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					Cyber Citizenship




                    1
               Overview
   Introductions
   Syllabus
   Topics and overview
   4 Part Model
   Negroponte



                          2
             Cyber Citizenship
Cyber: a combining form representing Computer and by
extension meaning “very modern” (extracted from
cybernetics).
Cybernetics: the comparative study of organic control and
communication systems, as the brain and its nurons, and
mechanical or electronic systems analogous to them, as
robots or computers.
Citizenship: 1) the state of being vested with the rights and
duties of a citizen. 2) the character of an individual viewed
as a member of society.
Citizen: an inhabitant or denizen


                           *as defined in Webster’s Dictionary   3
           Warning!
HW: PDAs
SW: IIS, Java, J2EE, IP, TCPIP, MM
Networks: RBOCs, PTTs, ASPs, PoPs
Misc.: CDMA, FDMA, TDMA, MMS,
SMS, ITV, FTTH, FTTC, ADSL, VDSL,
POTS,


                                     4
             C2 Framework
                  Citizenship
                  Creativity
 People           Impact
                  Leadership vs. Management
                  Educators/Trainers


                  Planning
                  Development
Process           Validation
                  Implementation


                  Technology snapshot
                  Standards
Technology        Tools
                  Futures
                  Microsoft Certifications
                                               5
     Technology: The WW Network

                                                         Internet

                      Server




                                               Server                                          Client
            Dublin,                                                                         Computer
            Ireland
   Client                                                           Server
Computer

                                  Redmond,
                                  Washington
                         Client
                                                                              Phoenix,
                      Computer                                                                             Client
                                                                              Arizona
                                                                                                        Computer



                                                        Moscow,
                                                         Russia



                                                                                          San Juan,            6
                                                                                         Puerto Rico
                                                                  Satellite
              4 Part Model
   Citizenship and Vision
   Technology
   20th Century eX
   21st Century eY




                             7
                  Vision
   Buck Rogers, Dick Tracy, Gatica,
    Blade Runner, Total Recall, Galaxy
    Guest, Fifth Element, Matrix,
    Swordfish, 1984, Time machine

   Risk/Reward



                                         8
 Dichotomous Relationships

• Citizen and Government
     “The enabled citizen”
• Student and School
• Patient and Healthcare
  industry
• Parishioner and Church
• Consumer and Producer
     Commerce
     Not for profit          9


• Member and Community
                           Topics
   „CyberCitizenship‟
   issues in e-gov
   what does it mean to be a citizen in the emergent digital
    society
   Digital divide and proposed policy actions to make digital
    info technology more universally accessible
   Digital technology
   Matrix: implications for the future
   Map e-gov employment strategies
   Survey the evolution and development of 20th century
    digital info tech (IT) including Cybercitizenship connections
   Develop a vision of emergent 21st century digital IT
    including Cybercitizenship implications
   Matrix, example of vision and implementing change vs.
    risks

                                                                10
                        Topics
   Pg. 6 Neg. “Computing is not about computers
    anymore, it‟s about living.”
   Portal frameworks
   Justice and the digital divide
   Creating better technology to enable
    disenfranchised
   Digital Divide: info rich and info poor (build slide)
    •   Economic
    •   Social
    •   Information
    •   Geographic
    •   Technological
    •   Generational

                                                        11
                     Topics
   Citizenship/services/society: past, present, future
   What does it mean to be a good citizen in the digital age?
   Global reach means global responsibility
   Training models of what‟s real
   Partnerships
   Controlling and directing the WWW
   Technology: www architecture
   Security
   Cyber Terrorism
   International law
   Digital democracy




                                                          12
                       Topics
•   Set the pace/vision
•   What can directly migrate
       Vehicle registration
       Driver License registration
       Voting
       Town meetings
•   What changes would need to be implemented to set
    the pace
•   How to implement changes and resources required
    (address savings in time, money, etc.)
•   What does it mean to migrate citizen and
    government responsibilities to eGov.
•   How does it change our Government: city, county,
    state, federal, and beyond
•   How does it change our society
                                                       13
       Creating a new community


   Technology touches, influences, and
    can enhance the way we think, govern,
    and do business. As technology
    leaders, educators, and politicians,
    what is our responsibility to society to
    incorporate technology and evolve the
    ways people access services i.e.
    education, government, and perform
    commerce?
                                               14
             Negroponte
             Being digital
Old
 AtomsMainframesDesktopsLaptops

New
 PDAs (Pocket PCs, Palm Pilots, Cell
  phones, pagers,…)
Near future
 cuff links and earrings via satellite

Distant future
 ?


                                           15
   Tech visionSocial change
Vision: Interconnection = assimilation and
  mediation of nation-state values
Increased Importance
 Equal access

 Shared ideals
  • Religious communities
  • Communities of special interest
Decreased importance
 Geography

 Language

                                             16
                 Chapter 1
            The DNA of information
   atomsbits
    • Atoms: Magazines, books, newspapers, packaging
    • Bits: Speed of light, universally accessible
    • Consequences of being digital?
          Value shifts: material to ideas
          Books: 45% cost is inventory, shipping, returns
   Models:
    • Thomas Jefferson: libraries = info free of charge to
      eData free of charge via kiosks, etc.
   “Change is …exponential—small differences of
    yesterday can have suddenly shocking
    consequences tomorrow.”

                                                             17
       The DNA of Information
Atoms bits
$Cost = Constraints of Medium (stored +
  delivered) + compression + error
  correction + security
Consequences:
 New content

 New software
 New hardware

 New providers
 New delivery models: BlockbusterPay
  per view  ITV
                                          18
       The DNA of Information
          Where Intelligence Lives

Transmitter vs. Receiver
 Broadcaster transmits generalized
  content
 Internet has wealth of info but
  receiver must filter, sort, and
  determine experience
 Problem: data, consumption,
  audience, and time differences
 Vision: AIN with Digital Assistant

                                       19
              Chapter 2
          Debunking Bandwidth
Definition: BW = capacity to move info
 Flavors: Ground (Copper & Fiber) +
  Air (Wireless, Satellite)
 Costs decrease using EM vs. digital

 Air disadvantages
    • EM allows power distribution
    • Lack of Spectrum
   Technologies: xDSL, Cable, 802.11,
    etc.
                                         20
            Debunking Bandwidth
Less is more (Unlimited BW issues?)
    • Spraying more bits at someone is no more sensible than
      turning up the volume of the radio to get more
      information.
    • Need intelligent ways to get at information
    • Evoke imagery and metaphors that are personal
   Not enough digital media in hands of those who
    can and should lead change
   “New information and entertainment services are
    not waiting on fiber to the home; they are
    waiting on imagination.”
   Trade offs between BW and shared body of
    knowledge
   Trade offs on Network topology and medium
                                                           21
          Debunking Bandwidth

   What bits are more valuable, when,
    how, and by whom?
   Are there now classes of bits:
    welfare, minority, handicapped,
    minor, adult, senior, student,
    reseller,…



                                         22
           Debunking Bandwidth
                Networks
   Star
    • dedicated line
   Loop (centralized or distributed)
    • Bus (Ethernet)
    • Ring
   TDM (Time Division Multiplexing)
    • Ski lift scenario
    • Advantage: pay for packets not BW or time
    • Decouple broadcast with consumption rate

                                                  23
                      Chapter 3
                       Bitcasting
   1972 Japanese predicted HDTV as next TV wave
   Lack of International Standards delayed
    deployment
   STBs proprietary single purpose devices
•   STBs little more than a PCMCIA card or SW
•   TV and Computer merge
   Open and general is critical
   Bitcast vs. broadcast
    • Bits about bits: determine time, language, content,
      rating, commercial type, cost (time, filters, etc.)



                                                            24
                           Chapter 4
                         The Bit Police
   FCC (Federal Communications Commission)
    regulates info paths, spectrum, and content:
    satellite, broadcast, etc.
    • Judge Greene 1983 barring RBOCs from entering info
      and entertainment industry
    • Modified 1994 to add video dialtone
   Bits are bits (TV, Radio, MM)
    •   a)1HDTV signal
    •   b)5Mbps/ch x4
    •   c)3ch + 2 digital radio ch + 1 stock data + 1 paging
    •   d) time based content and multimedia
            i.e. personalized newspapers delivered post midnight
            Receiver determines content, rating/censorship,
             presentation (videoaudioprint), and device
    • Regulate or drive via economics and market shifts
                                                                    25
                   Chapter 4
                 The Bit Police
   Newspapers are all digital text, layout,
    pictures
   Consumer should select distribution
    mechanism
   But regulation prevents Newspaper and TV
    cross-ownership (MM)
   Copyrights?
    • atoms bits
    • U.S. 1990 Visual Artist Rights Act
    • People vs. Software edits and summaries

                                                26
                      Chapter 5
                    Commingled Bits
   Old wine new bottles
    • Small cost and large profits i.e. TV programs
   Simulators full motion simulators Holodecks
    • Experiential sense physical spatial
    • HDTV Superbowl
   MM = tell me more
    • 5 years of reading vs. 1 hour video
    • BB is critical
   Hypermedia
    •   Passovers
    •   Links
    •   Notes by Author and readers (text, audio, video)
    •   Multidimensional: senses, media, devices
    •   Vision: Created “Salient Stills” for 8mm stills from video
        decouple space-time
                                                                 27
                Chapter 6
             The Bit Business
   “I think of myself as an extremist when it
    comes to predicting and initiating change”
   “Although the rate of change is faster than
    ever, innovation is paced less by scientific
    breakthroughs…and more by new
    applications like mobile computing, global
    networks, and multimedia.”
   Predicted BW as a commodity and should
    be free
    • Do you buy toys based on the number of atoms
      in them?
   Pay for value added services (applications,
    ASPs)
                                               28
                 The Bit Business
   Cultural Convergence
    • Technology invented by specific subculture but then
      being adopted by others i.e. Photography, networks, and
      PCs
    • Bridging Digital divide: all social levels, values,
      applications (Gov., education, healthcare, technical,
      artistic, etc.)

   Technology bigger, smaller, better, faster,
    cheaper
    • Intel MIPS
    • GraphicsGamingvideo3D Graphics3D
      GamingITV
   Pushing bits narrowcasting (i.e.online
    magazines) allow consumer to pull bits
    • Barriers: Digital divide (ease of use, availability, etc.)   29
               Chapter 7
        Where People and Bits Meet
   Computers don‟t need to be complicated
   HAL Knowledge Navigator Star Trek 4
    • Interactivity should be multimodal (talk, point,
      look)
    • AIN and neural networks
    • Sensory richness
   “My dream for the interface is that
    computers will be more like people…I
    would criticize it for shooting too low.”
   Intelligent agents who understand size,
    shape, color, tone of voice, gestures, etc.

                                                     30
                  Chapter 8
              Graphical Persona
   1963 MIT “Sketchpad”2002 TabletPC
    • Understand a person‟s graphical intent
    • Understand handwriting
   Simonides of Ceos (556-468 B.C.) and
    “palaces of the mind”
    • Icons, windows, and 3D
   Variable TV and computer aspect ratios
    with pan ability
   Razors/blades; devices/games; general
    platform
                                               31
                    Chapter 9
                    20/20 VR
   Flight simulation
   “socially responsible application of VR
    would be to require its use in driving
    schools…slippery road, a child darts out…”
   Jurassic ParkmedicalHolodeck
    • Holography invented in 1948
    • TV would require 1Million more scan lines for
      x-y
    • MIT Benton, Ph.D. discards y parallax for
      1000x scan line 3D real-time video
   Experience is a sensory whole: Pictures +
    sound, etc. = better picture
                                                      32
                Chapter 10
            Looking and Feeling
   Computers performing scene analysis
    • Fuzzy logic
    • User ID
   Touch screen
    • the natural pointing device, the finger
    • Who is she?
    • Radio controls i.e. knobs
   Combine all the senses
                                                33
             Chapter 11
        Can We Talk About This?
   Speech recognition obsessed with
    anybody anywhere and dictation
   Computers within earshot
   Interpret intonation
   Minority Report
   Miniaturization constrained by
    human usability

                                       34
                     Chapter 12
                    Less Is More
   Ohhh…expand and contract signals based on
    knowledge of speaker i.e. joke 44
   Computer with general body of knowledge and
    shared knowledge which evolves
   Accessline call screening
   Digital assistant create your newspaper, report,
    TV programming
    • Highlight people you know
    • Topics of immediate importance i.e. weather
    • Sliding personalization bar via headers
   Value of info: TV Guide more profitable than 4
    networks
   AI in distributed networked specialized machines
   You launch agents who launch agents based on
    you                                              35
                  Chapter 13
            The Post Information Age
   BroadcastNarrowcastdemographic unit of
    one, made to order
    • Clip restaurant review for next weeks scheduled dinner
   VPNs, VR windows, and smellevision
    • VR Dr.s
    • Shell Oil
   asynchronous ITV, email vs. synchronous theater
    and phone calls
   One person one number systems
   Cost variable with advertisement
   Advertisement paradigm shifts to personalized
    news
                                                               36
                   Chapter 14
              Prime Time Is My Time
   “The true value of a network is less about
    information and more about community…it is
    creating a totally new, global social fabric.”
   Pay per viewVODITV is the killer App?
   87Million Americans 15 years for $30B in VCRs
    • Moores law
   Blockbuster/Viacom + Enron
   Digital TV agents weaving stories/shows into relevant
    anthology
   BBTH needs to be two way
    • VoIP, MMoIP, iGames
   Use proper Medium for app. : fiber, phone, terrestrial
    wireless, satellite and distributed host processors
   Archive after initial broadcast
   Index i.e. DVD
   Advertisement based on your current demand
                                                             37
                 Chapter 15
              Good Connections
   “By looking for the structure in signals, how
    they were generated, we go beyond the
    surface appearance of bits and discover the
    building blocks out of which the image,
    sound, or text came from. This is one of
    the most important facts of digital life.
   Expressive nuances i.e. in music or faxing
    images vs. digital info
   Ability to store, edit, retrieve info
   Email expressiveness  and anytime
    anywhere 

                                               38
                       Chapter 16
                        Hard Fun
   “We may be a society with far fewer learning-disabled
    children and far more teaching-disabled environments than
    currently perceived. The computer changes this by making
    us more able to reach children with different learning and
    cognitive styles.”
   Alex, Eisenhower, and “the joy of learning”
   The constructionist approach to teaching providing meaning
    to abstractions
   Web of human knowledge, wisdom, and assistance
    • Time Machine “cybrarian”
   American Association of Retired Persons body of knowledge
    could close the generation gap
   Pg. 204 African children and Apple computer example
   Dominant digital divide is between generations
   Electronic games teach strategy, adaptation, and hand eye
    coordination
   SimCity
                                                             39
                    Chapter 17
            Digital Fables and Foibles
   AI in distributed networked specialized machines
    • TVs talking to ovens
    • The typical house has hundreds of microprocessors
   Active labels to know where things are
   Wearable media
    • Solar coats to power watchTV wirelessly
    • ID cufflinks for one person on number system
   If flight delayed the alarm clock rings later and the car
    service is automatically notified in accordance with traffic
    predictions
   Refrigerator and pantry notifies you of needed supplies
    based on input menus
   Warranty and service requests by appliance
   Smart car radios
   GPS with voice recognition
   Purchase personality modules (agents) for devices
                                                                   40
                Chapter 18
          The New E-Xpressionists
   Pg. 219-220 Seymour Papert story
   Personal computers cater to a wide range
    of cognitive styles and learning behaviors
    • Experience is more mathematical and visual
    • Continuum between work and play
   “hackers are the forerunners of the new e-
    xpressionists.”
   MP9: music, math, visual art become one
    and personal through edit abilities
   The digital artist can provide the ability for
    edits
                                                   41
        The New E-Xpressionists
   The MIT media lab “…came together in the
    early 1980s as a counterculture to the
    establishment of computer science, which
    at the time was still preoccupied with
    programming languages, operating
    systems, network protocols, and system
    architectures. The common bond was not
    a discipline, but a belief that computers
    would dramatically alter and affect the
    quality of life through their ubiquity, not
    just in science, but in every aspect of
    living.”

                                              42
                   Epilogue
              An Age Of Optimism
Barriers
 Intellectual Property abuse
 Invasion of Privacy
 Digital vandalism
 Software Piracy
 Loss of jobs to automation i.e. Port workers
 Loss of jobs to cheaper labor force
Paradigm shift
 Borderless commerce
 Seamless digital workplace
 Disenfranchised
 Workers become a number
 Centralized computer functions but distributed compute
  power
 Government becomes smaller and bigger
   • Small communities of interest: commerce type, religion,
     ethnic, language                                          43
   • Large global economy 24x7
         Observations and Questions

   Global society with what values and structure?
   National law vs. Global cyber law?
   Most laws conceived for a world of atoms not bits
   “we are bound to find new hope and dignity in
    places where very little existed before.”
   The digital age is here and each generation is
    more digital than the previous
   Cyber communities replace geographic
    communities



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