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					     Lighting
   Technologies
   Applications
Energy Consumption
        MAE 406 / 589
     John Rees, PE, CEM
   Eric Soderberg, PE, CEM

    September 13, 2010
   LIGHTING
FUNDAMENTALS
          The 3 Pillars of
      Energy Efficient Lighting
 Visual Task
 Visual Task



                            WATTS

                            LUMENS

                       FOOTCANDLES




                                             Automatically
Meet target light     Efficiently produce
                                            control lighting
     levels            and deliver light
                                              operation


          Most Important Slide in Today’s Seminar!             3
 Lighting Fundamentals - Illumination
• Light Output.
  – Measured at the lamp surface.
  – Measured in lumens.
• Illuminance or Light Level.
  – Measured at the working surface.
  – Measured in foot-candles.
• Luminance or Brightness.
  – Measured at an angle to the working surface.
  – Measured in footlamberts.
     Targeted Illumination Levels
• Targeted illumination level is determined by:
  – Tasks being performed (detail, contrast, size).
  – Ages of the occupants.
  – Importance of speed and accuracy.
Recommended Illumination Levels
                                       Illumination
                                            Foot-
                  Activity                 candles

Offices: Average Reading and Writing          50-75
Offices: Hallways                             10-20
Offices: Rooms with Computers                 20-50
Auditoriums / Assembly Places                 15-30
Hospitals: General Areas                      10-15
Labs / Treatment areas                       50-100
Libraries                                    30-100
Schools                                      30-150
         Quality of Illumination
• Quality of illumination may affect worker
  productivity.
• Quality is affected by:
  – Glare. Too bright.
  – Uniformity of illumination.
  – Color rendition. Ability to see colors properly.
     • Scale is 0 to 100 (100 is best)
  – Color Temperature. Warm to Cool.
     • Measured in degrees kelvin. 3000 is warm (yellowish);
       5000 is cool or “daylight”.
               Color Rendering Index
                       (CRI)
A relative scale indicating how perceived colors illuminated by the light source
match actual colors. The higher the number the less color distortion from the
reference source.

         85 -100 CRI = Excellent color rendition

         75 - 85 CRI = Very Good color rendition

         65 - 75 CRI = Good color rendition

         55 - 65 CRI = Fair color rendition

         0 – 55 CRI = Poor color rendition
              Color Temperature (K˚)

A measure of the “warmth” or “coolness” of a light source.

    ≤ 3200K = “warm” or red side of spectrum

    ≥ 4000K = “cool” or blue side of spectrum

    3500K = “neutral”

    5000K = “Daylight”
              North Sky - 8500K


   Color
Temperature   Daylight Fluo - 6500K

   Scale
              Cool White - 4100K
               Halogen – 3100K
               Warm White - 3000K
               Incandescent – 2700K

                HPS - 2100K
                                  10
                     Color Rendition




warm light source is       neutral light source is         cool source is used
used, enhancing reds       used                            enhancing blues and
and oranges                                                greens
Color rendering, expressed as a rating on the Color Rendering Index
(CRI), from 0-100, describes how a light source makes the color of an object
appear to human eyes and how well subtle variations in color shades are
revealed. The higher the CRI rating, the better its color rendering ability.
                  Efficiency
• Lighting efficiency is expressed as lumens
  output/wattage input.
  – Ranges from 4 to 150 lumens/watt.
• Show overhead.
     Lamp Lumen Depreciation
• As lamps age, they lose a certain amount of
  output.
• Old T12 fluoresecents can lose up to 30% of
  output over their life.
• New T8 fluorescents maintain up to 95% of
  original lumens.
• This depreciation must be accounted for when
  installing new lighting system.
LIGHTING
  TYPES
                  Luminaires
• Luminaire = Lighting fixture
  – Lamps
  – Lamp sockets
  – Ballasts
  – Reflective material
  – Lenses, refractors, louvers
  – Housing
• Directs the light using reflecting and shielding
  surfaces.
             Luminaires (cont’d)
• Luminaire Efficiency
  – Percentage of lamp lumens produced that actually
    exits the fixture.
  – Types of luminaires
     • Direct (general illumination).
     • Indirect (light reflected off the ceiling/walls; “wall
       washers”).
     • Spot/Accent lighting.
     • Task Lighting.
     • Outdoor/Flood Lights.
              Types of Lighting
•   Incandescents/Halogens.
•   Fluorescents.
•   High Intensity Discharge (HID).
•   Inductive.
•   Light Emitting Diode.
            Incandescent Lamps
• One of the oldest
  electric lighting
  technologies.
• Light is produced by
  passing a current
  through a tungsten
  filament.
• Least efficient – (4 to 24
  lumens/watt).
• Lamp life ~ 1,000 hours.
      Incandescent Lamps (cont’d)
• High CRI (100) – Warm Color (2700K)
• Halogen 2900K to 3200K)
• Inexpensive
• Excellent beam control
• Easily dimmed – no ballast needed
• Immediate off and on
• No temperature concerns – can be used outdoors
• 100, 75, 60 and 40 watt lamps will be going away per 2007 law
  beginning 2012
         Tugnsten-Halogen Lamps
• A type of incandescent
  lamp.
• Encloses the tungsten
  filament in a quartz capsule
  filled with halogen gas.
• Halogen gas combines with
  the vaporized tungsten and
  redeposits it on the
  filament.
• More efficient.
• Lasts longer (up to 6,000
  hrs.)
            Fluorescent Lamps
• Most common commercial lighting
  technology.
• High Efficicacy: up to 100 lumens/watt.
• Improvements made in the last 15 years.
  – T12: 1.5 inch in diameter.
  – T8: 1 inch in diameter.
     • ~30% more efficient than T12.
  – T5: 5/8 inch in diameter.
     • ~40% more efficient than T12.
       Fluorescent Lamps (cont’d)
• Configurations
  – Linear (8 ft., 4 ft., 2 ft., 1 ft.)
  – Ubend (fit in a 2 ft. x 2 ft.
    fixture).
  – Circular (rare, obsolete).
  – Fixtures can be 4, 3, 2, or 1
    lamp per fixture.
• Output Categories
  – Standard Output (430 mA).
  – High Output (800 mA).
  – Very High Output (1,500 mA).
 Schematic of Fluorescent Lamp




Phosphor crystals   Mercury atom   Electron   Electrode
   Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs)

• Fluorescent lamp that is
  small in size (~2 in.
  diameter, 3 to 5 in. in
  length).
• Developed as replacement
  for incandescent lamps.
• Two Main Types
   – Ballast-integrated.
   – Ballast non-integrated (allows
     only lamp to be replaced).
                Compact Fluorescent

•Excellent color available – comparable to incandescent

•Many choices (sizes, shapes, wattages, output, etc.)

•Wide Range of CRI and Color Temperatures

•Energy Efficient (3.5 to 4 times incandescent)

•Long Life (generally 10,000 hours –
 lasts 12 times longer than standard 750 hour incandescent lamps)

•Less expensive dimming now available (0-10v dimming to 5%)

•Available for outdoor use with amalgam technology
 Compact Fluorescent Lamps (cont’d)
• Use ¼ the power of an
  incandescent for an
  equivalent amount of
  light. (an 18-watt CFL is
  equivalent to a 75-watt
  incandescent.)
• 10,000 hour life. (10x
  an incandescent).
• Saves about $30 over
  the life of the CFL.
                             Ballasts
• Auxiliary component that
  performs 3 functions:
   – Provides higher starting
     voltage.
   – Provides operating voltage.
   – Limits operating current.
• Old type ballasts were
  electromagnetic.
• New ballasts are electronic.
   – Lighter, less noisy, no lamp
     flicker, dimming capability).
                        Ballast Factor
•DEFINITION: The fraction of rated lamp lumens produced by a specific lamp-
ballast combination

•APPLICATIONS: High Ballast Factor            Increases output
               (1.00-1.30)                    AND energy consumption

                  Typical Ballast Factor      Comparable light output in
                  (0.85-0.95)                 one-to-one replacement

                  Low Ballast Factor          Decreases light output
                  (0.47-0.83)                 AND energy consumption

•For optimal efficiency lamps and ballasts must be properly matched.

•Maximize energy savings by selecting electronic ballasts with ballast factor
that provides target illuminance.
            Ballast Circuit Types
• Instant Start Ballast – starts lamp instantly with
  higher starting voltage. Efficient but may shorten
  lamp life.
• Rapid Start – delay of about 0.5 seconds to start;
  supplies starting current to heat the filament prior to
  starting and continues during operation. Uses 2 to 4
  watts more than an instant start ballast.
• Programmed Rapid Start - delay of about 0.5 seconds
  to start; starting current heats the filament prior to
  starting, then cuts off during operation.
High Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamps
High Intensity Discharge Fixtures
 High Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamps
• produces light by
  means of an electric arc
  between tungsten
  electrodes housed
  inside a translucent or
  transparent fused
  quartz or fused alumina
  (ceramic) arc tube filled
  with special gases.
     High Intensity Discharge Lamps
                 (cont’d)
• Arc tube can be filled by various types of gases
  and metal salts.
• HID lamps are used in industrial high bay
  applications, gymnasiums, outdoor lighting,
  parking decks, street lights.
• Efficient (up to 150 lumens/watt).
• Long Life (up to 25,000 hours).
• Drawback – take up to 15 minutes to come up
  to full light after power outage.
     High Intensity Discharge Lamps
                 (cont’d)
• Types of HIDs
  – Mercury Vapor
    (obsolete)
  – Sodium Vapor
      • High pressure
      • Low pressure
  – Metal Halide
      • Arc tube contains argon,
        mercury, and metal
        halides.
      • Gives better color
        temperature and CRI.
             Metal Halide Lamps
• Most common HID in use today.
• Recent Improvements.
  – Allow higher pressure & temperature.
  – Better efficiency, better CRI and better lumen
    maintenance.
  – Pulse Start vs. older Probe Start
  – Ceramic vs. older Quartz arc tube.
     Light Emitting Diodes (LED)
• Latest Lighting Technology.
• Invented in 1962.
• In the past, used as indicator lights,
  automotive lights, and traffic lights; now being
  introduced for indoor and outdoor lighting.
• LED is a semiconductor technology.
• Electroluminescence. Electrons recombine
  with holes in the semiconductor, releasing
  photons.
    Light Emitting Diodes (cont’d)
• Lower energy
  consumption.
• Longer lifetime (50,000
  to 100,000 hrs).
• Smaller size.
• Faster switching.
• Greater durability and
  reliability.
• Cycling.
• Dimming.
LED Replacement Lamps for a 4-ft.
       Fluorescent Fxture
 Comparison of LED with a Fluorescent
                Lamp
                                                 Popular T8 Brand
                                  EverLED-TR        Fluorescent

Watt Rating, typical B.F. = 0.8      22W               34W

Lumens, initial                    Equivalent         2850
CRI                                   85               85
Color Temperature                    5000K            5000K


Life Expectancy 12 hrs per         10 years 10   20000 hours 16000
    start / 3 hrs per start            years            hours


Light output at 0° C              20% increase    50% decrease
                      LED Applications
Successfully used today for many markets
   • Signs & Traffic signals (most common)
   • Displays (change colors for attention)
   • Exit Signs (most common)
   • Indicators and Flashlights
   • Under Counter & Coves
   • Accent
   • Parking Garage & Outdoor
   • Downlights
   • Food Freezers
LED vs. HPS




              41
   Comparison: LED to Ceramic Metal Halide




Cree LED Lighting LRP38 – Total Wattage = 36W




Ceramic Metal Halide – Total Wattage ~ 158 to 237W
                                                     42
                    Induction Lights
• Light source in which the power required to generate light is transferred
  from the outside of the lamp envelope by means of electromagnetic
  fields.
• Type of fluorescent lamp – uses radio waves rather than arc to excite
  phosphor coating on lamp to glow
• Long lifespan due to the lack of electrodes - between 65,000 and 100,000
  hours depending on the lamp model;
• High energy conversion efficiency of between 62 and 90 Lumens/Watt
  [higher wattage lamps are more energy efficient];
• High power factor due to the low loss of the high frequency electronic
  ballasts which are typically between 95% and 98% efficient;
• Minimal Lumen depreciation (declining light output with age) compared
  to other lamp types as filament evaporation and depletion is absent;
• “Instant-on” and hot re-strike, unlike most conventional lamps used in
  commercial/industrial lighting applications (such as Mercury-Vapor lamp,
  Sodium Vapor Lamp and Metal Halide Lamp);
• Environmentally friendly as induction lamps use less energy, and use less
  mercury per hour of operation than conventional lighting due to their long
  lifespan.
                         Induction Lighting

Type of fluorescent lamp – uses radio waves rather than arc to excite
phosphor coating on lamp to glow

Advantages:
   • QL and Icetron: 60,000 to 100,000 hours – if used 12 hours each
   day will last 20 years!
   • Good for hard to maintain locations

Disadvantages:
   • Large light source – difficult to control beam of light making it
   inefficient for delivered and task lumens
   • Expensive - $200+ adder to HID
   • No industry standards for Induction
            Induction Applications
• Applications where maintenance is expensive and/or
difficult

• 24 hour a day.7 days a week applications

• Bridges

• Low Bay Industrial

• Select Outdoor Lighting Applications

• Long burning hour applications
                           Exit Signs
• Old incandescent exit signs used
  (2) 20-watt incandescent lamps.
   – At $0.08/kWh, energy cost for
      1 sign = $28/yr.
• CFL exit signs use 10 to 12 watts
   – Energy cost for 1 sign = $7 to
      $8.50/yr.
• LED exit signs use 3 to 4 watts
   – energy cost for 1 sign = $3 to
      $4/yr.
• Photoluminescent sign uses 0
  watts, but may have (slightly)
  radioactive material.
   – New technology claims
      completely non-toxic and
      recyclable.
                 Outdoor Lighting
• Older technology for
  outdoor lighting
   – High pressure sodium
   – Metal Halide
• Newer technology
   – Compact fluorescents
   – LEDs
      • Solar street lights
        (economical when electric
        lines don’t need to be run
        in a new installation).
ENVIRONMENTAL
CONSIDERATIONS
         Hazardous Waste Disposal
Hazardous Waste Lamps will now be regulated under the Federal
Universal Waste Rule which was first developed to regulate the
disposal of other widely generated wastes that contain toxic materials,
such as batteries and pesticides

State Rule supersedes Federal Rule

Under current federal law, mercury-containing lamps (fluorescent, HID)
may be hazardous waste

The rule applies only to lamps that fail the TCLP (Toxicity Characteristic
Leaching Procedure) test which is used to determine if a waste is
hazardous.
         Mercury Content of Lamps
           TYPICAL MERCURY CONTENT OF VARIOUS LAMPS

250 watt Metal Halide lamp                  38 mg
250 watt High Pressure Sodium lamp          15 mg
Pre 1988 T12 Fluorescent                    45 mg
Post 1988 T12 Fluorescent         12 mg
Typical T8 Fluorescent Tube                 4-5 mg
Typical Compact Fluorescent (CFL)           4-5 mg

4-5 mg is less mercury than a coal fired power plant will emit while
producing the additional energy to power an equivalent incandescent
lamp.

Lamps containing mercury that fail the TCLP test must be recycled!

EPA encourages responsible disposal practices to limit the release of mercury
into the environment.

EPA encourages lamp recycling
           LIGHTING
          ECONOMICS
              $$
• Simple Payback

• Return on Investment (ROI)

• Internal Rate of Return (IRR)

• Net Present Value (NPV)
                     LIGHTING
                    ECONOMICS
                        $$
Simple Payback

 Return on Investment
(ROI)

 Internal Rate of Return
(IRR)

Net Present Value (NPV)
Simple Payback Examples
                    Simple Payback

Simple Payback is the number of years it takes an energy saving
measure to repay the initial investment for the new system. It does not
account for the time value of money and it also does not consider the
savings that occur after the payback point.

Most private companies require a simple payback of 2 years or less.
For energy saving measures, they will sometimes accept a 3 to 5 year
payback.

Government agencies can accept longer paybacks than private
companies.

 SIMPLE PAYBACK = TOTAL PROJECT COST / ANNUAL SAVINGS
      Return on Investment - ROI
ROI is the inverse of Simple Payback and has all of the
qualifiers of a simple payback. It does not account for the
time value of money and also it does not consider the
savings that occur after the payback point. It is
sometimes called Rate of Return.

ROI is expressed as a percentage. It is often compared
to other investment yields.
    Internal Rate of Return (IRR %)

IRR is a hurdle rate. The IRR is the discount rate of return
at which a project’s NPV=0. IRR accounts for life-cycle
cash flows and time-value of money, but the percentages
alone should not be compared for ranking (choosing one
alternative over another) still use the NPV results as well.

IRR is the discount rate that delivers a net present value of
zero for a series of future cash flows. IRR is expressed as
an interest yield. Any interest yield equal to or less than the
IRR for a project is a “yes” decision (i.e. the IRR is greater
than the cost of capital).
                Net Present Value ($)
•NPV adjusts for the time value of money by discounting incremental future
cash flows to the present time using a discount rate appropriate to those cash
flows. NPV ($) is a profitability measure and can be used to rank one
lighting alternative over another. The higher the $ profit NPV, the better the
alternative. The NPV, to be appropriately used, should be calculated by
applying the after tax cost of capital to the after tax cash flows.
 Example: Simple Payback & ROI
A lighting upgrade is estimated to save $5,000 a year and
cost $25,000. What are the simple payback and return on
investment (ROI)?

Simple payback     = Cost / Annual Savings
                   = $25,000 / $5,000
                   = 5 years

           ROI     = 1 / Simple Payback
                   = 1/5
                   = 20%
 Example: Energy & Cost Savings
Existing lighting in the Method Road Greenhouse consists of 10 fixtures
containing ten 4’, 4 lamp T12 fixtures that consume 154 watts of
electrical power. At $0.09/kWh, what is the annual cost of operating
these fixtures 2,000 hours a year?

     10 x 154 watts x 2,000 hours/1,000 = 3,080 kWh
                       3,080 x $0.09    = $2,772 per year

These fixtures are replaced by fixtures containing 25 watt T8 lamps with
low BF ballasts which only consume 89 watts per fixture. What is the
annual cost of operation?

     10 x 89 watts x 2,000 hours/1,000 = 1,780 kWh
                       1,780 x $0.09   = $1,602 per year

                       Cost savings      = $1,170 per year
         Other Benefits from
    Energy Efficient Lighting Retrofit
• Improved Color Rendition/Visibility in Space

• Longer Lamp Life

•Less Maintenance (Normally a result of longer lamp life)

• Adjust to target light levels (IES)

• Improved Controls

• HVAC Savings – Typically 5% above lighting savings for cooled spaces

• Tax Incentives – Generally tax deductions

• Incentive from Utility Rebates – Both Progress & Duke have programs
                HVAC Savings from a
                  Lighting Retrofit
•1 watt saved = 3,412 BTUs of heat removed

•Heat removed with Efficient Lighting is:
    • A savings when cooling (A/C is on)
    • A cost when heating is on

•Rules of Thumb to count HVAC savings
    • Unitary Equipment: Lighting Savings x .1 to .2
    • Chiller Equipment: Lighting Savings x .05 to .1

•Example: Lighting Savings = $2,000.00

    $2,000 x .1 = $200 savings from Unitary HVAC
                      Change from Old to New
                      and Save Energy and $$
         OLD TECHNOLOGY             =>             NEW TECHNOLOGY

• T12 Fluorescent – 4’ and 8’ Systems    • T8, T5 and T5HO Fluorescent Systems

• Magnetic Ballasts                      • Electronic Ballasts

• Incandescent                           • Halogen IR, MH & LED

• Halogen                                • Metal Halide and LED

• Probe Start Metal Halide               • Pulse Start and
 and Mercury Vapor                        Ceramic Metal Halide

• Neon                                   •LED

• Manual Controls                        •Automatic Controls, Bi-Level and
                                         Continuous Dimming Systems
                         Ballast Factor

•DEFINITION: The fraction of rated lamp lumens produced by a specific lamp-
ballast combination

•APPLICATIONS: High Ballast Factor            Increases output
               (1.00-1.30)                    AND energy consumption

                  Typical Ballast Factor      Comparable light output in
                  (0.85-0.95)                 one-to-one replacement

                  Low Ballast Factor          Decreases light output
                  (0.47-0.83)                 AND energy consumption

•Maximize energy savings by selecting electronic ballasts with ballast factor
that provides target illuminance.
   Energy Savings Potential With
        Occupancy Sensors
   Application                       Energy Savings

   Offices (Private)                          25-50%
   Offices (Open Spaces)                      20-25%
   Rest Rooms                                 30-75%
   Corridors                                  30-40%
   Storage Areas                              45-65%
   Meeting Rooms                              45-65%
   Conference Rooms                           45-65%
   Warehouses                                 50-75%
   Source: CEC/DOE/EPRI


     Savings can be determined with data
logger installed in room or area for 1 to 2 weeks
     Types of Lighting Controls
– Occupancy Sensors

– Bi-level Switching

– Time Clock

– Photo Sensors

– Lighting Control Systems
                  Occupancy Sensors

•Automatically turn lights off when spaces are unoccupied

•Adjustments for sensitivity and time delay

•Proper selection, location, and adjustment of sensors is key to reliable
operation

•Ask manufacturer about load limits and compatibility with electronic ballasts

•Some are low voltage sensors and use a power pack that acts as 1) a switch
and 2) a transformer (120V to 240V)
       Passive Infrared Sensors (PIR)

•Detect movement of heat-radiating sources between radial detection zones

•Line-of-sight is required (30’ max)

•Larger motion is required to trigger sensor at greater distance

•Most sensitive to motion lateral to sensor

•Coverage pattern can be modified to minimize false triggers
                   Ultrasonic Sensors

•Detect movement by sensing disturbance in reflected ultrasonic frequency
pattern

•Line-of-sight is not required if hard surfaces exist in enclosed space

•Most sensitive to motion toward/away from sensor

•Sensitive to air movement vibration
              Ultrasonic Wall Sensor
• Automatic Control

• Use in areas where there are
• large periods of unoccupied time

• Excellent for bi-level control to
• maximize energy savings

• Does not require direct line of
  sight

• Adjust sensitivity and time delay
• for best results
            Dual-Technology Sensors

•Greater reliability from using both infrared (IR) and ultrasonic (US) sensing
technologies

•Typical operation settings:

    •IR and US signals for lights to turn on

    •IR or US signals for lights to stay on

    •Absence of IR and US signals for lights to turn off
  Energy Efficiency and Cost Savings
• Lighting electrical
  savings are possible
  while improving
  lighting comfort!
             Benefits from
    Energy Efficient Lighting Retrofit
•   Improved Color Rendition/Visibility   •   Improved Controls
    in Space
                                          •   HVAC Savings
•   Less Maintenance
                                          •   Tax Incentives
•   Adjust to target light levels (IES)
                                          •   Incentive from Utility Rebate
•   Longer Lamp Life                          Programs
HID Upgrade to Fluorescent Lamps




• 400-Watt Metal Halide = 455 watts input
• 6-Lamp T8 Fixture = 234 watts
 Older Lighting Technology Subject
         to be Changed Out
•T-12 Fluorescent-4’ and 8’ Systems

•Fluorescent Magnetic Ballasts

•Incandescent

•Standard Metal Halide

•Mercury Vapor

•Neon

•Manual Controls
       New Energy Efficient Lighting
             Replacements
•T8, T5 and T5HO Fluorescent Systems

•Electronic Ballasts

•Halogen

•Pulse Start and Ceramic Metal Halide

•LED

•Bi-Level and Continuous Dimming Systems

•New Fixtures
                      Change from Old to New
                      and Save Energy and $$
         OLD TECHNOLOGY             =>             NEW TECHNOLOGY

• T12 Fluorescent – 4’ and 8’ Systems    • T8, T5 and T5HO Fluorescent Systems

• Magnetic Ballasts                      • Electronic Ballasts

• Incandescent                           • Halogen IR, MH & LED

• Halogen                                • Metal Halide and LED

• Probe Start Metal Halide               • Pulse Start and
 and Mercury Vapor                        Ceramic Metal Halide

• Neon                                   •LED

• Manual Controls                        •Automatic Controls, Bi-Level and
                                         Continuous Dimming Systems
            Fluorescent Change-out

•Existing: 4-lamp 2’x4’ Fixture with F34T12CWES lamps and EE magnetic
ballasts – lowest efficiency allowed by code today.

•Replacement: 4-lamp 2’x4’ Fixture with F32T8/835 lamps and electronic
ballasts BF=0.88 (standard BF)

•What is wrong with this energy efficient change-out?
  We did not use correct new technology to Maximize
     Energy Savings and meet target light levels!

•Best options for replacing 34-watt T12 fluorescent systems:
    •Low Power electronic ballasts (BF=0.78)
    •Energy saving 4’ lamps (30,28, or 25w)
    •Less lamps per fixture (3 instead of 4)

•Minimal additional cost and can Lock-in maximum energy savings with low
power ballasts and fewer lamps per fixture

•Use with Extra Performance or Energy Savings lamps ad correct ballast factor
to meet target light levels and maximize energy savings!
     “Super T8” Fluorescent System

•Older T8s called “700 series”
•Newer Super T8s called “800 series”
•3000K, 3500K, or 4100K versions
•30,000 hour lamp life @ 3 hours per start
•3100-3150 initial lumens
•Universal Voltage (120-277V)
•4-foot lamp: 30, 28 or 25 watts; Low input wattage (4-lamp: 93/89 watts)
•95% lumen maintenance @ 8000 hours
•Low Temperature Starting (0˚F)
•Lamp/Ballast System Warranty 5 Years
•85 CRI
•Program Start Ballasts
•TCLP-compliant
 Instant Start Super T8 vs. Standard T8

• 800-series Super T8s have 96% of system lumens of 700-series lamps with
standard ballasts

•19% reduction in power

•Double lamp life (3 hrs. per start)

•Maximum life on occupancy sensors
 25 Watt T8 Advantage Long Life Lamp
         from Philips Lighting
•Long lamp life (40,000 hours of rated average life at 12 hours per start on
Optanium™ Instant Start ballasts and 46,000 hours of rated average life at 12
hours per start on Optanium™ Programmed Start Ballasts)

•2400 lumens with 95 percent lumen maintenance

•Superior color rendering (a CRI of 85)

•Low mercury (Philips ALTO® lamps average 70% less mercury than the 2001
industry average for fluorescent lamps up to 60 inches, which are not TCLP
compliant) 1.7 mg Mercury per 4’ lamp
 Fluorescent Lamp/Ballast Change-out
   vs. New Fixture “Rules of Thumb”
•Install new fixtures when:
     •Existing fixtures are over 20 years old
     •Lamp holders are worn out
     •Multiple components are failing
     •Design requires change in fixture type

•Retrofit existing fixtures with lamps & ballasts when:
    •Existing fixtures are less than 20 years old
    •Lamp holders and other components are still good
    •Budget is very tight
    •Expensive/Difficult/Environmental Conditions Present
     (i.e. asbestos or excessive piping and ducts in ceiling, etc.)
                T5 and T5HO Systems
•One T5HO lamp provides similar maintained lumen output to two T8 lamps
 (4750 vs. 4669 maintained lumens)

•Maintained lumens are higher – fixtures are smaller

•Peak light output at 95˚F ambient air temperature instead of 77˚F with
 T8 and T12

•Amalgam technology has been added to provide a more constant lumen
output across a broad range of ambient temperatures!
T5 and T5HO
  Systems

 •Disadvantages

     • T5 and T5HO lamp life is less than T8s
     • The bulb wall surface of the T5 is very bright. Care must be exercised in
       using T5 lamp in direct lighting applications.
     • Costs higher than T8 – cost can be balanced by a reduction in the
       number of luminaries used.
     • Lead times may be longer – T5s require compete fixture replacement.
     • In cooler temperatures or high CFM air distribution the T5 or T5HO may
       not perform well (peak light output at 95 °F).
     • May not work well with occupancy sensors due to slow lumen run-up
       with cold start.
       T5HO vs. T8 Application Rules of
                   Thumb
•≤ 20’ – use T8

•≥ 20’ – use T5HO

•18’ to 25’ – either T8 or T5HO can be used successfully

•Over 50 types of 4’ T8 lamps available

•Two T5 lamps: 28w T5 and 54w T5HO

•To get T5HO performance out of T8 lamps, use high-lumen/high performance
 T8 lamps

•Typical T8 electronic ballast factors range from 0.72 to 1.2.
T5HO vs. T8 for Warehouse Aisles Rule
              of Thumb
•In general for warehouse aisles, T5HO will perform better in non-air-
conditioned spaces and T8 performs better in air-conditioned spaces.

•Reason: Ambient temperature of T5HO rating for peak performance is 35
degrees C (95F) and T8 is rated at 25C (77F).

Source: Warehouse aisle lighting – p. 16 – LD&A Feb 2009-
article by Siva K. Haran, PE, LEED, AP, IES
                   HVAC Savings from
                    Lighting Retrofit
•1 watt saved = 3,412 BTUs of heat removed

•Heat removed with Efficient Lighting is:
    •A savings when cooling (A/C is on)
    •A cost when heating is on

•Rules of Thumb to count HVAC savings
    •Unitary Equipment: Lighting Savings x .1 to .2
    •Chiller Equipment: Lighting Savings x .05 to .1

•Example: Lighting Savings = $2,000.00

    $2,000 x .1 = $200 savings from Unitary HVAC
An Increase in Quality Can Improve
       Worker Productivity
• 1% increase in productivity is
  about equal to one sick day

• Improve employee satisfaction
  and reduce
  turnover/replacement expenses
   for new employees.

• Improves Company bottom line

• Indirect Lighting is preferred by
  many today!
What’s the Most Efficient Light
           Source?
           Daylighting Advantages
Excellent light source for almost all interior
spaces – offices, homes, retail, schools
and more; People prefer it!

Field research indicates that with
daylighting:
    • Learning is enhanced
    • Retail sales increase (Wal-Mart
    study)
    • Employee satisfaction increases

Energy Savings is realized when controls
are used
      Conducting a Lighting Survey

Why Conduct a Lighting Survey? – to identify improvement opportunities. It is a
systematic exam and appraisal of building lighting systems.

    Step 1 – Establish a base line of performance
    Step 2 – Identify opportunities for improvement
    Step 3 – Calculate savings and potential payback

The quality of the information collected in the survey has a direct impact on
steps 2 and 3
  Suggestions for a Lighting Survey
•Ask the right questions to meet the client’s goals

•Gather ALL the right information

•Don’t assume – check the existing equipment to obtain accurate
information

•Determine Economic Calculations Required

•Is a test installation needed?
     •Lighting Fixtures
     •Controls

•Consider all drivers to reduce the payback

•Use a pre-printed form or spreadsheet template
Information and Data to Collect in a Lighting Survey
• Floor plan of the building/space with dimensions if available

• Electric bills for 1 year to determine average cost per kWh over the year

• Tasks being performed in each area – Talk to occupants in the area

• Type (fixture input wattage and lamps/ballasts type), quantity, mounting height, and
control of fixtures in each space

• Lighting operating hours per year and footcandle levels for each space

•Circuit Voltage

• Exit signs (light source)

• Talk with building occupants about operating practices and satisfaction with the
level and quality of lighting

• Talk with maintenance staff about equipment condition and any recurring problems.
      LEGISLATION
 AFFECTING THE USE OF
LIGHTING TECHNOLOGIES
Energy Legislation and Incentive Programs
          for Renewable Energy
          and Energy Efficiency
• Energy Policy Act of 2005 – EPAct 2005
• North Carolina Tax Credits
• North Carolina Senate Bill 3 – Renewable Energy
  Portfolio Standard (REPS) of 2007
• Utility Incentives – Progress Energy, Duke Energy
• American Recovery & Reinvestment Act of 2009,
  ARRA or Stimulus Package
• NC Greenpower
           Highlights of the Federal
           Energy Policy Act of 2005
 30% tax credit for residential solar thermal or
  photovoltaic energy systems up to a credit of $2,000
 Does not apply to pool heating systems
 30% tax credit up to $500 for energy efficient
  windows, doors, heating & cooling equipment, and
  insulation
 Tax deductions up to $1.80 per square foot for energy
  efficiency improvements in commercial buildings.
       EPAct 2005 Tax Deductions
The Energy Policy Act of 2005, section 1331, provides a
tax deduction of up to $1.80/ft2 for energy efficiency in
commercial buildings. These tax deductions can be
claimed in a single year. Systems covered include:


Interior lighting systems                              Max. $0.60/ft2
Heating, cooling, ventilation, and hot water systems   Max. $0.60/ft2
Building envelope                                      Max. $0.60/ft2
         EPAct 2005 Tax Deductions

To qualify for an EPAct 2005 tax deduction for lighting, the following
must be met:

    • Surpass the ASHRAE 90.1-2001 LPD Standard

    • Bi-level switching must be installed for most buildings (exceptions
    identified) and all controls provisions (new buildings) in the
    Standard must be met.

    • Must meet the minimum requirements for calculated light levels
    as set forth in the 9th Edition of the IESNA Lighting Handbook.

    • Consult a tax expert to see if you qualify
      EPAct 2005 Critical Dates and
   Proposed Increase in Tax Deduction
For commercial (for profit) enterprise

    Any new system that exceeds ASHRAE standards by the required
    amount must be placed into service between January 1, 2006 and
    December 31, 2013 for tax deduction.

Proposed 2009 Senate Bill 1637 would increase tax credit for $1.80 to
$3.00 per square foot for whole building or from $0.60 to $1.00 per
square foot for partial allowance (such as lighting measures only).
                                   NC Tax Credit Summary
 Renewable Technology       Residential                              Non-residential
Biomass                     35%                            35%
                            $10,500 Per Installation       $250,000 Per Installation

Hydroelectric               35%                            35%
                            $10,500 Per Installation       $250,000 Per Installation

Solar Energy Equipment      35%                            35%
for Domestic Water          $1,400 Per Dwelling Unit       $250,000 Per Installation
Heating
Solar Energy Equipment      35%                            35%
for Active Space Heating    $3,500 Per Dwelling Unit       $250,000 Per Installation

Solar Energy Equipment      35%                            35%
for Combined Active         $3,500 Per Dwelling Unit       $250,000 Per Installation
Space and Domestic Hot
Water Systems
Solar Energy Equipment      35%
for Passive Space Heating   $3,500 Per Dwelling Unit

Solar Energy Equipment                                     35%
for Daylighting                                            $250,000 Per Installation

Solar Energy Equipment 35%                                 35%
for Solar Electric or Other $10,500 Per Installation       $250,000 Per Installation
Solar Thermal Applications

Wind                        35%                            35%
                            $10,500 Per Installation       $250,000 Per Installation
       The Energy Independence and
         Security Act of 2007 (EISA)
President Bush signed into law on 12/19/07

Lighting Sections include:

   Sec. 321 – Efficient Light Bulbs

   Sec. 322 – Incandescent Reflector Lamp
             Efficiency Standards

   Sec. 324 – Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures

   Sec. 65 – Bright Tomorrow Light Prizes
                 Maximum Wattages
             and Efficiency Requirements
There are new efficacies for general service incandescent lamps expressed as
a new maximum wattage.

Generally, the lamps must be 30% more efficient by 2012-2014, with larger
lamps covered first.

Compliance: Today’s typical incandescent and halogen general service screw-
base lamps do not comply with the new efficiency requirements.

Examples of General Service Lamps that will become obsolete:

    January 1, 2012 – 100W A19 incandescent lamps
    January 1, 2013 – 75W A19 incandescent lamps
    January 1, 2014 – 40W A19 and 60W A19 incandescent lamps
    Dates and Replacement Lamps
January 1, 2012 70W Halogen rated at 1600 lumens, or 23 lumens/W

January 1, 2013 50W Halogen rated at 1100 lumens, or 22 lumens/W

January 1, 2014 40W Halogen rated at 800 lumens, or 20 lumens/W
                     DOE 2009 Ruling
                  Effective 7/14/2012 (in 2 years)
These lamps will be obsolete:

Majority of F40T12 and F34T12 ES 4-ft. lamps

Majority of FB40T12 and FB34T12 ES 2-ft. U-lamps

All 75W F96T12 Slimline 8-ft. lamps

Majority of 60W F96T12 Slimline 8-ft. ES lamps

All 110W F96T12HO 8-ft. lamps

Majority of 95W F96T12HO 8-ft. ES lamps

All T8 basic 700 series 4-ft. lamps with 2800 lumens (requires 2850 to pass)

Majority of T8 basic 700 series 2-ft. U-lamps
Older Lighting Technology Subject
        to be Changed Out
    T-12 Fluorescent - 4’ and 8’ Systems

    Fluorescent Magnetic Ballasts

    Incandescent

    Standard Metal Halide

    Mercury Vapor

    Neon

    Manual Controls
New Energy Efficient Lighting
      Replacements
T8, T5 and T5HO Fluorescent Systems

Electronic Ballasts

Halogen IR

Pulse Start and Ceramic Metal Halide

LED

Bi-Level and Continuous Dimming Systems

New Fixtures
        North Carolina Senate Bill 3 (SB3)
Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard (REPS) of 2007
SB3 requires a Percentage of Electrical Generation from Renewable Sources.
Of these amounts, 25% can be achieved by Energy Efficiency.


• Solar PV
                                                       Percent of
• Solar Thermal                     Year
• Wind
                                                         Total
• Hydroelectric
                                    2012                    3%
• Wave Energy
• Biomass                           2015                    6%
• Landfill Gas (LFG)
• Waste Heat from                   2016                   10%
Renewables
• Hydrogen from
                           2021 & thereafter              12.5%
Renewables
                               Renewable Portfolio Standards
                                                            www.dsireusa.org / November 2009
 WA: 15% by 2020*                                                                                       VT: (1) RE meets any increase        ME: 30% by 2000
                                                                                                                                             New RE: 10% by 2017
                                                                         MN: 25% by 2025                    in retail sales by 2012;
                            MT: 15% by 2015
                                                                         (Xcel: 30% by 2020)             (2) 20% RE & CHP by 2017           ☼ NH: 23.8% by 2025
                                                     ND: 10% by 2015                           MI: 10% + 1,100 MW                           ☼ MA: 15% by 2020
☼ OR: 25% by 2025        (large utilities)*                                                          by 2015*                                 + 1% annual increase
  5% - 10% by 2025 (smaller utilities)                                                                                                         (Class I Renewables)
                                                     SD: 10% by 2015      WI: Varies by utility;     ☼ NY: 24% by 2013
                                                                             10% by 2015 goal                                               RI: 16% by 2020
   ☼ NV: 25% by 2025*                                                                                                                        CT: 23% by 2020
                                                                         IA: 105 MW            ☼ OH: 25% by 2025†
                                   ☼ CO: 20% by 2020          (IOUs)
                                                                                                                                        ☼ PA: 18% by 2020†
                                   10% by 2020 (co-ops & large munis)*                                    WV: 25% by 2025*†
                                                                                 ☼ IL: 25% by 2025
                                                                                                                                        ☼ NJ: 22.5% by 2021
CA: 33% by 2020        UT: 20% by 2025*                  KS: 20% by 2020                                   VA: 15% by 2025*
                                                                                                                                        ☼ MD: 20% by 2022
                                                                           ☼ MO: 15% by 2021
              ☼ AZ: 15% by 2025                                                                                                         ☼ DE: 20% by 2019*
                                                                                               ☼ NC: 12.5% by 2021 (IOUs)
                                                                                                10% by 2018 (co-ops & munis)            ☼ DC: 20% by 2020
                                ☼ NM: 20% by 2020 (IOUs)
                                         10% by 2020 (co-ops)


                                                    TX: 5,880 MW by 2015

                     HI: 40% by 2030                                                                                              29 states                 & DC
                                                                                                                                          have an RPS
                                                                                                                                         6 states have goals
     State renewable portfolio standard
                                                              ☼ Minimum solar or customer-sited requirement
     State renewable portfolio goal                                  Extra credit for solar or customer-sited renewables
     Solar water heating eligible                               *
                                                                †    Includes non-renewable alternative resources

				
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