Process Essay on Getting a Drivers License

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					                                             S O C I E T Y



putting Limits on
teen drivers
States are getting tough on teens behind the wheel.
But many parents are reluctant to curb their children
by wendy cole HenderSon                                           the licensing process for teen drivers lengthier and
                                                                  more safety conscious. “I’m not making excuses for




S
          ince kindergarten, they had been                        his choice to drink,” she says. “But if we had tougher
          known as “the crew.” Still a close-knit                 laws”—like prohibiting newly licensed teens from
          group in high school, the five Henderson,               transporting other minors—“Sean would not have
          Nevada, boys were all delighted when Sean               been out driving with his friends that night.” In
          Larimer turned 16 and in 2003 became the                October 2005, Nevada put in place a graduated
first to get his driver’s license. Sean’s mom, Susan              licensing law, which phases in driving privileges as
Larimer, a hospital nurse who was in the midst                    teens gain experience and maturity.
of a divorce, was happy about it too. “I thought I                   Getting a driver’s license remains a major mile-
needed him to drive,” she recalls. So Susan gave her              stone for teens in their impatient journey toward
son permission to drive around with the crew one                  adulthood—and for their parents, eager to liberate
evening just 63 days after he passed his road test.               themselves from constant chauffeuring duties. But
   As was customary during his outings with friends,              car crashes are the main cause of death for U.S.
Susan and Sean checked in with each other by cell                 teenagers, killing about 6,000 drivers between the
phone several times. But while awaiting his return,               ages of 16 and 19 each year. That’s more fatalities
Susan dozed off. Just after 1 a.m., the phone startled            for this age group than those caused by guns and
her awake with the news every parent of a teen                    drug overdoses combined. And the younger and
dreads. Her son had smashed her Pontiac Grand                     less experienced the driver, the worse the danger.
Am and was in the hospital’s trauma unit. Three of                Drivers ages 16 to 19 have a fatality rate four times
the boys in the car had been killed, the                                           as high as that of drivers 25 to 29.
fourth injured. Sean, who had been                                                            Experts say that parents who
drinking heavily at a party that               takInG a tOLL                               assume that simply remind-
night (reportedly as much                                                                     ing their kids to buckle up
                                     π The No. 1 killer of U.S. teenagers is car crashes.
as eight beers in an hour),                                                                    and watch the speed limit
                                     π About 6,000 teen drivers are killed in auto
served two years in juvenile         accidents each year—more fatalities for this
                                                                                               miss the central problem:
lockup for driving under             age group than those caused by guns and drug              the adolescent brain may
the influence of alcohol and         overdoses combined.                                       be unable to handle the
reckless driving. He cannot          π Drivers aged 16 to 19 have a fatality rate four         responsibilities of driv-
get his license back until he        times as high as that of drivers 25 to 29.                ing. Researchers with the
turns 21. Susan, shaken by           π 18% fewer collisions involving teen drivers             National Institute of
the tragedy and determined             occurred in Las Vegas in the first eight months         Mental Health have shown
to spare other young drivers              of 2006 in the year after teen-driving             that the parts of the brain
                                              restrictions were imposed.
and their parents similar agony,                                                          that weigh risks, make judg-
has lobbied state lawmakers to make                                                  ments and control impulsive

20                                                time, october 23, 2006
                                         S O C I E T Y

behavior are still developing through the teen           in other states (six states still have no nighttime
years and don’t mature until about age 25.               limits at all). Nevada also set a six-month waiting
    Those findings—and aggressive lobbying by            period between permit and licensing, mandates
auto-safety advocates—have helped push 45 states         at least 50 hours of parent-supervised driving ex-
to adopt some form of graduated driver licensing,        perience that must be tracked in a written log, and
or gdl, which lengthens the waiting period before        forbids newly licensed drivers to transport other
teens can obtain a full “go anywhere, anytime” driv-     youths for three months. The changes are already
er’s license. Slowing down the process has slowed        producing positive results. In Las Vegas, collisions
down the accident rate. Per-capita crashes have          involving teen drivers were down 18%, to 1,155, for
fallen 23% among 16-year-old drivers in California       the first eight months of 2006 compared with the
since its strict gdl law was enacted in 1998, the        same period in 2005.
Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (iihs)               Some parents, like Donna Botti, are not con-
reported in August. The state’s late-night crashes       vinced that the restrictions should apply to their
were down 27%, and crashes with teen passengers          children. On a recent Saturday evening as her
were down 38%. Similar drops have occurred in            daughter Angela, 16, was getting ready for a friend’s
other states. Despite those impressive results, how-     sweet-16 party at a downtown Vegas club, she
ever, legislators have balked at imposing additional     belatedly noticed the phrase “Parent Drop-off and
measures that could make teen drivers even safer.        Pickup Preferred” on her invitation. “How stupid is
    Studies suggest that nighttime driving is particu-   that? I have my own car,” Angela scoffed. Although
larly dangerous for teens, and curfews are urged.        the festivities were supposed to end at 10 p.m.,
“Most accidents involving teens occur before mid-        Angela had no intention of racing home in her
night,” says Susan Ferguson, senior vice president       shiny ’05 Hyundai Tucson to make curfew. In fact,
of research for the iihs. “So the smartest laws go       she and her parents said they were unaware that
into effect earlier.” Last year nine states introduced   nighttime restrictions for teens existed until being
measures to rein in teens’ nighttime driving privi-      interviewed for this story. Donna’s sunny expres-
leges, but only one—Nevada—passed such a law.            sion momentarily turned pained when she was
    Nevada is one of the last states to join the         asked whether she would allow Angela, who was
decade-long movement to restrict teen drivers, but       chauffeuring two pals that evening, to ignore the
its law is now among the most comprehensive in the       law: “I don’t want to feel like an uncaring mother,
nation. It requires teen drivers to be off the road by   but truthfully, I’m not worried about her.”
10 p.m., earlier than the midnight or 1 a.m. curfews        That kind of statement makes Susan Larimer
                                                                           cringe. “People would like to
                                                                           believe Sean’s crash was an iso-
                                                                           lated incident,” she says. “But the
                                                                           second your kid drives away under
                                                                           his or her own power, you have no
                                                                           idea what can happen. If this night-
                                                                           mare can happen to our family, it
                                                                           can happen to anyone.” π

                                                                          Questions
                                                                          1. Why might teen drivers have
                                                                          trouble assessing risks?
                                                                          2 . Has Graduated Driving
                                                                          Licensing (gdl) legislation been
                                                                          effective in California?
                                                                          3. Do you support gdl? Explain.

                                              time, october 23, 2006                                        21
                                  E D U C A T I O N


How I did                                              average on the math section, compared with girls’
                                                       502. But boys now lead on the reading section by
                                                       just 3 points, 505 to 502; the gap was 8 points last


On the Sat
In 2003 I predicted dire consequences from
                                                       year. What changed? The new test has no analogies
                                                       (“bird is to nest” as “dog is to doghouse”), and boys
                                                       usually clobbered girls on analogies.
                                                          My story also predicted that the addition of
a massive redesign of the college-entrance             the writing section would damage the sat’s reli-
test. What I got right—and wrong                       ability. Reliability is a measure of how similar a
by JoHn cloud                                          test’s results are from one sitting to the next. The
                                                       pre-2005 sat had a standard error of measure-




t
       he new sat scores are out, and buried           ment of about 30 points per section. But the new
       in them is a sign of hope for American          writing section, which includes not only a mul-
       education. True, the scores                                       tiple-choice grammar segment
       are actually a bit lower than                                     but also the subjective essay, has
last year’s; the combined average                                        a standard error of measurement
for the sat’s math and reading                                           of 40 points. In short, the College
sections fell 7 points, to 1021, the                                     Board sacrificed some reliability
biggest single-year decrease since                                       in order to include writing.
1975, when the score dropped 16                                             Finally, I was right about one
points, to 1010. But statistically                                       other thing: that the graders would
speaking, a 7-point decline (out of                                      reward formulaic, colorless writ-
a possible 1600 on those two sec-                                        ing over sharp young voices. The
tions) isn’t much. It’s less than the                                    College Board is now distributing
value of a single question, which is                                     a guide called “20 Outstanding sat
about 10 points. Also, the sat was                                       Essays”—all of them perfect scores—
radically changed last year. The                                         and many are unbearably mechani-
College Board made it longer and added Alge-           cal and clichéd (“smooth sailing always comes after
bra II, more grammar and an essay. Fewer kids          the storm”; “they say that history repeats itself”).
wanted to take the new 3-hour 45-minute test              Still, there’s good news. The central contention
more than once, so fewer had an opportunity to         of my 2003 story was that the sat’s shift from
improve their performance. Scores were bound           an abstract-reasoning test to a test of classroom
to slide.                                              material like Algebra II would hurt kids from fail-
   In 2003 I spent six months tracking the             ing schools. Instead, the very poorest students—
development of the new sat. I sat through hours        those from families earning less than $20,000 a
of test-development sessions and even learned          year—improved their sat performance this year.
how to grade sat essays. Time ran my resulting         It was a modest improvement (just 3 points) but
story on its cover that October.                       significant, given the overall slump in scores.
   The story did make some predictions that turned     And noncitizen residents and refugees saw their
out to be right. For instance, the new test favors     scores rise an impressive 13 points.
girls more than the old one did. Girls are better         Sometimes it’s nice to be wrong. π
than boys at fixing grammar and constructing
essays, so the addition of a third sat section, on     Questions
writing, was almost certain to shrink the male-        1. In what areas of the new test do girls outper-
female score gap. It did. Girls trounced boys on       form boys? Where do boys outperform girls?
the new writing section, 502 to 491. Boys still out-   2. Which groups improved their test scores on the
scored girls overall, thanks largely to boys’ 536      new test?

22                                         time, september 11, 2006
                                         S P O R T S


tour de                                              could produce excess testosterone on its own. “We
                                                     know there is a small percentage of the popula-
                                                     tion who are going to have a natural production of


testosterone
A failed drug test taints cyclist Floyd Landis’
                                                     testosterone that is above the norm,” says Gérard
                                                     Dine, president of the Biotechnological Institute
                                                     in Troyes, France, and an antidoping consultant
                                                     to French and international sporting authorities.
heroic victory in the Tour de France.                Another possible explanation lies in what Landis
Is Landis flawed, or is the testing process?         consumed the night before his 125-mile come-
by Sean GreGory                                      back: he has admitted to trying to erase the worst
                                                     performance of his career by downing some whis-




t
       his one hurt. after marion jones, mark        key. Medical research has linked alcohol with an
       McGwire and Sammy Sosa, aren’t we             elevated t/e ratio.
       immune to the fact that                                           The most vexing mystery is
       our beloved athletes might           the most vexing            why Landis would suddenly take
not have achieved immortality on
talent alone? Heck, no. Reports
                                        mystery is why Landis testosterone as the Tour wound
                                                                       down, since it might not have
are circulating that Floyd Landis—       would suddenly take been of much help. “It doesn’t add
the fun-loving Mennonite from            testosterone as the up,” says wada member Dr. Gary
Pennsylvania, the guy whose                                            Wadler. “If you’re going to get
Alpine comeback in the Tour de
                                          tour wound down,             any benefit out of steroids, you
France was dubbed, properly, since it might not have would have to have been on the
“The Ride of the Century” (and           been of much help. steroids before the Tour de France
he did it with a bum hip to boot)—                                     ever started.” Landis notes that
might have cheated.                                  he had passed seven other drug tests on
   Landis tested positive for abnormal testos-       the Tour.
terone levels, a result confounding and dumb-           What’s unknown—and crucial—for Landis is
founding, given that a number of prerace favor-      the result of another test on his urine samples, the
ites were tossed from the Tour under a cloud         one that measures the carbon-isotope ratio. This
of doping suspicion. There’s hope for Landis         examines the atomic makeup of the testosterone in
lovers inspired by his back-from-the brink tale:     Landis’ body. If the ratio of carbon isotopes matches
his guilt is far from established, and the case has  those found in synthetic testosterone, Landis will
other twists ahead. Phonak, the Swiss sponsor of     be in trouble. But even then, the debate might go
Landis’ cycling team, revealed that on the day       on because some scientists say this particular test is
of Landis’ miraculous comeback, an abnormally        not infallible. Says Dine: “With testosterone, there
high ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone was    is no scientific consensus.”
found in his urine. (Testosterone is a muscle-          Landis seems prepared for an ugly ride.
building anabolic steroid; epitestosterone, a        “Unfortunately, I don’t think it’s ever going to go
related substance, has no performance-enhancing      away, no matter what happens next,” he said of the
effects.) Specifically, Landis’ testosterone-to-     allegations. Landis has fallen off his bike before.
epitestosterone (t/e) ratio was above the 4-to-1     Let’s see if he can get back on this time. π
limit set by wada; the ratio for most people is
between 1 to 1 and 2 to 1. The team suspended        Questions
him immediately.                                     1. What is testosterone?
   So did Landis put synthetic testosterone into his 2. What are some possible reasons that Landis’
body? He has denied using any illegal substances.    testosterone level was elevated at the time of
Some antidoping experts say that Landis’ body        the testing?

                                             time, august 7, 2006                                       23
                                       S C I E N C E



Stem Cells: the Hope
and the Hype
The debate is so politically loaded that
                                                                                             WHat tHeY are
                                                                        the Process          Stem cells are nature’s master cells, capable of
                                                                                             generating every one of the many different cells
it’s tough to tell who’s being straight                                1    eMbryo
                                                                             An egg is
                                                                                             that make up the body. They have the ability to
                                                                                             self-renew, which means that they are theoretically
about the real areas of progress                                  fertilized or cloned
                                                                  to form an embryo.         immortal and can continue to divide forever if
                                                                  The embryo begins          provided with enough nutrients. Because they are
and how breakthroughs can                                         to divide                  so plastic, they hold enormous promise as the
                                                                                             basis for new treatments and even cures for
be achieved. Time sorts it out                                                               disorders ranging from Parkinson’s and heart
                                                                                             disease to diabetes and even spinal-cord injury

by nancy GibbS




W
              hen there’s nothing else to                                                         3    5 to 7
                                                                                                       dayS
              prescribe, hope works like a              2    1 to 5
                                                             dayS
                                                                                                 Embryonic stem
                                                                                                 cells begin to
              drug. A quadriplegic patient              The embryo divides                       form along
                                                         into more and more cells                the inside of
              tells herself it’s not a matter of if           and forms a hollow                 the blastocyst,
                                                                    ball of cells called a       creating the
              they find a cure but when. After all,                           blastocyst         inner cell
researchers have been injecting stem cells into par-                                             mass

alyzed rats and watching their spinal cords mend.
But what is the correct dose of hope when the          aggressively pursue
diseases are dreadful and the prospects of cure dis-   both in order to solve
tant? In July 2006, when President George W. Bush      important medical problems.”
vetoed the bill that would have expanded funding          Trapped in all this are patients and voters who
for human embryonic-stem-cell (esc) research,          struggle to weigh the arguments because the sci-
doctors got calls from patients with Parkinson’s       ence is dense and the values tangled. Somewhere
disease saying they weren’t sure they could hang       between those who would gladly stop research
on for another year or two. The doctors could only     and the swashbucklers who disdain limits are
reply that in the best-case scenario, cures are at     people who approve of stem-cell research in
least a decade away.                                   general but get uneasy as we approach the ethical
   Stem-cell research has joined global warming        frontiers. Adult-stem-cell research is morally fine
and evolution science as fields in which the very      but clinically limiting, since only embryonic cells
facts are put to a vote, a public spectacle in which   possess the power to replicate indefinitely and
data wrestle dogma. Scientists who are having          grow into any of more than 200 types of tissue.
surprising success with adult stem cells find          Extracting knowledge from embryos that would
their progress being used by activists to argue        otherwise be wasted is one thing, but scientists
that embryo research is not just immoral but also      admit that moving forward would require a much
unnecessary. But to those in the field, the only       larger supply of fresh, healthy embryos than
answer is to press ahead on all fronts. “There are     fertility clinics could ever provide. And once you
camps for adult stem cells and embryonic stem          start asking people about creating embryos for
cells,” says Douglas Melton, a co-director of the      the purpose of experimenting on them, the support
Harvard Stem Cell Institute. “But these camps          starts to slow down.
only exist in the political arena. There is no            In a prime-time speech from his Texas ranch in
disagreement among scientists over the need to         August 2001, Bush announced that federal money

24                                            time, august 7, 2006
                                                                        S C I E N C E

    WHere tHeY COMe FrOM
    leFtoVer or dead-end iVF eMbryoS                                                                        nuclear-tranSFer eMbryoS
    why they are useful More than 400,000                                                                  why they are useful These embryos are
    embryos created during in vitro fertilization lie                                                      created using the technique that created Dolly,
    frozen in clinic tanks in the U.S. Many of them                                                        the cloned sheep. Stem cells can be
    will be discarded, so the embryonic stem cells                                                         custom-made by inserting a patient’s skin cell
    that exist inside them could be salvaged                                                               into a hollowed human egg. Any resulting
    drawbacks The freezing process may make                                                                therapies would not run the risk of immune
    it harder to extract stem cells. Some of the                                                           rejection
    embryos were the weakest ones created                                                                  drawbacks The process has not yet been
    by infertile couples and may not yield high-                                                           successfully completed with human cells, and
    quality stem cells                                                                  roslin institute
                                                                                                           it requires an enormous amount of fresh
                                                                                                           human eggs, which are difficult to obtain
                                adult SteM cellS                            uMbilical-cord cellS
                               why they are useful They exist in many       why they are useful Although they are
                               major tissues, including the blood, skin     primarily made up of blood stem cells, they
                               and brain. They can be coaxed to produce     also contain stem cells that can turn into
                               more cells of a specific lineage and do      bone, cartilage, heart muscle and brain and
                               not have to be extracted from embryos        liver tissue. Like adult stem cells, they are
                               drawbacks They can generate only a           harvested without the need for embryos
                               limited number of cell types, and they       drawbacks An umbilical cord is not very
    gary d.
    gaugler—
                               are difficult to grow in culture             long and doesn’t hold enough cells to
    phototake                                                               treat an adult


                                                                                                                                           colin cuthbert—
                                                                                                                                           photo researchers
4
                                                                  5     tiSSue Production
                                                                       Groups of stem cells are nurtured under
SteM line
The cells are                                                    specialized conditions, with different
scraped away                                                     recipes of nutrients and growth factors
and grown on                                                     that direct the cells to become
a layer of                                                       any of the body’s more than
feeder cells and                                                 200 various tissues
culture medium

                                                                                                                                                Pancreatic
                                                                                                                                                islet cells
                                                                                                                                                Could
                                                                                                                                                provide a
                                                                                                                                                cure for
                                                                                                                                                diabetes




                could go to
                researchers work-                                          Muscle cells
                                                                           Could repair
                ing on esc lines that                                      or replace
                                                                           a damaged
                scientists had already                                     heart
                developed but no new
                lines could be created using
                federal funds. States from Connecticut to
                California have tried to step in with enough
                funding to keep the labs going and slow the exodus
                                                                                                nerve cells
                of U.S. talent to countries like Singapore, Britain and                         Could be used to treat
                                                                                                   Parkinson’s, spinal-cord
                Taiwan. Meanwhile, private biotech firms and research                                injuries and strokes
                universities with other sources of funding are free to create
                                                                                                                      TIME
                and destroy as many embryos as they like, because they operate                                        Graphic

                outside the regulations that follow public funds.
                   For scientists who choose to work with the approved “presidential”
                lines, the funding comes wrapped in frustration. Today there are only 21 viable
                lines, which limits genetic diversity. They are old, so they don’t grow very well,
                and were cultured using methods that are outdated. What’s more, the chromosomes
                undergo subtle changes over time, compromising the cells’ ability to remain “normal.”

                                                                               time, august 7, 2006                                                            25
                                           S C I E N C E

    In the wake of Bush’s original order, Harvard           controversial sources: the stem cells in umbilical-
decided to use private funding to develop about             cord blood and placentas, and even in fully formed
100 new cell lines from fertility-clinic embryos,           adult organs. While not as flexible as embryonic
which it shares with researchers around the                 cells, cord and placental cells have proved more
world. Scientists, desperate for variety, snap              valuable than scientists initially hoped.
them up. “Not all embryonic-stem-cell lines are                If you want to lean out over the edges of sci-
created equal,” says Dr. Arnold Kriegstein, who             ence and marvel at what is now possible, visit Dr.
runs the Institute for Regeneration Medicine                Joanne Kurtzberg’s program at Duke University
at the University of California, San Francisco.             Medical Center. Children with blood diseases that
“Some are more readily driven down a certain                were almost certainly fatal a decade ago have got
lineage, such as heart cells, while others more             cord-blood transplants that essentially cure them.
easily become nerve. We don’t understand how it             Now she and her team are taking a more targeted
happens, but it does mean we need diversity.”               approach by attempting to differentiate cord-blood
    To get around political roadblocks, scientists are      cells to address heart, brain and liver defects. “I
searching for another source of cells that is less          think cord-blood cells have a lot of promise for
ethically troublesome, ideally one that involves no         tissue repair and regeneration,” says Kurtzberg.
embryo destruction at all. The most exciting new            “But I think it will take 10 to 20 years.”
possibility doesn’t go near embryos at all. Dr. Shinya         Until recently researchers thought adult stem
Yamanaka of Kyoto University reported tantalizing           cells couldn’t do much more than regenerate cell
success in taking an adult skin cell, exposing it to        types that reflected the stem cells’ origin—blood
four growth factors in a petri dish and transform-          and immune cells from bone marrow, for example.
ing it into an embryo-like entity that could produce        Even so, some scientists believe adult stem cells
stem cells—potentially sidestepping the entire              may prove to be a powerful source of therapies.
debate over means and ends.                                 “In some cases, you may not want to go all the
    Even if scientists discover an ideal source of          way back to embryonic stem cells,” says Kurtz-
healthy cell lines, there is still much to learn about      berg. “You may want something more specific
how to coax them into turning into the desired kind         or less likely to stray. You wouldn’t want to put a
of tissue. Geron, a California-based company, claims        cell in the brain and find out later that it turned
it is close to filing for permission to conduct the first   into bone.”
human trials relying on esc-based therapy. Not to be           Even the true believers among scientists, how-
outdone, the academic groups are just a few steps           ever, dispute eager politicians who have called
behind. Lorenz Studer at Memorial Sloan-Ketter-             for a Manhattan Project approach to research.
ing Cancer Center in New York City has been able            Indeed, a massive centralized effort controlled
to differentiate escs into just about every cell type       by the Federal Government could do more harm
affected by Parkinson’s disease and has transplanted        than good. The key is to have the broadest cross
them into rats and improved their mobility. Next, he        section of scientists possible working across the
plans to inject the cells into monkeys.                     field. When it comes to such an impossibly com-
    But the closer scientists come to human trials,         plicated matter as stem cells, the best role for
the more concerned the fda will be with ensuring            legislators and Presidents may be neither to steer
patient safety. Regulators want data on how the             the science nor to stall it but to stand aside and
cells will behave in the human body. Stem cells             let it breathe. π
have shown a dismaying talent for turning into
tumors. When human trials finally begin, there’s            Questions
no method for precisely determining whether the             1. Why are embryonic stem cells more useful for
transplanted stem cells are functioning correctly.          scientific research than adult stem cells?
    Even as scientists press ahead with embryo              2. As therapies are developed using stem cells,
research, exciting news has come from the least             what concerns is the fda expected to have?

26                                                time, august 7, 2006
                        G L O B A L                      W A R M I N G

Goodbye, arctic                                          the Scary economics
Icecap                                                   of Global Warming
by MicHael d. leMonicK                                   by MicHael d. leMonicK




B                                                        p
       ack in 2005, scientists drew attention to                eople who like to paint global warming
       four years of unusual summer melting in ice              as an overblown threat often point to the
       that covers most of the Arctic Ocean. They               huge costs of trying to fix it. What if we
concluded that this northern sea could be com-           spend billions or trillions to stave off a threat that
pletely ice-free—including the North Pole—well           isn’t there? But that argument is false, says a new
before the end of the 21st century.                      report out of the United Kingdom.
   But a recent report from the American Geophysi-          Put together by economist Sir Nicholas Stern,
cal Union suggests that things have sped up. The         the study pegs the likely economic hit from
ice didn’t melt quite as much as in 2005, the worst      human-induced climate change at a whopping
summer on record. But 2006 was still pretty bad—         20% reduction in global economic output over
there’s less ice than the historical norm by an area     the next several decades, due to such things as
about the size of Alaska. When you plug all the data     massive droughts, hundreds of millions of refu-
into computer simulations, they suggest that the         gees from rising sea level, and the widespread
summer ice could disappear completely a lot sooner       extinction of species. That’s comparable, says the
than anyone thought—possibly within just 40 years,       report, to the devastation caused by the Great
and possibly with very little warning. That’s because    Depression or one of the world wars.
as the sea ice melts in summer, warmer water can            The good news, says Stern, is that this eco-
more easily flow into the Arctic. Open water also        nomic disaster, which he deems very probable
reflects a lot less sunlight than ice does, which lets   based on a survey of scientific evidence, can be
the sun warm things up more as more water shows.         largely staved off with an investment of about
That creates a feedback loop: more water means           1% of the world’s gross domestic product (gdp)
more heat means even more water means even more          in carbon-reduction and other schemes. The
heat—until, in just one especially warm summer,          bad news is that we have to start pretty much
the ice could vanish, and not return.                    right away. And while Tony Blair has hailed the
   It’s all one more sugges-                                                       new report and promised
tion that global warming                                                           that the U.K. will take
is very real, and that the                                                         serious measures, there’s
effects could lead to sud-                                                         pretty much no response
den changes. If the Arctic                                                         out of the White House.
ice disappears, it might                                                           Could President George
be good for shipping, but                                                          W. Bush be miffed that
wildlife (including polar                                                          former Vice President
bears and seals) would be                                                          Al Gore has signed on
devastated. The global cli-                                                        as an adviser on climate
mate effects could be dev-                                                         change to the British
astating, as well. π                                                               government? π

Questions
1. What could cause the Arctic ice cap to melt completely within 40 years?
2. How could global warming cause an economic downturn equivalent to the Great Depression?

              time, december 12, 2006                                 time, october 20, 2006                27
   the world                                                          SturGeon
                                                                      This ancient fish was around at the
                                                                                                                                       SwordFiSH
                                                                                                                                       It was overfished in the late 1990s,
   is consuming                                                       time of the dinosaurs. Its eggs (true
                                                                      caviar) are a gourmet delicacy, but
                                                                                                                                       but public pressure led to tighter
                                                                                                                                       regulations, which helped the
   more fish ...                                                      sturgeons of the Caspian Sea are
                                                                      nearing extinction
                                                                                                                                       species rebound. Today most of the
                                                                                                                                       swordfish Americans eat is imported
          total catch
   80     In millions
          of tons

   60
                               81.6
   40

   20

    0
     ’50 ’60 ’70 ’80 ’90 ’00



   ... which could lead
   to the extinction
   of many species
100%   Fisheries
       with less than
    80 10% of their                             PaciFic SalMon
       population                               Nearly 30 runs of salmon in
       remaining                                Washington and Oregon are
    60
                                  d




                                                endangered due to construction of
                               cte




                                                dams and habitat loss. However,
                             oje




    40                                          Alaska’s salmon population thrives                                                                                                         16.3
                           Pr




    20
                                                 GrouPer
     0
                                                 These sedentary, long-living fish
      ’50 ’70 ’90 ’10 ’30 ’50                    dwell in deep waters and reproduce
                                                 for short periods. They’re overfished                                                                            10.8
                                                                                                                                blueFin tuna
                                                 in the Gulf of Mexico near Florida’s
                                                 west coast and in Hawaii                                                       One of the world’s most
   a LOOk at WHO dOeS                                                                                                           valuable fish, these 300-lb.
                                                                                                                                giants are favored for sushi.
   tHe MOSt FISHInG                                                  red SnaPPer
                                                                     Not to be confused with “Pacific
                                                                                                                                The Atlantic population has
                                                                                                                                declined almost 90% since
   total                                                             red,” they are heavily fished in the                       the 1970s
   marine                                                            Gulf of Mexico, exported by Mexico
   harvest       ’84     ’04                                         and Brazil and listed as overfished
   In millions of tons                   5.5                         by the U.S. since 1980
                                   5.1                                                                                          2.9
                                                                                                                          2.8                                            3.1
          10.5
                                                                                                                                                                                     3.8
                                                                     TIME Graphic by Ed Gabel and Lon Tweeten
                                                                     Written by Kristina Dell


                                                                                                                norway
                 NORTH                                                                                                                                   russia
                 AMERICA
                                                                         Atlantic Ocean                                   EUROPE
                                                                                                                                                                               3.1
                               u.S.                      SPecieS diVerSity                                                                                                             china
                                                                                                                                                                         2.0
    3.6
                                       5.9            low riSK             HiGH riSK
                                                    High diversity      Low diversity                                    A F R I C A                                                             2
                               5.1
                                                                                                                                                                                           2.1
                                                                                                                                                                          india

                                               SOUTH                       Analyzing more than 50 years                                                                  Indian
                                               AMERICA                     of data, researchers found that                                                               Ocean
     Peru
                                                                           collapses in ecosystems occur
                                                                                                                                                                                     Sources: Sea
                                                                           faster and recovery is slower in                                                                          Fisheries Cen
Pacific                                                                    areas with low species diversity                                                                          British Colum
                                                                                                                                                                                     Food and Agri
Ocean                                                                      (red) than in areas with high                                                                             of the United
                               chile                                       diversity (light yellow)                                                                                  Aquarium; NO
                                                                         E N V I R O N M E N T



                                                Oceans of nothing
      atlantic cod
      Its abundance attracted
      Europeans settlers to
      America, but recent
      overfishing has altered the
      ecosystem. Scientists say
      we are fishing the last 10%
      of this species
      cHilean Sea baSS                          A study says overfishing will soon destroy the seafood supply
      The trendiness of this fish,
      also called the Patagonian
      toothfish, could be its                   by unMeSH KHer                                          Still, the destructive fishing practices
                                                                                                     that have decimated tuna and cod have not




                                                F
      downfall. The fish is often
      caught illegally, especially in
      the remote waters of the                            ishermen on the high seas have             declined worldwide. Up to half the marine
      Antarctic                                           plenty of worries, not the least of        life caught by fishers is discarded, often
                                                          which are boat-tossing storms,             dead, and vibrant coral forests are still
                                                          territorial squabbles and even             being stripped bare by dragnets. Worm
                                                          pirates. Now Boris Worm, a                 argues that fisheries based on ecosystems
                                                     marine biologist at Dalhousie University        stripped of their biological diversity are
                                                         in Halifax, Canada, has added another.      especially prone to collapse. At least 29%
                                                             After studying global catch data        of fished species have already collapsed,
                                                                 over more than 50 years, he and     according to the study, and the trend is
                                                                    a team of researchers in four    accelerating.
                                                                  countries have come to a stun-        So what’s a fish eater to do? “Vote with
                                                               ning conclusion. By the middle        your wallet,” says Michael Sutton, who runs
                                                             of this century, fishermen will have    the Monterey Bay Aquarium’s Seafood Watch
                                                               almost nothing left to catch.         program in California. Since 1999, the aquar-
      SHarKS                                                        O v e r t h e p a s t t h re e   ium has handed out pocket guides listing
      Almost all are in trouble
      in part because they                      decades, the fish export trade has grown             sustainably harvested seafood. The Marine
      mature slowly and bear
      few offspring. They
                                                fourfold, to 30 million tons, and its value          Stewardship Council has partnered with
      are being hunted to       12.3            has increased ninefold, to $71 billion. The          corporations to similarly certify wild and
      extinction, often to
      make traditional                          dietary attractiveness of seafood has stoked         farm-raised seafood. Some 370 products in
      delicacies like                           demand. About 90% of the ocean’s big                 more than two dozen countries bear the Brit-
      shark-fin soup
                                                predators—like cod and tuna—have been                ish group’s “Fish Forever” label of approval.
                                                fished out of existence. Increasingly, fish          Wal-Mart and Red Lobster, among others,
                                                and shrimp farms are filling the shortfall.          have made commitments to sell sustainably
                     2.4
                                                Though touted as a solution to overfishing,          harvested seafood.
                           1.7            4.9
                                                many of them have—along with rampant                    But that’s just a spit in the ocean
                                                coastal development, climate change and              unless consumers in Japan, India, China
      A S I A
                                                pollution—devastated the reefs, mangroves            and Europe join the chorus for change. “If
                     S. Korea
                                                    and seagrass beds where many                     everyone in the U.S. started eating sustain-
                                                         commercially valuable fish hatch.           able seafood,” says Worldwatch Institute
                                                                Steven Murawski, chief scien-        senior researcher Brian Halweil, “it would
                                        Japan
2.9                              5.0             Pacific         tist at the U.S. National Marine    be wonderful, but it wouldn’t address the
                                                 Ocean
                                                                      Fisheries Service, finds       global issues. We’re at the very beginning
                                                                          Worm’s headlining pre-     of this.” π
        thailand           1.9                                               diction far too pes-
  Around Us;                                                                    simistic. Industry   Questions
nter, University of                               A U S T R A L I A
mbia, Vancouver;                                                                    experts are      1. What has happened to 90% of the ocean’s
 iculture Organization
 Nations; Monterey Bay
OAA Fisheries Service
                            indonesia                                                  even more     big predators?
                                                                                           skepti-   2. What would help stop the depletion of
                                                                                            cal.     fish from the ocean?

                                                                                          time, november 13, 2006                              29
 Name                                                           Date                       worksheet




                                                                                              -
 Interpreting Maps and Graphics
 The maps and graphics accompanying Stem             6. How can different types of cells be grown
 Cells: The Hope and the Hype on pages 24 to 26      from stem cells?
 and Oceans of Nothing on page 28 and 29 are
 packed with information. But what does it all
 mean? Use the questions below to sharpen
 your skills in reading and interpreting graphics.

 Stem Cells: The Hope and the Hype
 1. How does an embryo form?




                                                     Oceans of Nothing
                                                     7. True or false: The 81.6 tons of fish caught in
                                                     the last year on the chart is the highest amount
                                                     ever caught.


                                                     8. By what year will 100% of all fisheries have
                                                     less than 10% of their populations remaining?
 2. Define a blastocyst.

                                                     9. Name the three countries that have reduced
                                                     the amount of fish they caught between 1984
                                                     and 2004.




                                                     10. Name one of the world’s most valuable fish
                                                     whose Atlantic population has been reduced by
 3. True or false: A blastocyst is formed more       90% since the 1970s.
 than seven days after an egg is fertilized.

                                                     11. What country more than quadrupled the
 4. How many types of tissues are found in the       amount of fish it caught between 1984 and 2004?
 human body?

                                                     12. Which area of the world has the most
 5. True or false: A stem cell can be cultured       concentrated area of low species diversity?
 from an unfertilized egg.



30                           Worksheet Prepared by Time Learning Ventures
                                                                        B U S I N E S S


Where to Get a                                                                                             University Law School. One of Target’s most
                                                                                                           successful units is in Chicago’s Lincoln Park
                                                                                                           neighborhood, and studies suggest there’s $1.3

pay raise
Congress won’t give you one—the federal
                                                                                                           billion in untapped spending on the city’s North
                                                                                                           Side and West Side alone. That, says Dorian
                                                                                                           Warren, a politics professor at Columbia
minimum wage is still $5.15. Activists in                                                                  University, “is going to be worth far more than
Chicago and elsewhere are pressing for a                                                                   the $10 wage costs them.”
“living wage” to help the working poor                                                                        Not all retailers dread such laws. Costco cfo
                                                                                                           Richard Galanti says his company already meets
by JereMy caPlan                                                                                           the Chicago minimum and that the $10 wage
                                                                                                           helps the company retain employees. “It doesn’t


W
        al-mart may have earned more than                                                                  make us any less competitive,” he says.
        $11 billion last year, but it’s squawking over                                                        One keen observer of the living-wage battle
        a $10 bill. The bill in question is a new                                                          has been David Coss, mayor of Santa Fe, N.M.,
Chicago ordinance that the retailer fiercely opposes,                                                      which mandated a living wage in 2004. “We were
which will require the company—along with Target                                                           also told the sky was going to fall,” he says, “but all
and other giant retailers—to pay a starting wage of                                                        we’ve seen is strong growth.” With the city’s $9.50
$10 an hour, plus $3 in benefits, to anyone hired in                                                       wage floor set to rise to $10.50 in 2008, Target and
the Windy City. The living-wage ordinance, passed                                                          Sam’s Club are thriving. Wal-Mart is even building
by the city council after ferocious campaigning by                                                         a superstore. “You’re going to see more and more
organized labor and its business opponents, is the                                                         municipalities taking matters into their own hands,”
country’s first directed at big retailers.                                                                 Coss says. “Poverty just isn’t a necessary ingredient
    After years of failed attempts to unionize big-                                                        for economic development.” π
box stores, labor seems to have hit on a winning
legislative tactic in the battle over pay. Union                                              Questions
leaders say the Chicago rule means a long-overdue                                             1. What has happened to wages for nonmanagerial
raise for the working poor. In real terms, wages                                              retail workers since 1975?
for nonmanagerial retail workers have fallen                                                  2. Why do some companies approve of living-
18% since 1975. But David Vite, president of the                                              wage legislation?
Illinois Retail Merchants Association,                           Minimum wage exceeds the federal level of $5.15
says the law could deter inner-                                  ballot initiatives could raise the minimum wage (figures are proposed)
                                                                 Minimum wage does not exceed the federal level
city economic development.                       Wash.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Maine*
                                                                                                                                                                                   N.H.             $6.50
“Companies affected by this                     $7.63                                                                                                                        Vt.
                                                                                                                                                                             $7.25
                                                                            Mont.
                                                                                                                          Minn.
ordinance have capital                       Ore.
                                          $7.50
                                                                            $6.15                         N.D.
                                                                                                                         $6.15                                    Mich.**
                                                                                                                                        Wis.                      $6.95          N.Y.*
budgets they can spend                                     Idaho                                          S.D.                       $6.50                                      $6.75
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Mass.*
                                                                                 Wyo.
anywhere in the U.S., and                         Nev.                                                                       Iowa
                                                                                                                                                                               *
                                                                                                                                                                            Pa. *                   $6.75
                                                                                                           Neb.                              Ill.                 Ohio     $6.25
                                                                                                                                                                                                    R.I.*
they’ll now go elsewhere,”                     $6.15
                                                                  Utah               Colo.
                                                                                                                                         $6.50 Ind. $6.85                                           $7.10
                                     Calif.
says Vite. Target, for one,         $6.75
                                                                                   $6.85
                                                                                                              Kans.               Mo.
                                                                                                                                                                 Ky.
                                                                                                                                                                       W.V. Va.                     Conn.*
                                                                                                                                $6.50                                                               $7.40
                                                                                                                                                                           N.C.**
has postponed plans for a                                    Ariz.                                                              Ark.**                  Tenn.             $6.15
                                                                                                                                                                                                    N.J.*
                                                                                                                   Okla.
previously announced store.                                $6.75                 N.M.                                          $6.25                                      S.C.                      $6.15
                                                                                                                                             Miss.                   Ga.                            Del.*
    “In fights like this,                                                                                Texas                     La.
                                                                                                                                                           Ala.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    $6.15
retailers use the exit                 Alaska
                                       $7.15                 Hawaii*                                                                                                                                Md.
                                                             $6.75                                                                                                                                  $6.15
threat, then stay and                                                                                                                                                                               D.C.
                                                                                                                                                                     Fla.
expand,” says Annette                                                                                                                                                $6.40
                                                                                                                                                                                                    $7.00
                                                                                                                                                                                        *States with a minimum
Bernhardt, a labor                  TIME Map
                                                                                                                                                                                         wage that will increase
                                                                                                                                                                                              over the next year

expert at New York                  Sources: National Conference of State Legislatures; U.S. Dept. of Labor; state government websites; LexisNexis bill tracking                          **Soon to take effect



                                                                                       time, august 21, 2006                                                                                                31

				
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