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									Qualitative Research

        Alan Sawyer
       Marketing 6816

Uses of Qualitative Research
   Obtain preliminary ideas about consumer
   Identify unanticipated problems and
   Generate possible explanations (hypotheses)
    about a market trend
   Test new product, brand perceptions,
       package, ad concepts
   Provide input to questionnaire design     2
           Common Forms
   Focus Groups

   Individual Depth Interviews

   Observation

        Focus Group defined…
   Group Interviewing Method
       used to obtain insights into people’s perceptions,
        beliefs and language related to a particular issue

       (in this case), brand awareness, associations, and

   8 to 12 participants (generally)
       but may be as small as 5 or 6

   Participants should be homogeneous in ways
    that correspond with audience segmentation

   Participants should not know each other too

   Create a short questionnaire designed to screen
       potential participants
   Recruit at least two more people than necessary
       (to make up for no-shows)
   Participants should not be experts
   Provide incentive to encourage participation

   Neutral and comfortable setting
       Like a living room or kitchen table

   Set up to allow eye contact among all
         participants and moderator
   Record sessions (audio and/or video)
   One-way mirror (optional)

   Typical Environment



   Begin with brief introductions
       Describe overall objectives of group
   Can use brief preliminary questionnaire for main
    topics to be covered
       Encourage broad participation
       Warm up group members
   Moderator should follow a rough outline of key
    topics to be covered to help keep discussion on
       8 – 12 main questions with several follow-up questions)
   Avoid yes/no questions (discussion stoppers)
     Questions (continued)
   Flow (funnel) from general issues to more
    specific/sensitive issues

   Key issues should evolve naturally, without
    moderator having to bring them up

   Have a purpose behind every question and
    design questions to get information in the most
    effective way

      Questions* --- examples
   Hypothetical situation: ―When are you most
    likely to eat a candy bar?‖

   Top of mind associations: ―What is the first
    thing you think of when I say ‗Snickers‘?‖

   Meaning of the obvious: ―What does _____
    mean to you?‖

* Note that these are also good for individual interviews.
     Beginning/Probing Questions
                  (examples) (Con’td)
   Chain of questions: ―Why is that important to

   Sentence completion: ―The best thing about
    (this product) is…‖

   Faked confusion: ―I‘m unsure. Can you clarify
    what you mean when you say …?‖

                   Funneling Questions
   When I say chocolate bar, what first comes to mind?
   What is the first brand that comes to mind?
   Do you eat the same candy bar you ate 10 years ago?
        What caused you to stay loyal/change brands?
   When/where are you likely to purchase a candy bar?
   What advertising comes to mind regarding candy bars?
        What type of advertising was used?

   When I say Snickers, what first comes to mind?
   What qualities/attributes do you associate with Snickers?
        Have you eaten a Snickers? (How recently/often?)
   With what other brands of candy bars do you associate Snickers?
        Why? In what ways are they similar? Dissimilar?

                 Moderating Skills
   Moderator is a neutral referee who keeps
    discussion on track while doing minimal talking

   Encourage participants to speak with each other
    rather than solely to the moderator

   Ask for clarification, probe for further information,
    point out contradictions to explore what
    participants really want to say

   Bring discussion back if it begins to stray; “rein in”
    an overly helpful, vocal participant                14
   Make transcripts from tapes and notes
   Look for trends and strongly held opinions
   Don‘t take responses out of context
   Give more weight to comments that are specific
    and/or based on personal experience
   Don‘t attempt to quantify responses or
    generalize them to a larger population
       (this is what a survey is for)
       Focus Group Advantages
   Speed: Can be executed quickly
   Creativity: Synergy helps to generate new ideas
   Realism: Group presence helps keep comments
   Persuasiveness: Flesh-and-blood consumers are
    more ―concrete‖ and persuasive than ―abstract‖
   The Future: Growth in Web-based focus groups
     Focus Group
   Not representative of target market
   Encourage simplistic responses to the problem
   Moderator can bias
   Participants can bias (―bandwagon‖ effect)
   Subject to managerial over-reliance due to their

    Individual Depth Interviews
   Purposes
       Understand consumer motivations
       Understand how consumers view the purchase and
        consumption experiences
       Elicit consumer ―associations‖

   Techniques*                 * Note need for funneling
       Free elicitation           as in focus groups
       Projective techniques
       ―Laddering‖

Qualitative Research for
GEICO Team ---Focus Group
   Results / Analysis
       Auto insurance is not ―top-of-mind‖ product

        Strongly-held belief (in this group) that an agent
        is important

       Cost an important factor

       High brand awareness of Geico, but no usage

        GEICO Qualitative Research
        Individual Depth Interviews
   Key findings:
       Strong brand awareness

        Beliefs/perceptions: people believe Geico is the low-
        cost provider

       Purchase behavior: Geico‘s promise of savings
        matches what people say they want—low cost/price

    Individual Depth Interviews
    --- GEICO Results and Analysis
   Strong brand awareness
       Geico ―top of mind‖
       Gecko/Lizard
       Little to no recall of other Geico campaigns
   Beliefs and perceptions
       Geico offers savings
       Buying direct is cheaper
       Price is the #1 attribute in buying decisions
       Coverage/protection is #2
       All other attributes insignificant
   Purchase behavior
       Price drives purchase behavior, followed by familiarity
       People stay with the same provider for five or more years
       Top reason for changing is price, followed by relocating
       Bundled product offerings are important
       Few respondents have used Geico                             21
    Sample Free Elicitations
   Campbell’s Soup
       Canned
       Nutritious/healthy/good food
       Red and white can
       Rainy/cold weather
       Salty
       Childhood/kids
       Feel good

Brand Exploratory
Typical Shopping Lists at
      Different Stores
Asked respondents to create a shopping
  list for a typical person who shops at:
     Winn Dixie
     Kash n‘ Karry
     Albertson‘s
     Publix
Typical Shopping Lists
Winn Dixie—Bubba

   Lower Middle-Class
   Southern
   Bacon, RC Cola,
    Grits, Pork Chops,
   24 cans of Bud Light & Pigs Feet
Typical Shopping Lists

Kash n’ Karry—Jimbo
 Open 24 hours

 Students –

 Beer, Frozen Pizza,
  TV dinners, Oreos,
  Chips, Corn Flakes,
  Toothpaste & Donuts
  Typical Shopping Lists
Albertson’s—Malcolm's Mom
 Big families, > 2 children

 Coupon clippers

 Family-Size Package of
 2 Gallons of Milk,

  Frozen Popsicles
 Diapers
     Brand Exploratory

Publix—Any Home USA
 Spanned all ages

 Sophisticated Consumer

 Prime Rib, Smoked Salmon,
  Head of Lettuce, Vitamins,
  Flowers, Kale, Sushi, Cake,
  Designer Beers & Wine

qualitative                                                                team

  Individual Interviews – Tivo Exploratory
  To help pinpoint any other important topics, interviews also
  included a few of the following questions:

  1)  Where can you buy TiVo?
  2)  If TiVo was an animal what animal would it be?
  3)  On a scale of 1 to 10 how would you rate TiVo's quality?
  4)  Do you own a VCR?
  5)  Do you wish your VCR was easier to operate?
  6)  Have you ever heard of a DVR?
  7)  What do you know about DVR services?
  8)  Do you know anyone who owns a DVR?
  9)  How much do you think it costs to buy a DVR?
  10) What features of a DVR are important to you?
  11) How much do you think TiVo's service costs?
  12) Do you think that it is important for someone who is young and hip to
      have a TiVo?
  13) Do you watch much TV?
  14) Who would own TiVo?
qualitative                                                             team
                                 Beware of percentages                 number

                       (low, non-representative sample, etc.)
      100% of the participants had heard of TiVo.
      60% knew what TiVo does
      57% knew what it meant to TiVo something.
      40% of respondents did not have an image come to mind

      40% heard of TiVo on television             TiVo representatives found
      20% did not know where they heard of TiVo   it very interesting that all
      10% from DirecTV offers                     respondents had heard of
      10% Word of mouth                           TiVo, but only 60% knew
      10% Radio Program                           what it was.
      7% Newspaper
      3% Online.

      15% were aware of cost for TiVo

      80% of respondents did not know anyone that had TiVo.
      13% of respondents had either a TiVo or some type of DVR.
qualitative                                                          team


   Perceived Quality:
       60% did not have any idea about the quality.
       20% had high ratings for quality.
       10% rated TiVo as low quality, because of complexity.

   What were they interested in most in a DVR?
       75% did not know
       20% wanted speed or ease of use in recording
       5% wanted plenty of storage                             WOOF
   What would TiVo be, if it were an animal?
       40% said dog
       10% copycat or cat
       50% various other animals

     The TiVo representative mentioned that their brand image was
     something warm and friendly, easy to use, plan whenever.
    Qualitative Interviews – Highlights

   Examples of Questions and responses:
    -   From the models below, please choose how you see the people that
        regularly eat at the below restaurants (choose a number from 1
        through 9).

          McDonald‘s    3.2                 Chick-Fil-A     5.5
          Burger King   3.3                 Boston Market   6.0
          KFC           3.6                 Subway          6.1
          Taco Bell     4.2
          Wendy‘s       4.4                                                31
                Qualitative Interview –
              Brand Association Highlights
                               Burger                                   Boston
      Probe McDonald’s          King         Wendy’s          KFC       Market        Subway

Personality    Happy/Lazy      Slacker /     Family /        Lazy      All          Friendly
Trait                          Lazy /        Happy
Car            Kia / Ford      Ford          Ford            All       SUV /        Toyota / Honda
                                                                       Mazda        / Mazda Nissan

Body Type      Fat             Fat           Average /       Fat       Average      Slim / Average
Occupation     Blue Collar /   Blue Collar   Cashier /       Blue      Teacher /    Office Worker /
               Construction    / Student     Accountant /    Collar    Accountant   Professional
               Wkr/ Student                  Lawyer / etc.             / Engineer
Animal         Cow             Cow           Cow             Chicken   Chicken      Chicken

Age Group      All Ages        All Ages      25 and up       Middle    25 and up    30 and up
Activity       Watching TV     Lazy /        Several –       Picnic    Varies       Beach / Work
                               Surfing       Reading /                              out
                               Internet      Run / Travel
         Projective Task Example:
            Two Shopping Lists
                  (shown to different people)

- Pound of hamburger          - Pound of hamburger
- Loaf of Wonder Bread        - Loaf of Wonder Bread
- Bunch of carrots            - Bunch of carrots
- Can of baking powder        - Can of baking powder
- Can of Maxwell House        - Jar of Nescafe Instant
   drip grind coffee             Coffee
- Can of Del Monte pears      - Can of Del Monte pears
- 5 lbs. of potatoes          - 5 lbs. of potatoes

                  Maxwell House   Nescafe
Lazy                  4%            48%

Fails to plan well
  for hhld purchases    12%         48%

Thrifty                 16%          4%

Not a good wife         0%          16%
     Haire’s Shopping List Study
     Updated for the New Millenia

          List A                        List B
½ bag – Lays nacho chips        ½ bag – Lays nacho chips
2 boxes Mud ‗n Bugs             2 boxes Mud ‗n Bugs
        Pop Tarts                       Pop Tarts
Nescafe instant Margarita Mix   Nescafe instant Beer Mix
1 can sterno                    1 can sterno
2 cans Red Bull                 2 cans Red Bull
5 lbs. ice                      5 lbs. ice

   Describe a golfer to two different sets of people
    (what clothes, car, etc. --- including what kind of
    golf driver he uses)

   One golfer has a driver (e.g., Big Bertha)

   The other one uses another (e.g., Nike) brand.
       Describe this person.
       What kind of person is s/he?
       What kind of golfer is she?
       Etc.                                        36
qualitative                                         team
    Projective Task                                 three

 30 people were asked to review one of these two lists
 and describe the type of person who would have a
 living room with the items:
       List 1                  List 2
IKEA coffee table          IKEA coffee table
Rolling Stone              Rolling Stone
magazine                   magazine
Mirror on wall             Mirror on wall
27” Television             27” Television
Toshiba VCR                TiVo Digital Recorder
Lamp                       Lamp
La-Z-Boy recliner          La-Z-Boy recliner
qualitative                                         team

  Projective Task
  Most common responses:
     Toshiba VCR           TiVo Digital Recorder

   Male                Well-off financially (47%)
   Young               Loves to watch TV (33%)
   Concerned           Lazy (33%)
     with appearance   College student
   Stylish             Likes music
   College student     Fun
                       Vain                      38
Projective Techniques Results

             Examples of
         Other Projective Tests
   Sid Levy (Northwestern)
       In-depth interviews
             drawn pictures
       Different types of tasks/questions
            When purchase
            Why buy
            Relationship with product
            Free associations

More Examples
     Describe possible dreams about the

     Picture drawing

    In-Depth Personality #1:
         Woman (30-39)

   Husband sends her flowers because:
        ―I am sweet‖
   Words associated with flowers:
            ―I love you‖
   Compared to other gifts, flowers are:
       ―warmest, most romantic, highest
            class, sexiest, most fun‖
   Flowers remind me of: LOVE
    #1 (cont’d)
   Her dream:
    ―Someone gets married, they are happy
      and I am pleased for them and I send
      flowers to congratulate them.
     Everybody likes it and they live happily
      ever after.‖

    #1 (cont’d)
   She is opposed to the idea of flowers at

   ―All the funerals I‘ve been to have
    The tradition of sending flowers must
    have come about in order to cover the
    smell of the body.‖
Her picture that she drew:

     In-Depth Personality #2:
           Woman (30-39)
   ―I am a quiet person. I keep mostly to
    myself and keep out of trouble that way.
   I exchange blouses with my mother at
    Christmas, and I enjoy doing ceramics.‖

   ―I love flowers because they beautify the
    surroundings. They give me a special calm
    feeling of enjoyment. I give flowers to let
    someone know you are thinking of them.‖
      #2 (Cont’d)
   Her dream:
        ―I would send flowers to the ladies at
    work with a note attached, and they would
    all start crying at one time‖

   For a funeral, flowers are … SAD

   ―But I guess when you die, you‘ll be in
    paradise and paradise is full of flowers.‖   47
Her picture:

     In-Depth Personality #3
           Man (40-49)

   Describes himself as a
       ―loving and generous man.‖
   He celebrates all occasions with
       ―lavish and often costly gifts.‖
   He says he is enthusiastic about flowers,
    and says they make him think about
       ―HAPPINESS and WARMTH‖                   49
#3 (Cont’d)
   He also says:
       ―The main reason to send flowers is
    to apologize for having a fight. They lift
    the spirits, women would be happy
    about the flowers.‖

#3 (Cont’d)
   His dream:
    ―I had a dream that I send some
    flowers and as the person bent down to
    smell the flowers, a thorn cut her lips.

    Even though she was bleeding, she
    called me to thank me for sending her
    the roses.‖
His picture:

Other Projective Techniques
      Compare to alternatives

      What color is it?

      What kind of animal?

                  Other Examples:
                 Series of Questions
   Relate the brand to other kinds of objects:
    If Brand A were a car, what would it be?
        Why might it be that car?
    If it were an animal, what kind?
        Why that kind of animal?
Look at these 8 pictures of people. Which two might be most
    likely to use this Brand?   Why?

                    Story Telling
   Example: Crude, vague line drawing of two
    women shopping in a grocery store:
   Told that the two women are shopping for
    dry soup mix.
       ―Which of the two is the dry soup user?
         Tell a story about her.‖
       The other woman never uses dry soup. Please tell
        a story about her. What is the other women
        saying to her?‖

   With no more prompting, stories become
    vehicles for respondents to express:
       How they feel other people might feel about them
        for using the product/brand
       Their attitudes toward the family and feeding
        them the product/brand
       Their ideas about reason for and against using the

     The Creative Woman
   ―The dry soup user is a good cook, what you call
    a creative cook, and she creates miracles with the
    package soups. By adding hamburger you can
    create meatloaf that is extraordinary.

   The other one just doesn‘t know the magic some
    dry soups can create in your cooking.‖

      The Practical,
         Modern Woman
   ―This one is a young mother with small children
    who likes the convenience of dry soup to make
    easy meals. It‘s easier to store than cans
    because she can buy more of it and it offers
    greater variety in flavors.

   She is younger, more apt to try new products,
    and experiment.‖

     The Lazy or
        Indifferent Woman
   ―The one on the outside is looking at dry soups
    because they are easy to reach, easier to carry
    home than canned. She feels they are easier to
    fix. She is lazy and bored and takes the easy way
    out when she is cooking.

   She likes to shop and get away from the kids. She
    has 5 or 6 that get on her nerves. She is just
    going to get envelopes and fix a big batch for
The Underprivileged Woman
   ―She has to buy it because she has a very
    large family and these are more economical.
    The dried soups are lower in price.

   The dry soup user says that the dry is just as
    good in taste and nutritional value.‖

       Laddering Technique ---
       Means-End Structures
1. Consumers buy products primarily to
       do something.
  1.   Achieve important ends
  2.   Solve important problems

 Product knowledge is organized in terms of what
  products do --- their consequences.
      Needs, goal, values, --- self-concepts

Assumptions of
   Means-End Chains               (Cont’d)

3. Consequences vary in abstraction

4. Attributes, consequences, and values are
   linked to form an associative network of
   brand perceptions --- a means-end chain.

   Laddering Technique ---
   Means-End Structures (Cont’d)
Concrete Attributes
  Abstract Attributes              Knowledge

       Functional Consequences

           Psychosocial Consequences           Self-
               Instrumental Values

                        Terminal Values
Laddering Technique ---
Means-End Structures (Cont’d)
   Concrete attributes
       Cognitive representation of physical characteristics
       Can be perceived directly
            Example: price

   Abstract attributes
       Abstract representation of ―chink‖ standing for
        several more concrete attributes
       Not directly measurable
            Example: good quality

             Laddering Technique ---
             Means-End Structures (Cont’d)
   Functional consequences
       Whether the product does what it is supposed to do
       Whether it functions appropriately
            Example: Handles easily

   Psychosocial consequences
       How product makes person feel
       How that person perceives that others feel about them as a
        result of using the brand
            Example: Others see me as special

     Laddering Technique ---
     Means-End Structures (Cont’d)
   Instrumental values
       Preferred modes of conduct
       Abstract consequences of using it
            Example: Being center of attention

   Terminal values
       Preferred end states
       Very abstract consequences
            Example: Security

       Laddering ---
        questionning technique                 (Cont’d)

   Researcher: You said that the shoe‘s lacing pattern
    was important to you in deciding what brand to
    buy. Why is that important to you?

   Consumer: A staggered lacing pattern makes the
    shoe fit more snugly on my foot
       (physical attribute and
       functional consequence)

      Laddering technique (Cont’d)
   R: Why is it important that the ‗shoe fit more
    snugly on your foot‘?
   C: Because it gives me more support
        (functional consequence).

   R: Why is better support important to you?
   C: So I can run without worrying about injuring
    my feet
        (psychological consequence).
     Laddering technique (Cont’d)
   R: Why is it important to you not to worry while
   C: So I can relax and enjoy the run
       (psychosocial consequence).

   R: Why is it important that you can relax and
    enjoy your run?
   C: Because it gets rid of tension I‘ve built up at
       (psychosocial consequence).
     Laddering technique (Cont’d)
   R: Why is it important to get rid of tension from
   C: So, when I go back to work that day, I can
    perform better
        (instrumental value – high

     Laddering technique                 (Cont’d)

   R: Why is it important that you perform better?
   C: I feel better about myself
       (terminal value - self esteem).

   R: Why is it better that you feel better about
   C: It just is! (the end)

        Means-End Structures:
        Liquid Tide (Cont’d)
CAs:   Chemical Formulation

AAs: Cleaning Power

FCs: My kids have clean clothes

PCs: I am a good parent.

IVs: Fulfill my responsibilities

TVs:   Respected by others;        Self-Esteem   72
        Means-End Structures:
        Scope Mouthwash (Cont’d)

CAs:   Sugarless         Has Fluoride

AAs: Not fattening
FCs: Won‘t gain weight   Stops cavities   Avoid bad breath

PCs: Be attractive to    Look better      Feel confident in
                                          social situations
IVs:                      Lower           Perform better
                          dental bills
TVs:                     Security         Accomplishment
   Means-End Structures:
   Frito-Lay Chips (Cont’d)
Ridges                    High calories

    Dips sticks better             Gain weight

         Guests enjoy themselves          Won‘t be attractive
                                          to others
            I am a good host/hostess

                   Social recognition          Low self-esteem
Laddering Technique

 • Keep asking ―why?‖
 • Find a hierarchical structure of
   attributes, consequences and values
   that consumers have about Bud Light.

 • Result: People drink Bud Light to
   - Increase their feelings of social acceptance and
   - Increase their feelings of self-esteem.

Laddering Technique:
Example 1 (Bud Lite)
•   Why do you drink Bud Light?
    Because it is healthier and less filling. (= Attribute)

•   Why is it important for you to be healthy?
    Because I can accomplish a lot after drinking a Bud Light.
    I can even accomplish more! (= Consequence)

•   Why is it important for you to accomplish more?
    Because I feel better about myself when I accomplish a lot.

Laddering Technique: Example 2
   •   Why do you drink Bud Light?
       I drink it because I watch the calories. (= Attribute)

   •   Why is it important for you to watch the calories?
       Because I want to avoid gaining weight! (= Attribute)

   •   Why do you want to avoid gaining weight?
       I want to stay skinny. That‘s the personal image I have about
       It is also what other people expect me to be.

   •   Why do you want to meet people‘s expectations?
       I feel they will only accept me when I am like this. (=

   •   Why is it important for you that people accept you?
       Because I feel much better about myself when I know that other
       people think I look good. (= HIGHER SELF-ESTEEM: Value)
Laddering Technique:
Hierarchical Structure


                            PERSONAL IMAGE

                            CONTROL WEIGHT


Interesting Quotes (1)
•   ―Bud Light is one of the best light beers: you get a great taste for
    a decent price‖.
•   ―Bud Light is the standard of excellence‖.
•   ―Bud Light and I are good friends. We hang out every weekend‖.
•   ―Bud Light is having a time out during the week‖.
•   ―Bud Light is the beer everybody wants and buys‖.
•   ―Bud Light is the beer I have grown up with‖.
•   ―The typical Bud Light drinker has a Jeep and a Lexus: Bud Light
    is a beer for the middle class and the rich‖.
•   ―I look forward to socializing with my friends and we make it a
    Bud Light!
•   While drinking we are totally relaxed and forget about the world.
•   Looking forward to that is like looking forward to a vacation‖.
Interesting Quotes (2)
•   ―I do drink Bud Light because it is pushed more than any other
•   ―I realize I am drinking Bud Light because of the great
    commercials. When I see a nice commercial about another
    brand, I might try it out too‖.
•   ―The advertising appeals to age groups anywhere. There is no
    specific age group: there are people of 15 drinking Bud Light as
    well as people of 40. If you drink beer, they want you to buy
    They want to reach every beer drinker in America… and in the
•   ―The Bud Light product is not the focus of the advertising.
•         They incorporate it into a grand situation that everyone
    can see themselves in‖.
•   ―Cleverness is the key: if everybody starts doing the same thing,
    they have to come up with new, more clever advertising‖.
•   ―The best thing about Bud Light is the ability to socially lubricate
    people for a good time‖.                                           80
                  Laddering Result:
                   TARGET stores

                           Peace of Mind

                                                Trust in

Clientele                Cleanliness       Quality Products   Professional

 “Laddering” to Uncover Core Customer
Example:   Whole Wheat 3-Grain Bread
                     Self Esteem

     Recognition                   Accomplishment

                  Feel                   Feel
  Acceptance                             Healthy
            Tastes       Filling             Nutritious
 Fancy       good

   Item        Accom-     Belong-   Fulfill-    Self           Satisfac
              plishment     ing      ment      Esteem   Family   tion   Security
OB Lager                    X                                              X

Ivory Soap                                                X

Maybelline       X                    X                           X

Honey                                            X        X
Bunches of
Diet Coke                   X                                     X
J&J’s Non-       X                    X          X                X
Haagen           X                               X                X
Sony             X          X         X
A Picture Tells 1000 Words:
ZMET (Zaltman Elicitation Technique)
Assumes that many subconscious motives and
   perceptions can only be retrieved or
   articulated visually
1. Gather or take pictures
2. Story telling about pictures
3. Missed images
4. Sorting task
5. Laddering to elicit constructs and their hierarchy
6. Most representative picture(s)

         ZMET             (cont’d)

7. Opposite images
8. Sensory images
         Color, emotion, sound, smell, taste, touch

9. Mental Map
10. Summary image
11. Vignettes
         Play or video
       You could get pictures that remind them of brand.
Problem Testing
   See last few slides in Appendix at end of
    Quantitative Research notes.

   Could do as individual interviews.

In-Depth Interviews:
   Pros and Cons
   Slower
   More expensive
   Requires expert interpretation ??
   BUT, responses unbiased by other
   Produce more from each respondent
       More unique ideas
       More diverse ideas
       More helpful ideas?   Ed Fern
    Observational Research
   Dimensions of Observational Methods
       Natural vs. Contrived
            E.g., ―dropped letter‖ technique
       Disguised vs. Undisguised
       Structured vs. Unstructured
       Human vs. Technology

    Observational Techniques:
     Consumer Ethnography
 In-home interviews/taping

   In-field observation
       Personal
       Electronic
       “Garbology”

   Self-observation
       Diaries
       “Auto-driving”
         Observational Checklist

                 Men     Men      Women Women
                w/Kids w/o Kids   w/Kids w/o Kids
Time in aisle
Brands sought
Brands bought
Package size
Info. sought
Price paid

Date              Time                     Shopper’s Name

Nature of Transaction:          Personal                    Telephone


I. For Personal Transactions:
        Bank Employee’s Name
  How was name obtained?        Employee had name tag
                                Name plate on counter or desk
                                Employee gave name
                                Shopper had to ask for name
                                Name provided by other employee
II. For Telephone Transactions:
         Bank Employee’s Name
 How was name obtained?           Employee gave name upon answering phone
                                  Name provided by other employee
                                  Shopper had to ask for name
                                  Employee gave name during conversation.

 III. Customer Relations Skills                           Yes No N/A
 Did the employee notice and greet you immediately?
 Did the employee speak pleasantly and smile?
 Did the employee answer the phone promptly?
 Did the employee find out your name?
 Did the employee use your name during the transaction?
 Did the employee ask you to be seated?
 Was the employee helpful?
 Was the employee’s work area neat and clean?

C. Customer Relations Skills                              Yes No N/A
Did s/he show genuine interest in you as a customer?
Did the employee thank you for coming in?
Did the employee support the bank and its services?
Did s/he handle interruptions effectively?

Comment on any positive or negative details of the transaction that you
found particularly noticeable.

        Observation: Pros & Cons
Major Advantage:
   Ability to observe actual marketplace behavior.
       People do not always remember what they actually do.
       People sometimes misrepresent what they do.

Major Disadvantage:
   Depends on researcher‘s interpretations.
       Without inquiry, researcher must infer motives
   Must wait for target behavior to happen
       Risk of idle time

         Your Qualitative Research
   Try several different approaches to qualitative
       Minimum of 2 sets; the more, the better
   Perhaps 2 group members could do one type or
       one set of questions/techniques
   And the other members could try something else
   Only need 5 individual depth interviews per member
       (at least 10 per type of approach)
          Sample Requirements for Your
             Qualitative Research
   Within each group, try different sets of qualitative
    questioning techniques
       One sub-group can ask one set; another ask another
       Often some types of questions are inconsistent with others due to:
          order effects

                  some questions reveal true focus of questionnaire which might
                   bias some following questions unless asked to separate
            fatigue / irritability
                  Too many questions in a row will be ―too damn many!‖

   Each person should do at least 5 interviews
       (10 – 12 per set of questions)
Example with Use of Some Qualitative Research
Techniques: COOK BROS.

Brand Strategy

        Brand Elements
   Symbols
       Ellipse Logo
       House
       Screw Man
       Name & Text (Cook
        Bros. - Circus font)
       Vans

Brand Positioning

        Personal Values          Esteem & Security
                                 Confidence &
   Psychological Benefits
   Functional Benefits           Speed, efficiency
                                 Quality, Reliability,
    Product Features
 Concrete Product Offerings
                                 Construction, Design,

   Web Site
       (
   Brochures (direct)
   Local Phone
   County Fair
   Signage (Vehicles, Job Sites)
   Local Ads (civic assoc.,        Organizations)

            Marketing Activities
                                                     Vehicles                                           Mail
                                                                   Sites            Handouts


                                                                                               Affiliate Sites
                                        Cook Bros                      Cook Bros
                                        Office                         WebSite                 Search Engines

                             Events                                                Directory            Redbook
                                                     Local Ads

                           Co. Fair        Orgs.                 Civic Ass.
                                           Law                   Arl Forest
                                                                 ARl Heights
                                           :                     :
                                           :                     :
                                           :                     :

               Management Decision Tree
Mgmt.                                                                      Build / Not
Tree                Values
                                     Satisfaction                 Self-Esteem                    Family            Accomplishment

         Benefits                                                                     Consequences
                      Life Style                Pride                Investment                                                Risk

                             Functionality                 Appearance                                              Financial              Home

                            Unique                         Modern New                  Quality             Real     Cost         Disruption      Safety
                          Personalized                                                                     Value   Expens

Attributes                                                                                                                      Company Attributes
                                    Addition                                           Improvement                                  BRAND
                                   New Space                                           Better Space
 Space                                                                                                             Mgmt                                   Build

    Storage                                                                Refinish        Appli.         Window   Selection                              Comp
    Space       Privacy        Living         Working         Entertain     Rooms          Fixture         Walls
                Space          Space          Space            Space       Features       Upgrade         Doors
                                                                                                                   Reputation         Personne       Design
                                                                                                                                          l               102
         Mgmt. Perceptions

   Primary Values
       Self Esteem
       Family
       Accomplishment

   Primary Benefits/Consequences
       Investment
            Functionality, Appearance, Unique&Personal
       Risk
            Home<Disruption
             Prospect Decision Tree                                                                                                           more
                                                                          Build / Not
                                                                                                                                            and more
                                     Satisfaction               Self-Esteem                    Family            Accomplishment

         Benefits                                                                    Consequences
                      Life Style                Pride                Investme                                                Risk
                                             Recognition                nt

                             Functionality              Appearance                                               Financial              Home

                           Unique                          Modern New                Quality             Real     Cost          Disruptio      Safety
                         Personalize                                                                     Value   Expens             n
                              d                                                                                    e

Attributes                                                                                                                    Company Attributes
                                    Addition                                          Improvemen                                  BRAND
                                   New Space                                            t Better
  Spac                                                                                   Space                   Mgmt                                   Build

   Storage                                                                Refinish       Appli.         Window   Selectio                               Comp
   Space       Privacy         Living         Working        Entertai     Rooms         Fixture          Walls      n
               Space           Space          Space          n Space      Feature       Upgrad          Doors                       Personn
                                                                                                                 Reputation                        Design
                                                                             s             e
                                                                                                                                       el                 104
    Prospect Perceptions
    (much more complex)

   Primary Values
       Satisfaction
       Accomplishment

   Primary Benefits/Consequences
       Investment
            Functionality, Financial, Quality
       Lifestyle
            Functionality<Unique&Personal
       Risk
            Financial<Real Value, Cost, Quality
              Champion Customer Decision Tree
                                                                            Build / Not
                                                                                                                                                 Note large
                                      Satisfaction                 Self-Esteem                   Family            Accomplishment                role of the

         Benefits                                                                  Consequences
                       Life Style                Pride                Investment                                               Risk

                              Functionality                 Appearance                                             Financial              Home

                            Unique                          Modern New                 Quality             Real     Cost         Disruption       Safety
                          Personalized                                                                     Value   Expense

Attributes                                                                                                                      Company Attributes
                                     Addition                                          Improvement                                  BRAND
                                    New Space                                          Better Space
 Space                                                                                                             Mgmt                                    Build

    Storage                                                                 Refinish       Appli.         Window   Selection                               Comp
    Space       Privacy         Living         Working         Entertain     Rooms         Fixture         Walls
                Space           Space          Space            Space       Features      Upgrade         Doors                       Personne
                                                                                                                   Reputation                        Design
                                                                                                                                          l                106
        Customer Perceptions

   Primary Values
       Satisfaction
       Self Esteem
       Family
   Primary Benefits/Consequences
       Pride & Recognition
            Functionality, Appearance<Unique, New
       Lifestyle
            Functionality<Unique & Personal
       Risk
            Home<Disruption, Quality                107
             Trends & Predictions
   Trends
       Higher Interest Rates
            Lowering Demand / Higher competition

   Predictions
       More Price/value Sensitivity

   Primary Benefits/Consequences
       Investment
            Functionality, Financial
       Risk
            Financial<Real Value, Cost

              Brand Equity Strengths
                (Need to Leverage)
   Positioning
       Integrity/Honesty
            This was a very highly rated attribute and company value
             that is underutilized
       Warranty / Service
            Follow up / repair and service

   Extensions
       Sub Branding
            Smaller Remodeling Projects
            Commercial Remodeling Projects

           Brand Equity Weaknesses
              (Need to Strengthen)

   Quality (Benefit)
       The company has not utilized the value of the product and
        service QUALITY to the customers.

   Satisfaction (Value)
       Unrealized strong value to customer

   Financial>Risk (Consequence)
       Under valued and growing risk consideration

                       Brand Equity Gaps
            (Customer vs. Management)
   Values
          Satisfaction

   Benefits & Consequences
          Lifestyle
          Quality

   Attributes
          Company Reputation
          Competence
          Honesty/Integrity (unmapped)
                    Brand Equity Gaps
                 (Prospect vs. Customer)
   Values
          Accomplishment

   Benefits & Consequences
          Investment
          Financial Risk

   Attributes
          Company Competence
          Company Integrity/Honesty (unmapped)

           Strengths - Recommendations
   Values
          Self Esteem (Maintain Prestige Image)
          Family (Maintain Family Orientation)

   Benefits & Consequences
          Investment value (well delivered communicate better)
          Risks were minimized in Home and Finance (Stress Safety, Process,
           Investment value)

   Attributes
          Reputation (maintain push quality of service)
          Competence (communicate processes and history)
          Design (Advertise Design History)                              113
      Weaknesses - Recommendations
   Values
          Satisfaction (stress owner‘s design and values)

   Benefits & Consequences
          Quality (Quantify & Report Quality Control)
          Financial Risk (Communicate Value)
          Lifestyle (Stress Lifestyle Change resultant)

   Attributes
          Company Honesty/Integrity
                (Communicate company history and clientele)
          Management
                (communicate education, experience and company processes)
          Summary - Recommendations
   Stress Company Quality
       Product
       Service
   Stress Company Integrity
       Pricing
       Delivery
   Stress Company Values
       Family
       Reputation
       Employees
     Recommended Actions
   Web Site
         Stress Personalized Design
         Well Defined Processes
         Quality Guarantee & Control
         Integrity History
   Customer Service
         Continue High Customer Service Levels
         Insist on Design being the customers‘
   Communicate Investment Potential
         Publish Return on Investment Data       116
               An Alternative View about
         How to Measure Importance Weights:

V. Problem Detection Analysis
1. Importance weights often miss things that seem at
   face value to be important

2. Instead of focusing on consumers‘ perceptions of
   importance, this focuses on problems
                          BBD&O Advertising Agency

    Problem Detection Analysis

First Step:
   Use focus groups and/or depth interviews

   Ask about what irritates, frustrates, etc. when using the

   Accumulate a list of (50 150) problems
      Problem Detection Analysis:
      Second Step: Survey at least 200
      prospects about each problem and ask:

a. How often does it occur?   (Frequency)

b. How much does it irritate you when it
      occurs?           (Bothersomeness)

c. In your opinion, which of these items are already
   being used as advertising or product claims
Problem Detection Analysis
     Example: Dog Food
Most Important
  Benefits          Biggest Problems
Balanced diet       Expensive
Nutrition           Smells bad
Contains vitamins   No different sizes for
Tests good to dog         different dogs
Easy to prepare     Dog‘s teeth dirty
                    Doesn‘t chew like a

     Problem Detection Analysis:
           Example: Banking

Most Important Benefits   Biggest Problems
Modern                    Service too slow
Innovative                Too complicated
Friendly                  Lines are too long
Low interest rates        Can‘t get a loan


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