LAN Administration by zhangyun


									LAN Administration

   Keeping the network operating properly
   Making sure the needs of users are
    addressed in a timely manner, including
    hardware and software upgrades
   The LAN administrator must have
    appropriate tools to accomplish a
    number of specific tasks
Console and agent
   The console is the workstation that is
    set up to view information collected by
    the agents
   The agents are special programs that
    are designed to retrieve specific
    information from the network.
Management function (1/2)
   View and manipulate network data
   Automate file distribution
   Maintain hardware inventory
   Manage installed software, including
    application usage
   Receive notification of network events
   Establish and manage network printer
    Management function (2/2)
   Automate network process such as back
    up and virus detection
   Monitor disk and file usage
   Create task lists
   Work with text files
   Establish and maintain security
   Manage storage
   Etc
Agent’s Tasks
   Performance management
   Application management
   Fault management
   Capacity planning and reporting
   Web traffic management
   Security management
         Performance management
   Help manager understand typical network
    behavior and normal periods
   To build a network performance profile, the
    following capabilities are needed :
   Baselining and network trending
       Identify the true operating envelope of network
       To see whether service level objectives are met
        and reveal out-of-norm conditions.
             Performance management
   Application usage and analysis
       To discover important performance information on
        a real-time or historical basis
       Identify the overall load of the network traffic
            What time of the day certain applications load the
            Which application are running between critical clients
             and servers
            What their load is throughout the day, week and month
         Performance management
   Client-server performance analysis
       To help network manager define and adhere to
        client-server performance objectives
       Identify the following
            which servers may be over utilized
            Which clients are consuming server resources
            What applications or protocols they are running
            Etc
          Performance management
   Internetwork perspective
       To show how certain applications use the critical
        interconnect paths and define normal WAN use for
        the applications.
       Identify traffic rates between subnets so the
        network manager can find out which nodes are
        using WAN links to communicate
   Data correlation
       To determine which nodes are contributing to the
        network load at peak point in time
         Application management
   To understand the source of application
    response time problems : network,
    application, server component
       Troubleshooting can be accomplished faster
   Agents can be installed on clients as well as
    application servers
   Monitor transaction that crosses the user
    desktop, traversing networks application
    servers, and database servers.
          Fault management (1/3)
   Decrease the negative impact on user
   Packet interrogation
       Isolate the actual conversation that is causing the
        network problem
   Data correlation
       Use historical data available that provides views of
        key network metrics at the time of the fault
       What was the overall error/packet rate and the
        type of error that occurred
          Fault management (2/3)
       What applications were running at the time of the
       Which servers were most active?
       Which clients were accessing these active servers
        and which applications were they running?
   Identification of top error generators
       Identify the network nodes that are generating the
        faults and contributing to problems such as
        bottlenecks caused by errors and network
          Fault management (3/3)
   Immediate fault notification
       Manager can instantly learn when a problem is
       Proactive alarms help detect and solve the
        problem as it is happening
   Automated resolution procedures
       Intelligent agents can be configured to
        automatically fix the problem when it is occurs
       The agent can be programmed to email or notify
        help desk with instruction on how to solve the
        Capacity planning and
        reporting (1/3)
   To help in delivering sustainable network
    service levels to end users
   Also, provide documented proof to
    management and organizations that pay for
   To make decisions about future network
          Capacity planning and
          reporting (1/3)
   The following capabilities should be used
   Baselining
       Allows the networks manager to determine the
        true operating performance of the network by
        comparing performance at various times
   Load balancing
       Allows the networks manager to compare
        internetwork service objectives from multiple sites
        at once to determine which subnets are over or
          Capacity planning and
          reporting (2/3)
   Protocol/application distribution
       Help the network manager understand which
        applications have outgrown which domains or
       Which applications are taking up more precious
        bandwidth and resources
   Host load balancing
       Allows the network manager to obtain a list of the
        top network-wide server and clients using mission-
        critical applications
          Capacity planning and
          reporting (3/3)
   Traffic profile optimization
       To best guarantee service-level performance, the
        ability of network managers to compare actual
        network configurations against proposed
        configurations is crucial
       Traffic profiles can be developed that allow what-if
        scenarios to be put together and tested before
        incurring the cost of physical
           Security management (1/3)
   To help discover holes in network security by
    continuously monitoring network access with the
    following capabilities
   Monitor effects of firewall configurations
       By monitoring post firewall traffic, the network manager
        can determine if the firewall is functioning properly
   Show access to and from secure subnets/ server
       By monitoring access from internal and external sites to
        secure data centers or subnets, the network manager can
        set up security service-level objectives and firewall
        configurations based on the finding
          Security management (2/3)
   Trigger packet capture of network security
       Issue alarms and automatically capture packets
        upon the occurrence of external intrusion or
        unauthorized application access
   Show access to secure servers and nodes with
    data correlation
       This capability reveals which external and internal
        nodes are accessing potentially secure servers or
        nodes and identifies which applications they are
           Security management (3/3)
   Show applications running on secure nets with
    application monitoring
       This capability evaluates applications and protocol use on
        secure networks or traffic components to and from secure
   Watch protocol and application use throughout the
       This capability allows the network manager to select
        applications or protocols for monitoring by the intelligent
        agent so that the flow of information throughout the
        enterprise can be viewed
        Automating Software
        Distribution (1/3)
   A growing population of PCs and workstations
    deployed across widely dispersed geographical
   Software has become more complex and
    difficult to install and maintain
   Tools to ease complex tasks is software
    distribution agent e.g. System Management
    Server 2003 (SMS ,Microsoft)
          Automating Software
          Distribution (2/3)
   A file distribution job can be defined as
    software installations and upgrades, start-up
    file updates or file deletions.
   The agent can be set up to collect file
    distribution information
   The console allows the administrator to review
    status data such as
       which workstations are set up for file distribution
       The stations to which files have been distributed
       The number of station waiting for distribution
           Automating Software
           Distribution (3/3)
   Before automated file distributions are run the
    hardware inventory agent (Windows Management
    Instrumentation, WMI ) is usually run
       to check for resource availability including memory and
        disk space
   Periodically, a scan is performed on all disk drives
       To maintain an accurate inventory of software
       Enforce vendor license agreements
       Check for unauthorized copies of software
          Monitoring file use
   A file agent is used to collect data about file access
    such as which files are being accessed and by
   Help LAN administrator maintain network security
   The file agent monitors access to specific files and
    provides the following
       Who accessed the files
       The complete path for the file
       When the files were accessed and for how long
       What operations were performed : read /write /copy
       The ID of the person accessing the files
        Virus Scanning
   Viruses on computers can result in the
    destruction of important data and cause days
    of lost productivity
   Anti-virus products are often server based
    which means that virus protection can be
    extended to every workstation
   http://anti-virus-software-
         Printer management
   There are 2 tasks associated with providing network
    printer support
   One is the print manager data viewer which is used
    by the LAN administrator to establish and maintain
    printer support
   The other is print manager queue management
    which automates the process of printer setup and
    selection for all network users
   Print manager plus / print server (windows server) /
    Paper cut and etc
Reference from
         Storage management
   Monitoring disk use
       Disk monitor agent scans the server volumes to
        collect disk use information
   Hierarchical storage management
       Files will be archived according to certain criteria
   Storage area network
       To achieve better performance, availability,
        manageability and security of data storage.
   Outsourcing storage management
           Monitoring disk use
   One or more the following categories of information
    can be collected
       Volumes: Date and time data was collected, server name,
        volumes scanned, capacity, total space used and available
       Directories: Date and time data was collected, server
        volume and directory names, creation date and time, file
        count directory size (in bytes), owner name, groups to
        which owner is a member
       Directory and file owners: Date and time data was
        collected, server and volume names, groups to which
        owner is a member, total number of files, total space used
           Hierarchical storage
   When disk space becomes exhausted , data files
    need to be backup (as archived file or back up tape)
   With the right tools, user are assured of having
    enough disk space to accommodate new files
   When a file system reaches a predefined threshold of
    X percent full,
       automated procedure are initiated that determine which
        files are eligible for archive and are currently backed up
       The file catalog is then updated to indicate that files have
        been archived and deletes them from the disk file system
           Storage Area Network (1/2)
   With the rapidly increasing volume of mission-critical
    information, companies are demanding
       better performance, availability manageability and security
        of their data storage assets
   Thus SAN is needed ,it is a special network that
    enables fast reliable access among servers and
    external or independent storage resources regardless
    of physical location
   Decoupling storage from computers, workstation and
    server and taking storage traffic off the operation
          Storage Area Network (2/2)
   A SAN carries I/O traffic only between servers
    and storage devices
       it does not carry any application traffic, which
        eliminates the bottlenecks associated with using a
        single network fabric for all applications.
   The move to SAN provides organizations
       new level of scalability
       Greater degree of flexibility than network –
        attached storage paradigm (implementing and
        Outsourcing Storage
   Data storage and management may not be core
   New class of supplier called the storage service
    providers (SSP) are available.
   (SSP) is a company that provides computer storage
    space and related management to other companies.
   SSPs typically offer periodic backup and archiving
   EX. SSP companies are StorageNetworks and
    Managed Storage International.
          Process scheduling (1/2)
   A scheduler agent is an application used to organize
    and run jobs
       Task scheduler (windows)
       Cron (Linux)
   LAN admin can use a scheduler agent to run specific
    jobs at a certain time.
       Back up process at 2 a.m.
   The scheduler agent can also provide job completion
    information such as whether or not the job ran
    successfully, when it ran and the next time it is
    scheduled to run
          Process scheduling (//2)
   The following are some examples of routine
       Perform backup
       Run a virus scan
       Process over night mailings
       Perform file copying and distribution
       Process reports
       Send network messages
          Tracking Network Activity
   The ability to network activity allows the LAN
    admin to ensure the effectiveness and
    efficiency of network services.
   An event manager agent is used to track
    network activity, log network activity and
    automatically alert
       Running job
       Logging in and out of the network
       Accessing application
          Tracking Network Activity
   The notification feature can be set to alert the
    LAN admin
       Email message
       Pager message (obsolete) or SMS
   Some monitoring tools use intelligent agents
    to gather protocol and activity data on LANs.
       For traffic analysis billing and report generation
       Alert for predefined traffic thresholds on a
        particular LAN segment
          Integrated help desk
   Some LAN admin packages include a help desk but
    many do not
   With the integrated approach
       users can generate their own trouble tickets and send
        them directly to the help desk via email
       Trouble tickets can be generated automatically when
        certain event occur
   The LAN admin has access to all trouble tickets, call
    histories and support procedure documents
   The proper integration of help desk functions to the
    LAN admin ‘s console can reduce cost of network
    support (50% of TCO over 5 year)

To top