker might perform?
Common Characteristics Of
Nursery Jobs
 1. Most of the work is done outside.
 2. Sometimes seasonal
   busy seasons are spring and fall.
 3. Ways to gain training for this job.
   a. Junior college or trade school
   b. Four year college or university
   c. On the job training
Common Nursery Job Tasks
 1. Plant propagation
 2. Soil preparation
 3. Potting/transplanting
 4. Watering and fertilizing
 5. Pest control
 6. Pruning
 7. Harvesting and storing
 8. Grading
 9. Packaging and shipping
Nursery Occupations

 President/owner—Responsible for all
  aspects of the business.
 B. Vice-president—This person or
 people make decisions about the
 operation of the nursery—
   including personnel, facilities, finances, etc.
   They are usually in charge of
   marketing,production, or management.
Nursery Occupations

 . Supervisor—This is the plant
 production decision maker.
 Supervisors may specialize in
 propagation, pest control, equipment,
 pruning, sales, planting, harvesting, or
Nursery Occupations
 D. Assistant supervisors—They may be
 responsible for a specific job, crop, or
 nursery area.
   report to a supervisor.
 E. Crew leaders—They are usually in
 charge of a group of workers and/or
 a specific crop.
   responsible for the training of the crew.
 F. Crew members—Entry level
 positions—These workers work
 directly with production of plants.
Nursery Business Records

 Inventory of stock
   Usually this is taken annually, and verified
   through sales and dump records. It can also
   be used for tax and ordering purposes.
 B. Sales, shipping, and delivery receipts
   These records keep track of where the
   money goes and comes from. They are
   usually referred to as invoices.
Nursery Business Records

 Local, Federal and State Business forms
   1. Payroll records—Tax forms, W2’s, work
    permits, and employment records.
   2. Licenses—Pesticide certification, vehicle
    registration, and business.
   3. Insurance—Workmen’s compensation,
    liability, and premium payments.
   4. OSHA information and regulation dealing
    with worker safety.
Nursery Business Records

 Pesticide records—This includes an
  inventory of chemicals and material
  safety data sheets, quarantine, nursery
  inspection, and training program
Nursery Advertising

 Goals of advertising
   1. Sell products
   2. Get customers into the store
   3. Introduce new products
   4. Create an interest or demand for a
   5. Create public awareness of a product or
Elements of Advertising

 Advertising—Advertising is describing
 a product in order to entice the
 customer to buy it. Advertising can be
 a large cost in running a nursery
 business, but its importance cannot be
 overlooked. Money spent on effective
 advertising is money well spent. This can
 be considered ―educating‖ the
Elements of Advertising
 Marketing—Marketing means all
  functions involved in the buying or
  selling of goods or services.
 3. Merchandising—Merchandising is
  planning, advertising, and other
  activities involved in promoting the sale
  of a product.
 4. Image—This is the impression your
  business gives to consumers. It can be
  good, bad, or indifferent. Advertising
  and marketing should strive to make it a
  good image.
Types of Advertising

 Print and visual—These ads are available
  in our society’s media venues.
   Magazine ads, newspapers, flyers,
   brochures, billboards, direct mail, in store
   ads, bumper stickers, plant tags, etc. Radio,
   T.V., and Internet ads are popular forms of
   electronic advertising.
Types of Advertising

 Business materials—These ads have a
  main goal of getting the name of the
  company out to the customer, but they
  may also be used to advertise a product.
  Signs in front of the store, business
  cards, yellow page ads, Internet web
  sites, employee uniforms, signs on
 equipment, etc.

 Advertising
 Crew leader
 Crew members
 Invoices
 Marketing
 Merchandising
 Supervisor

 Design a Nursery Advertisement
 Review Quiz 4