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					The Cold War

  1945-1989
            Roots of the Cold War
   Teheran Conference, 1943
       USSR guaranteed to be only power to liberate Eastern
        Europe
   Yalta Conference, 1945
       Stalin pledged to allow democratic elections in E.
        Europe (but later reneged)
       Germany would be divided into four zones controlled
        by U.S., France, Britain and USSR
   After war, Soviets dominated their zone and did
    not allow reunification of Germany
East/West Germany
           Potsdam Conference
   Potsdam Conference, 1945
     Truman  demanded free elections in Eastern
      Europe but Stalin refused
     Stalin wanted a "buffer zone" between
      Germany and USSR for protection against
      future war
           U.S. Perspective
 Stalin seemed intent on creating "spheres"
  of influence in Eastern Europe
 Broke pledges at Yalta; refused to allow
  reunification of Germany
 U.S. wanted democracy spread
  throughout the world with a strong
  international organization to maintain
  global peace
                         Soviet View
   Democracy was traditionally hostile towards
    communism and the USSR
       Archangel expedition during WWI
       Non-recognition by U.S. until 1933
   US & Britain did not open western front in Europe
    early enough
       Millions of Soviet soldiers were dying fighting the brunt of
        Nazi armies alone until mid-1944.
 The US and Britain froze Russia out of the atomic
  bomb project
 US terminated lend-lease to Moscow in May 1945 but
  gave Britain aid until 1946.
 Wanted "buffer zone" for the Soviet western border
              Partition of Germany
   USSR, U.S., Britain & France would each occupy
    a part of Germany
       Would allow for German reunification once it was no
        longer a threat
                    Reparations
 Germany was to pay heavy reparations to USSR
  in form of agricultural and industrial goods
 Soviets dominated their Eastern German zone
     Did not want revitalized Germany so it couldn‟t be a
      threat again
     Stripped E. Germany of much of its resources.

   U.S. and W. Europeans felt German economy
    vital to recovery of Europe
               West Germany
 1949, West Germany
  became an independent
  country when US, France
  and Britain gave back
  each of their zones
 Federal Republic of
  Germany – led by
  Konrad Adenauer
 Christian Democrats
  became West Germany‟s
  majority party for a
  generation
                   East Germany
 1949, East Germany
  was formally
  established
 Democratic Republic
  of Germany led by
  Walter Ulbricht
       Had a communist
        regime influenced by
        Moscow
                 Containment
 By 1947, US pledged to
  prevent further spread of
  communism
 “The process of
  enclosing or containing
  hazardous substances in
  a structure, typically in
  ponds and lagoons, to
  prevent the migration of
  contaminants into the
  environment”
                 Western Actions
   Truman Doctrine, 1947
       U.S. gave aid to Greece and Turkey to defeat
        communist forces there.
   Marshall Plan, 1947
       Aid package to help Europe recover from the war
       Purpose – prevent communism from spreading into
        economically devastated regions
       Result – Western & Central Europe recovered
        economically -- the "economic miracle"
       Soviets refused to allow U.S. aid to countries in
        eastern Europe
           More Western Action
   Berlin Crisis (1948-49)
     Soviets attempted to remove Allies from Berlin
      by cutting off access
     U.S. instituted a massive airlift; Soviets lifted
      blockade in 1949
     One of high tension points of the Cold
      War
Berlin Airlift
           More Western Action
   North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
    formed in 1949
               security organization consisting of
     Collective
      democracies in Europe, U.S. & Canada to
      prevent Soviet expansion in Europe
                        Eastern Bloc
   Eastern Bloc
       Countries in Eastern Europe dominated by the Soviet
        Union after WWII
            Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Rumania &
             Bulgaria
   Yugoslavia – not part of the Eastern Bloc
       Led by Marshal Tito
       Not dominated by the Soviets
   Communist parties of eastern Europe
    established one-party states by 1948
       Did this with the help of the Red Army & KGB
                   Eastern Recovery
   Postwar economic recovery in eastern Europe proceeded
    along Soviet lines
       Changes were at a slow & uneven pace
       Came to a halt by the mid-1960s.
   Czechoslovakia was the economic exception in E. Europe
       Had strong middle & industrial working classes
       Had a political democracy between WWI & WWII
   The Czech president proposed a social democracy while
    maintaining voluntary relations with the USSR
       Stalin replaced gov‟t in 1948 with 1-party communist rule to
        prevent Western influences
    USSR under Nikita Khrushchev
 A power struggle emerged after Stalin died in
  1953
 Khrushchev emerged and realized reforms were
  needed
       Agriculture was poor, shortages of consumer goods
        and poor living conditions
   Gosplan
       Shift from heavy industry & military toward consumer
        goods and agriculture – Centralized Economic
        Planning
               De-Stalinization
   Khrushchev took startling initiative against
    hard-liners by denouncing Stalin in a
    closed session
     His secret anti-Stalin speech was the
      most influential statement in Russia
      since Lenin addressed the crowd on
      arriving in 1917
     Widespread fear of Stalin‟s political terror
      resulted in less power for the secret police &
      the closure of forced labor camps
                        Russian Arts
 Great ferment in the
  arts (anti-Stalinist views
  tolerated)
 Boris Pasternak – Dr.
    Zhivago
       Story of prerevolutionary
        intellectual who rejects
        brutality of revolution of
        1917 & Stalinism; even
        as he is destroyed, he
        triumphs for his
        humanity
             Aleksandr Solzenitsyn
   One Day in the Life of
    Ivan Denisovich
       Portrays in grim detail,
        life in Stalinist
        concentration camp
        (he had been a
        prisoner)
             Hungarian Uprising
   Hungarian nationalists staged huge
    demonstrations demanding non-
    communist parties be legalized
     This turned into armed rebellion and spread
      throughout the country
     They hoped the U.S. would come in and help
      achieve Hungarian independence
   Soviet tanks and troops responded by
    invading Hungary and crushing the
    democratic revolution
     Western European Recovery
   Economic hardship after WWII made
    people believed Europe was finished
              restructuring was necessary
     Political
     Resulted in social & political reforms creating
      the foundations for a European renaissance
          The Fourth Republic
 In France General
  Charles De Gaulle,
  inspiring wartime
  leader of Free French,
  re-established free
  and democratic
  Fourth Republic
 Great Britain followed
  the same trend
               “Economic Miracle”
 “Economic Miracle” – Europe entered period of
  rapid economic progress lasting into late 1960s
 By 1963, western Europe produced more than
  2.5X more than before the war
 Causes by Marshall Plan and Korean War
       Marshall Plan aid helped western Europe begin
        recovery in 1947
       Korean War in 1950 stimulated economic activity
    The European Common Market
 Economic growth became a basic
  objective of all western European
  governments
 Governments accepted Keynesian
  economics to stimulate their economies
     Many  economic barriers eliminated and a
      large unified market emerged – Common
      Market
     Germany and France were especially
      successful and influential
                    European Unity
   Council of Europe created in 1948
       The hope was that the Council evolve into a true
        European parliament but it did not
   The (French) Schuman Plan created the European
    Coal and Steel Community in 1950
       West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, &
        Luxembourg
       Britain refused to enter
 Immediate economic goal – single competitive
  market w/o tariffs or quotas
 Long Term political goal – bind six nations so
  economically close together that war among them
  would become impossible
     European Economic Community
                (EEC)
   The Treaty of Rome created the EEC or
    Common Market
     Signed   by same six nations in the Schuman
      Plan
 First goal of treaty – reduction of all tariffs
  among the six in order to create a single
  market as large as the U.S.
 EEC encouraged hopes of political and
  economic union
                  COMECON
   Communist states responded by forming their
    own economic association - COMECON
            The Fifth Republic
 France stepped back from European unity
 General De Gaulle established the Fifth
  French Republic and ruled as president
  until 1969
     WithdrewFrance from "US controlled" NATO
     and developed own nuclear weapons program
          Maastricht Treaty – 1991
   A radical revision of
    the EEC
       Placed the European
        Union (EU) into effect
        in 1993
       Eurodollar became the
        single currency of the
        EU in 1999 integrating
        the currency of 11
        nations
   By 1995 the EU had
    15 members
        Energy Crises of the 1970s
 Postwar economic boom was fueled by cheap
  oil, especially in western Europe
 1973 – OPEC (Organization of Petroleum
  Exporting Countries) increased oil prices in
  Europe in retaliation for their support of Israel in
  the Yom Kippur War
       1979 – Second price increase during Iranian
        Revolution hurt progress again
   "Stagflation" hit in the mid 1970s
       Increased prices and increased unemployment
         Science and Technology
   WWII was the first time “pure theoretical”
    science and “practical” technology
    (”applied science”) effectively joined
    together on massive scale
     Britishscientists developed radar
     Germany developed jet aircraft
     Electronic computers were developed
               Manhattan Project
   The atomic bomb most
    spectacular result of
    scientific research
    during the war
        Overseen by J. Robert
         Oppenheimer
                 “Big Science”
   “Big Science” became new model for
    science after WWII
     Itcombined theoretical work with
      sophisticated engineering on a large scale
     Usually done by a huge organization
     Led by the U.S.
   Science was not demobilized after WWII
     Large portion of all postwar scientific research
      went for “defense” (25%!)
                        The Space Race
   Space Race – a Cold
    War competition to
    achieve technological
    superiority
       1957, USSR launched
        Sputnik, an orbiting
        satellite
            Used long-range
             rockets to achieve orbit
                              NASA
   The US feared that the
    Soviets could now launch
    a nuclear missile into
    space
       Resulted in development of
        ICBMs (Intercontinental
        Ballistic Missiles)
   U.S. countered with NASA
    & vastly increased
    educational funding for
    science
                    To the Moon
 1961, Soviets sent
  world‟s first
  cosmonaut, Yuri
  Gagarin, into orbit
 President John F.
  Kennedy responded
  by increasing funds
  for space
       1969, Apollo Program
        put first man on the
        moon
                 The “Brain Drain”
   The U.S. attracted
    many of Europe‟s best
    scientists during
    1950s & 1960s
       Some Europeans
        feared Europe was
        falling behind U.S. in
        science, technology,
        and industry
                        Innovations
   A post-WWII
    revitalized Europe
    pooled its resources
    together for Big
    Science projects
       Concorde supersonic
        passenger airliner
       Peaceful uses of
        atomic energy
    Growth of the Scientific Community
 4x as many scientists
  in Europe & North
  America in 1975 as in
  1945
 Watson & Crick
       Nobel Prize, 1962
        Discovering structure
        of DNA
                 Class Structure
 The rise of the middle-class was due to
  increased access to higher education
 Causes for change in rise of middle class
     Rapid industrial and technological expansion created
      in large corporations and gov‟t.    agencies
     Created a large demand for technologists and
      managers
   Structure of lower classes also became more
    flexible and open
                       Welfare
   European governments reduced class
    tensions by:
     Further   expanding social security:
       Health care, family allowances, maternity grants,
        public housing
                   Consumerism
   Consumerism worked
    to level Western
    society
     Sparked by rising
      standard of living
     Gave more people a
      disposable income
   European automobile
    industry expanded
    phenomenally
                Gadget Revolution
   Like US, Europeans
    bought washing
    machines, vacuum
    cleaners,
    refrigerators,
    dishwashers, radios,
    TVs, and stereos
       Purchasing greatly
        facilitated by
        installment purchasing
                      Leisure Time
   Leisure and recreation
    became big business as
    workers worked fewer
    hours
       Soccer matches, horse
        races, movies, TV,
        commercialized hobbies
   Increased attendance
    in cultural events
       Concerts and exhibitions
                          Travel
   The travel industry
    boomed
       Before WWII travel for
        pleasure was largely
        aristocratic
   Paid vacations
    required by law in
    most countries
                  Counter-Culture
   Counter-Culture: rebellion against parents,
    authority figures and status quo
       Baby boom after WWII developed distinctive and
        international youth culture
       New generation influenced by revival of leftist
        thought created a “counter-culture”
   Rebelled against conformity and boredom of
    middle-class suburbs
       Increased sexual behavior among many young people
        during the „60s and „70s
       Age of first sexual experienced reduced significantly
Causes of the Int‟l. Youth Movement
   Mass communication and youth travel linked
    countries and continents together
       Postwar prosperity and greater equality gave youth
        more purchasing power than ever
       Youth set mass trends and fads in everything from
        music to chemical stimulants
   High demand for workers meant youth had little
    need to fear punishment from employers for
    unconventional behavior

                  Student Revolts
   Caused by opposition to U.S. war in Vietnam
       Believed older generation & US fighting immoral &
        imperialistic war against Vietnam
   Students in western Europe rejected U.S.
    materialism
       Also believed that postwar society was repressive and
        flawed
   Problems in higher education
       Classes overcrowded
       Competition for grades intensified
            French Student Revolt
   Students took over the university clashing with
    police
       Demanded changes in curriculum and a voice in
        running the university
   They appealed to industrial workers for help
       Caused a spontaneous general strike spread across
        France
   De Gaulle called in troops and called for new
    elections (which he won decisively)
                           Women
   Marriage and
    motherhood
       Motherhood occupied
        a smaller portion of life
        Birth control use
        increased with oral
        contraceptives and
        intrauterine devices
                   The Workplace
   Women in the
    workplace
       Rising employment of
        married women
        became a force for
        women‟s equality and
        emancipation
       Rising employment of
        married women
        became a factor in the
        decline of the birthrate
        Laws Against Discrimination
   “Equal pay for equal work”
       Maternal leave
       Affordable day care
   Right to divorce (in some Catholic countries)
       Protection from rape and physical violence
       Legalized abortion
   Efforts to legalize abortion became a catalyst for
    mobilizing the women‟s movement
          Women's Rights Movement
   Simone de Beauvoir :
    The Second Sex (1949)
       Argued women were in
        essence free but had
        almost always been
        trapped by limiting
        conditions
       Only action and
        creativity would allow
        freedom from their
        inferior role
       Inspired a future
        generation of women's
        rights intellectuals
                    Betty Friedan
   The Feminine
    Mystique (1963)
       Women were expected
        to conform to false,
        infantile pattern of
        femininity and live for
        their husbands and
        children
   Founded National
    Organization for
    Women (NOW);
    inspired
        De-Colonization after WWII
   After WWII there was a total collapse of colonial empires
        Between 1947 and 1962, almost every colonial territory gained
        independence
   Causes
       Modern nationalism and belief in self-determination and racial
        equality, spread from intellectuals to the masses in virtually
        every colonial territory after WWI
       Decline of European prestige
          Japanese victories
          Destruction of Europe during WWII

   After 1945 Europe is more concerned about rebuilding
                               India
   India played a key role in
    decolonization
       Exposure of young Indians
        to Western ideas of
        nationalism, socialism, and
        democracy led to demands
        for independence
   Mohandas K. Gandhi led
    independence movement
    with principle of passive
    resistance (civil
    disobedience)
                           Vietnam
   After Japan‟s defeat the French tried to reassert
    control of Indochina
       Ho Chi Minh led the independence movement in the north
       The French were defeated at Dien Bien Phu
   Vietnam was divided into North (communist) and
    South (pro-Western)
       A civil war broke out
   U.S. was defeated in attempt to prevent communist
    takeover of South Vietnam
                           Suez Crisis
   Arab defeat in 1948 by Israel
    triggered a nationalist
    revolution in Egypt in 1952
   Egyptian president Gamal
    Abdel Nasser nationalized the
    Suez Canal
        It was the last symbol of
         Western power in the Middle
         East
   France, Britain & Israel
    attacked Egypt, trying to take
    back control of canal
        The U.S. & Soviet Union
         demanded their withdrawal &
         canal remained under Egypt's
         control
                    Algerian Crisis
   Algeria‟s large French population considered
    Algeria an integral part of France
       This led to war which is atypical of decolonization
   General De Gaulle, who had returned to power
    as part of movement to keep Algeria French,
    accepted principle of Algerian self-determination
       After more than a century of French rule Algeria
        became independent and the European population
        quickly fled
       Crisis led to fall of the Fourth Republic and beginning
        of the Fifth Republic
                    Sub-Saharan Africa
 Decolonization proceeded
  much more smoothly than
  in northern Africa
 British Commonwealth of
  Nations
       In 1957 Britain‟s colonies
        achieved independence with
        little or no bloodshed
       They entered into a very
        loose association with Britain
   One exception was the Mao
    Mao
       They were a Kenyan group of
        terrorists/freedom fighters
        who fought to end English
        control of Kenya
                French Africa
   Charles De Gaulle offered leaders of
    French Africa a choice of a total break
    with France or independence within a kind
    of French commonwealth
     Allbut one of new states chose association
      with France
            Cold War in the 1950s
   1949
       Communists in China
        led by Mao Zedong
        win the Chinese
        revolution and
        establish the Peoples
        Republic of China
       Soviets successfully
        test atomic bomb
                    The Korean War
 1950-53 Korean War
 North Korea invaded South Korea (supported by
  Soviet resources)
 UN (led by US & Gen. Douglas MacArthur) sent forces
  to push back communists
       Soviets boycotted the UN for the U.S.‟s refusal to allow
        "Red China" into the Security Council
   China sent troops to push back the UN
     Resulted in a cease-fire and border at 38th parallel restored
     Still in existence today with the north being communist
      Massive Retaliation & Peaceful
               Coexistance
   1953-55 U.S. policy of "massive
    retaliation"
     U.S. vows to destroy USSR with nuclear
      weapons if it tries to expand
     Brinksmanship – the art of going to the brink
      of war to force the other side to back down
     Relations between USSR and U.S. improve
      with ascension to power of Nikita Khrushchev
     Khrushcev sought “peaceful coexistence” with
      the West in order to focus on Soviet economy
                        1955
   1955
     USSR agreed in to real independence for a
     neutral Austria
       Resultedin significant reduction in cold war
       tensions from 1955-1957
   1955 Geneva Summit
     US meets with USSR, Britain, & France to
     begin discussions on European security and
     disarmament
       No   agreements made
              Cold War in the 1960s
   1960
       U-2 incident: U.S. spy
        plane shot down over
        USSR and Khrushchev
        demanded an apology
        from Eisenhower
            Eisenhower refused
       Promising Paris
        Summit in 1960
        between Khrushchev
        and Eisenhower
        aborted
                     The Berlin Wall
   1961
       Millions of East Germans
        escaped to West Berlin
        between 1949-1961
   Khrushchev threatened
    President Kennedy
       USSR would sign a treaty
        with East Germany so they
        could control access to
        Berlin to protect East
        Germany‟s right to control
        its border
   Berlin Wall built instead
    of enforcing ultimatum
           Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
   1963
       Khrushchev, Kennedy
        & Britain signed
        historic treaty banning
        atmospheric testing in
        an attempt to reduce
        Cold War tensions
       France refused to sign
        (was in the process of
        developing own
        nuclear weapons
        program)
                  Fall of Khrushchev
   1964
       His Cold War foreign
        policies were erratic and
        unsuccessful
       Expensive space and
        military programs
        postponed a shift to
        consumer goods
       Agricultural projects
        backfired
   Resurgence of
    conservative Stalinists led
    to quiet removal of
    Khrushchev in October
               Leonid Brezhnev
   1964-82
     Became   new General Secretary
     In 1964 USSR began a period of stagnation
      and limited re-Stalinization
     Massive arms buildup started
     Avoided direct confrontation with the U.S. and
      seemed more committed to peaceful
      coexistence than Khrushchev
                  Domino Theory
   U.S. believed if
    Vietnam fell to
    communism, Laos,
    Cambodia and
    Thailand would also
    fall
       (Perhaps even India)
        (1964-1973)
            Cold War In the 1970s
   Ostpolitik
       Willy Brandt: "eastern initiative" -- West German
        chancellor, began to improve relations with Eastern
        Europe
       Sought a peace settlement for central Europe and a
        resolution of the “German Question”
   He negotiated treaties with USSR, Poland, and
    Czechoslovakia that formally accepted existing
    state boundaries and the loss of German
    territory to Poland and USSR
       In return he there would be a mutual renunciation of
        force
        “Two German states within one
              German nation”
   Brandt broke with past and entered into direct
    relations with East Germany
       Wanteed practical improvements not reunification
   Brandt made the Social Democrats a national
    power for first time since 1920s
       Demonstrated two-party political democracy had
        taken hold
   West Germany‟s peace settlement contributed to
    reduction in East-West tensions
       Germany assumed a leadership role in Europe
                    Detente
   U.S. tried to place Brandt‟s eastern
    initiatives in broader, American-led
    framework of reducing East-West tensions
    in early 1970s
     Feared Germany might become neutral thus
      weakening NATO & US influence in Europe
     Nixon hoped to gain their aid in pressuring
      North Vietnam into peace
                        SALT I
   Brezhnev and Nixon
    signed a treaty to
    stop making nuclear
    ballistic missiles and
    to reduce the number
    of antiballistic missiles
    to 200 for each power
       MIRVs made SALT I
        obsolete (multiple
        warheads on one
        missile)
           Helsinki Conference
   Officially ended World War II by finally
    legitimizing the Soviet-dictated boundaries
    of Poland and East European countries
     In return Soviets guaranteed the protection of
      certain basic “human rights”
     They continued to limit human rights in
      Eastern Europe
                     Afghanistan
   The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan led the U.S.
    to refuse to ratify SALT II treaty (reducing
    nuclear armaments) and led to President Carter
    boycotting 1980 Olympics in Moscow
       US stopped shipments of grain and certain advanced
        technology to the Soviet Union
       Only Britain stood behind U.S. in its sanctions
       France, Italy and especially West Germany argued
        that it should not be turned into an East-West
        confrontation
     The Soviet Bloc since 1968
 Khrushchev‟s reforms
  brought modest
  liberalization and
  consumer goods to
  eastern Europe
 Reforms allowed
  Alexander Dubcek to
  be elected leader
             “Prague Spring”
 Czech reformers
  moved towards
  socialism and
  frightened hard-line
  communists
 Soviet troops invaded
  Czechoslovakia and it
  became one of most
  hard-line communist
  regimes well into
  1980s
                Brezhnev Doctrine
   Soviet Union and its
    allies had right to
    intervene in any
    socialist country
    whenever they saw
    the need
       1968 invasion of
        Czechoslovakia
                 Solidarity in Poland
   A popular movement of
    working people, led by
    Lech Walesa, organized
    a massive union called
    “Solidarity”
       Demands included right
        to form free trade
        unions, strikes, freedom
        of speech, release of
        political prisoners and
        economic reforms
           Solidarity Outlawed
 The Soviets warned
  the government that
  if they couldn‟t keep
  order they would
  invade
 Communist party
  leader General
  Jaruzelski, imposed
  martial
 Solidarity was
  outlawed and driven
  underground but
  remained active
                 Pope John Paul II
   Polish cardinal elected
    Pope John Paul II
    in 1979
       Traveled through
        Poland preaching love
        of Christ and country
        and “inalienable rights
        of man”
        Cold War in the 1980s
The Atlantic Alliance revitalized itself in the
 1980s under the leadership of Ronald
 Reagan in the U.S., Margaret Thatcher in
 UK, and Helmut Kohl (b. 1930) of
 Germany
 All three nations believed USSR remained
 a dangerous threat (e.g. Afghanistan)
                Margaret Thatcher
   Margaret Thatcher
    became prime
    minister in 1979
       First female prime
        minister
       She came to power
        after a year of strikes
        had ended support for
        the Labour party
       Advocated hard-line
        military positions (as
        Reagan)
                    Falklands War

   Argentine forces
    invaded and occupied
    Falkland (or Malvinas)
    Islands
       500 miles off coast of
        Argentina
   Thatcher sent fleet to
    retake the islands
       This gained her
        enormous popularity
        and she was re-
        elected
                     Helmut Kohl
   Came to power with
    conservative Christian
    Democrats in 1982
       He was distinctly pro-
        American
                   Ronald Reagan
   Dealt with Soviets
    from a position of
    strength by massive
    spending for military
    buildup
       Believed the U.S. could
        better bear burden of
        the expense while the
        Soviets couldn‟t
                         “Star Wars”
   Strategic Defense
    Initiative (SDI) – “Star
    Wars”(1983)
       Reagan announced his
        intention to pursue a high-
        technology missile-defense
        system
   Reagan‟s dramatic
    increase in defense
    spending placed
    enormous pressures on
    the Soviet economy
              End of the Cold War
   Mikhail Gorbachev
       Assumed control of
        Soviet Union in 1985
        and sought reforms
                    Perestroika
   Perestroika
    (“restructuring”) –
    attempted to revive
    the Soviet economy
    by adopting many of
    the free-market
    practices of the West
       It failed
                        Glasnost
   Tried to open Soviet
    society by introducing
    free speech and some
    political liberties,
    while ending party
    censorship
       More successful than
        perestroika
              Demokratiztsiya
   Gorbachev sought to reduce East-West
    tensions
     Withdrew Soviet troops from Afghanistan
     Encouraged reform movements in Poland and
      Hungary
   Ended the Brezhnev Doctrine by
    respecting the political choices of eastern
    European governments
              Revolutions of 1989
   These ended
    communist control of
    eastern Europe
       The costs of
        maintaining satellite
        countries for the USSR
        was too much of a
        political and economic
        burden
               Poland & Hungary
   Poland‟s Solidarity is legalized again and
    free elections are promised in June 1989
     Elect,Lech Walesa, the first non-communist
      leader in eastern Europe since the Stalin era
     Triggered a wave of freedom in eastern
      Europe
   In October Hungarian leaders proclaimed
    independent republic
“Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!”
   Berlin Wall comes
    down in November
       East German gov't falls
       Germany reunified in
        1990
   The Soviets opposed
    a unified Germany in
    NATO
       Soviets eventually
        gave up when West
        Germany gave them
        economic aid
           Fall of the Soviet Union
   Communist hard-
    liners in Moscow
    attempted to
    overthrow Gorbachev
    in 1991
       The coup failed when
        military refused to
        crush popular
        resistance
   Boris Yeltsin, leader
    of Russia, defied
    tanks and became a
    hero
               December 25, 1991
   Yeltsin and his liberal allies declared
    Russia independent and withdrew from
    the Soviet union
     All   other republics followed.
   Soviet Union dissolved into 15 separate
    republics
     Republics  remained economically connected
      for a time via Commonwealth of Independent
      States (CIS)
        Challenges in the 1990s
 Yeltsin failed to significantly improve the
  Russian economy
 He became embroiled in a power struggle
  with a conservative parliament
     Parliamentary  leaders, holed up in the White
      House (the parliament tower in Moscow)
     They unleashed a crowd to assault the
      Kremlin and the television center.
     Yeltsin sent tanks against the White House
                    Russia Today
   On New Year's Day,
    2000, Yeltsin resigned
    due to poor health
    and lack of popularity
       Succeeded by former
        KGB colonel Vladimir
        Putin
                   Eastern Europe
   The shift to a market economy was difficult
       No precedents existed to guide their transition
       In short run, economic activity declined by 1/3.
   Poland was the most successful
       By 1993, GDP grew the fastest in Europe
   By 1995, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary
    were doing well enough to be taken seriously as
    potential European Union (EU) members by the
    year 2000
        Continuing Problems
 Unemployment is about 15% throughout
  most of eastern Europe
 Inflation remained dangerously high in
  some countries
 Governments ran large deficits
            Political Challenges
   Slovaks seceded from Czechoslovakia on
    January 1, 1993
     Slovakiawas much slower in their drive
      towards democracy
   Former Communist parties returned to
    majorities in freely elected parliaments in
    Lithuania, Poland, and Hungary
             Civil War in Yugoslavia
   1990 President Slobodan Milosevic began to established
    tighter central control over previously autonomous
    region
       In response Croatia & Slovenia declared independence and each
        fought Serbia in the process
       Bosnia declared its independence in March 1992 and the civil
        war spread there
   Bosnian Serbs (about 30% of pop.) refused to live in a
    Muslim-dominated state and began military operations
       Ethnic cleansing: Bosnian Serbs tried to liquidate or remove
        Muslims by shelling cities, confiscating or destroying of houses,
        gang rape, expulsion, and murder
       Several hundred thousand Bosnians were killed
            Dayton Agreements
 Agreed to divide Bosnia between Muslims
  and Serbs
 Bosnian Serbs wanted to join a Greater
  Serbia
     TheU.S. and other NATO      troops were
     sent to enforce the Dayton agreements
                Kosovo Crisis
   Milosevic attempted to ethnically cleanse
    Kosovo (province of Serbia) of ethnic-
    Albanians
     NATO,  led by U.S., bombed Serbia in order to
      stop the ethnic cleansing
   Milosevic is not on trial in the ICC for war
    crimes

				
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