Results Based Management

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					RESULTS BASED MANAGEMENT
  OVERVIEW AND GENERAL PRINCIPLES
Managing Results in UNDP                                                                                           Page 2

I.       Introduction                                      organisation and establishing indicators to monitor
                                                           and assess progress in meeting them.
In early 1998, a decision was taken by the UNDP
Administrator to develop a framework for the               More     generally,     by   introducing    results-based
measurement and assessment of programme results.           management, UNDP tries to answer more fully the
The Evaluation Office (EO) was assigned the lead           basic questions surrounding aid institutions and their
responsibility to work on the design of such a             effectiveness. Whether these institutions are domestic
framework. This step initiated the introduction of         or international, the concerns of taxpayers are
results-based management (RBM) in UNDP. As the             straightforward: they want to know what use their
discussion on future funding with the Executive            resources are being put to and what difference these
Board    matured     into   the   Multi-Year   Funding     resources are making to the lives of people -- difficult
Framework (MYFF), EO became part of an                     but necessary questions that require appropriate
exceptionally unified management effort coordinated        responses from the aid community.
by the Bureau of Management to oversee the
application of RBM in UNDP.           Since 2000 the       UNDP saw the RBM exercise as a further
responsibility of coordinating the RBM process in the      opportunity to deepen an internal process of
organization has been assigned to the Operations           management reform begun in 1997 with the UNDP
Support Group.                                             2001 change initiative and crystallized with the
                                                           Administrator’s Business Plans 2000-2003 “The Way
This paper outlines the context, the methodology and
                                                           Forward”. At a time of rapid global changes, the
the key features of the RBM system introduced in
                                                           organization recognized that it had to adapt because
UNDP. It describes the strategic choices made by
                                                           of the new and increased demands being placed on
UNDP in designing its RBM system, and presents
                                                           the UN, particularly UNDP. In the new environment,
some of the emerging implications that these choices
                                                           UNDP becomes less an institution transferring
may have for UNDP and its partners.
                                                           resources and more a focused development agency.
                                                           This   focus    prompts      the   organization    to     act
The notion of results and “managing for results” is
                                                           proactively and not reactively. And, it stresses not
not new to UNDP. For many years, the organization
                                                           only the volume of assistance but more importantly
has been working to get things done and produce
                                                           the results attained.
results, but its emphasis was mostly on managing
inputs and activities. And, importantly, it has not
always been able to demonstrate these results                        FROM                         TO

effectively to the full satisfaction of donors and                 Entitlements     ⇒           Results
                                                                   Control          ⇒           Delegation
stakeholders. The RBM system being put in place                    Inputs           ⇒           Outputs/Outcomes
responds to this concern by setting out clear                      Ex ante          ⇒           Ex post
                                                                   Bureaucratic     ⇒           Speed
programme      and    management      goals    for   the           Risk averse      ⇒           Opportunity driven
                                                                   Introvert        ⇒           Partnerships
Managing Results in UNDP                                                                                              Page 3

                                                           define an overarching goal for the organization and
The challenge for UNDP was to fashion an approach
                                                           for each category: (a) a clear goal, normally building
to RBM that stressed results and greater focus,
                                                           on global conferences supported by the UN and inter-
without sacrificing the organization’s commitment to
                                                           agency agreements (such as the UN Administrative
decentralization and responsiveness to country needs
                                                           Committee       on     Coordination);          (b)    sub-goals
and priorities.
                                                           (typically 2-3) emphasizing UNDP’s distinctive
                                                           contributions; and, for each sub-goal, (c) several
II.      Setting Goals
                                                           strategic areas of support reflecting UNDP’s areas of

Traditionally, UNDP’s mandate and range of                 comparative advantage and programmatic emphasis.

activities have been broad. Partly as a consequence of     Country offices and other operating units, working

the system in place since the 1970s and the nature of      within this framework, identify the particular outputs

the organisation at that time, UNDP was seen               and outcomes they expect to achieve, set specific

essentially as a broad funding agency focusing on          targets, and subsequently report on accomplishments

institution building with no real substantive position     compared to these intended results.

on development issues. The endorsement by the
Executive Board in 1994/1995 of sustainable human          It was decided to develop SRFs corresponding to

development (SHD) as the central priority of the           UNDP’s goals in the following six areas:

organisation has now laid the stage for sharpening the
                                                           Programme Categories                  Non Programme Categories
specific areas where UNDP can take a lead globally.
                                                             The Enabling Environment for           UNDP Support to the
                                                             Sustainable Human                      United Nations
From the beginning of the RBM exercise, it was               Development (Governance)
decided that an important benefit would be in trying          Poverty Reduction
                                                             Environment
to address the question of what the organisation does
                                                             Gender
best or where its strength potentially lies in the areas     Special Development
of its interventions: in poverty, governance, the            Situations
environment and gender. It was felt that RBM should
help in identifying the organization’s flagship            At the highest level is an overarching goal that
activities and priority outcomes. This focus carries as    represents the unifying purpose of UNDP’s work:
an implication an equally important emphasis on
clarifying the role of partners both within and outside               To contribute to the eradication of extreme poverty and
                                                                      the substantial reduction of overall poverty (WSSD
the UN system.
                                                                      Commitment 2), UNDP will focus on: sustainable
                                                                      human development with particular emphasis on the
To bring added definition to the intended results of                  reduction of human poverty.
UNDP’s diverse activities and to concentrate
UNDP’s efforts around the organization’s mandate           The first four programme categories are the SHD
and   comparative     advantage,    Strategic   Results    focus areas mandated by the UNDP Executive Board.
Frameworks (SRFs) prepared at the corporate level          The fifth programme category encompasses special
Managing Results in UNDP                                                                                   Page 4

situations arising from complex emergencies and            Within the SRF exercise, it was decided early on that
natural disasters. The non-programme category              outcomes and outcome indicators would not be
addresses UNDP’s role as the custodian of the UN           prescribed centrally; rather they are to be derived
Resident Coordinator function and the support              from country realities.
provided by UNDP to other parts of the United
Nations system.                                            However, there are two areas in which the new
                                                           system does include standardized indicators.      The
III.     Measuring Progress                                first concerns the corporate outcomes, that relate to
                                                           UNDP “flagships” or explicit mandates.            The
Goals have to be set before we can judge or measure        corporate indicators provide a uniform method of
progress. Most evaluations typically highlight that        monitoring changes with which UNDP wants to be
projects and programmes do not have clear,                 associated globally. By asking operating units to
measureable objectives and that without benchmarks         report on these in a consistent manner, it will be
and indicators it is difficult to measure progress. This   possible to monitor and report on our performance in
is even more difficult to do at the organizational         meeting these changes in a clear and unambiguous
level. The SRFs set out a concrete basis for judging       way. Operating units are also required to report on a
performance in relation to specific country and            limited number of situational indicators (23) to
organizational objectives.        Different types of       indicate progress towards the major goals targeted by
indicators were built in the SRF to track progress in      the organization. These indicators provide a broad
meeting goals at both the country and the                  picture of whether the developmental changes that
organisational levels.                                     matter to UNDP are actually occurring. They are
                                                           selected to link with the CCA and NHDR processes.
Given the strong current emphasis on the use of
indicators, it may be useful to reiterate that             IV.      The System
‘indicators fundamentally indicate, they do not
explain’. And as such, the value of good judgement         The key components of the results system include
and analysis remains. There is also often a temptation     both planning and reporting instruments:
to transform the measurement of change itself into a
major and burdensome task. Indicators and their role       •     Planning instruments: the Strategic Results
have to be rooted in the real world. Being relevant              Framework (SRF), the Integrated Results
                                                                 Framework (IRF), the Multi-Year Funding
and strategic becomes critical.                                  Framework (MYFF) and the Country Office
                                                                 Management Plan (COMP).

UNDP makes uses of three types of indicators: (1)
                                                           The SRF is designed to be the primary planning
corporate outcome indicators provided centrally, (2)
                                                           instrument to capture UNDP’s major areas of
outcome indicators measuring progress against
                                                           intervention and the broad development outcomes to
specified outcomes and (3) situational indicators.
                                                           which the organization is contributing at the country,
                                                           regional and global level. It is an integral component
Managing Results in UNDP                                                                                        Page 5

of the MYFF, UNDP’s funding compact with the                to key results (outcomes) achieved and a review of
Executive Board.                                            the use of resources at the organizational level.
The MYFF represents a milestone for UNDP, as for
the first time in the organization’s history, the           The MYFFR is a more in-depth assessment of
funding strategy is based on the identification of clear    performance relating to the outcomes and outputs
results and the establishment of an integrated              identified in the MYFF. It is produced every four
resource framework (IRF) that incorporates and              years.
presents in a transparent manner all financial
allocations    covering    programmes,      programme       V.        Strategic Choices
support and administrative operations. Previously,
parallel resource allocations procedures existed for        1.   Learning from Others and Learning by Doing
administrative and programme resources.                     There are some benefits to starting late. UNDP found
                                                            other agencies to be generous in sharing their
The MYFF is based on the premise that public                experience – good as well as bad.         To build on
institutions can no longer lay a claim on public            existing experience, the UNDP Evaluation Office and
resources on the basis of mandates alone, rather they       the Swedish International Development Cooperation
have to outline specific programmes and services and        Agency (Sida) produced in 1997 a joint review of
fundamentally demonstrate impact.                           performance measurement systems of selected public
                                                            sector and aid agencies that served as an initial
The COMP is designed to serve as a strategic                building block for the introduction of RBM within
management tool.       It provides for clear strategic      UNDP. And in October of 1998, UNDP, Sida and
guidance for country office management in line with         the OECD Development Assistance Committee (Aid
corporate goals as well as flexibility in setting targets   Evaluation Working Group) organized a workshop in
that best respond to the conditions and needs of a          New York to review experience of bilateral and
country office.                                             multilateral agencies in introducing RBM principles
                                                            and practices.
•   Reporting instruments: A Results-Oriented
    Annual Report (ROAR), a Multi-Year                      These consultations and exchanges of experience
    Funding Framework Report (MYFFR) and a
    Country Office Management Plan Report                   resulted in several key lessons, which guided the
    (COMPR).
                                                            implementation of the UNDP’s RBM system (see
                                                            box 1).    Each of these lessons was consciously
The ROAR is the principal instrument for reporting
                                                            reflected in the system, often with profound
on a yearly basis at both the country and the
                                                            implications.
corporate level on the entire range of UNDP
activities. At the corporate level, it provides the
                                                            Early on it was also decided that the process in order
Executive Board on an annual basis with a
                                                            to be effective had to be internally driven. In house
comprehensive assessment of performance in relation
                                                            staff knew UNDP best, its strengths and its
Managing Results in UNDP                                                                                         Page 6

weaknesses.     External consultants were used for
quality assurance purposes.                                     The main concern during the introduction of the
                                                                RBM concept and the development of a Strategic
It was felt important not to aim for a perfect system           Results Framework was to ensure the relevance and
and to let the realities of country experience drive and        usefulness of the system to practitioners and to secure
shape the system.      Accordingly, the system was              their support.   As a result, there was a conscious
piloted in 10 countries reflecting a broad typology of          decision to make the process as interactive and
country situations. Based on the experience gained,             consultative as possible.      The intention was to
the SRFs and their content were substantially                   produce a system that was not only responsive to the
modified to make SRFs work as a strategic                       interests of external stakeholders, but also directly
management tool and not become an onerous,


       Box 1: Lessons Learned from RBM Experience of Other Institutions:

          •      The organization needs to set clear objectives for RBM itself: should RBM be a reporting
                 and classification system (results measurement) or should RBM be a strategic planning
                 and management tool that can help improve organizational performance (results
                 management)?

          •      Any system must fit UNDP’s specific needs and culture. As an approach, RBM requires
                 that the culture and specific nature of the organisation be carefully taken into account. In
                 particular, the unique mandate and decentralized structure of UNDP requires flexibility at
                 the country level.

          •      Implementing RBM is a learning process. RBM depends on many aspects of
                 organizational culture, policy and operational practice. Any system needs to be seen as a
                 work in progress, evolving over a considerable period of time and incorporating
                 flexibility to make changes as experiences are gained.

          •      It is essential to keep the approach simple. RBM should not lead to an increased
                 workload. The number of instruments must be limited and easy to understand.


additional reporting task. The pilot experience was             reflective of UNDP’s distinctive organisational
documented and the lessons learnt influenced the                culture and management needs. Building a broad-
design of a training package.       One region (Arab            based sense of ownership within UNDP for the
States) was selected to test the training package with          reform effort was seen as essential for the durability
a workshop that brought together international and              of the system.
national staff from 18 country offices.         Similar
workshops were subsequently conducted in the other              Preparatory work and concept development was done
regions covered by UNDP, capturing a wide audience              primarily through the use of the internal work force.
of country offices’ staff.
                                                                It involved a large cross-section of professionals from
2.       Broad Consultation and Ownership                       country offices and headquarters. External expertise
Managing Results in UNDP                                                                                   Page 7

was brought in at critical junctures only to provide
validation and quality assurance.                         To reconcile potentially competing needs, an
                                                          “empirical” approach was adopted. The “corporate”

3.   Combining       Top-down        and   Bottom-up      elements of the SRFs were developed based on

     Approaches                                           extensive field consultation and pilot testing, as
                                                          described above, while the results (outcomes and
In designing the organization’s Strategic Results         outputs) are defined by the operating units and reflect
Framework, the decision was made to keep corporate        - in the case of country offices – the diversity of
requirements to a minimum. At the country level,          country needs.
flexibility was retained in order to incorporate
                                                                      Overarching Goal                 Corporate
country specific conditions and reflect UNDP’s                               Goals                     Level
                                                                           Sub goals
decentralized structure.   For example, in the first              Strategic Areas of Support
stages of the SRF (1999) activities undertaken at the
country level that did not fit neatly into UNDP focus
areas were nevertheless reported along with the
                                                                           Outcomes
rationale for undertaking them.                                             Outputs                    Operating
                                                                                                       unit Level

Based on the experience gained during the first round
of SRFs produced by country offices, corporate            The core principle of the UNDP results system is the
frameworks have been adjusted (in the year 2000) for      integration of a two-way process, combining a top-
a better matching of the corporate and the country        down and a bottom-up approach.           The top-down
level, reducing the discrepancies between corporate       relates to the establishment at corporate level (after
requirements and country specific interventions.          broad consultative process and a testing phase) of an
                                                          overarching goal, and a broad set of sub-goals,
However, in designing the system, it was well             strategic areas of support and corporate outcomes and
understood that its corporate aspects respond to          indicators.   The bottom-up is constituted by the
different information needs and imperatives than do       articulation from operating units, primarily country
its use at the country and programme levels. In order     offices, of actual results plans – intended outcomes
to reflect fully the decentralized country reality, the   and outputs – as well as associated outcome
possibility of a single, fully integrated system in       indicators and partnership strategies.
which country and programme goals cascade neatly
from    broader     organizational    objectives   was    4.   Measuring Progress against results
discarded. In a similar vein, the notion of preparing a
MYFF in advance of receiving specific plans from          The aggregation of results and deciding on what,

country offices was rejected. On the other hand, there    when and how to aggregate has proved to be a vexing

was considerable attention placed on UNDP’s               problem for international development agencies, and

premier products and areas of comparative advantage       UNDP is no exception. While articulating their own

and mandate.                                              desired results -outcomes and outputs, each operating
Managing Results in UNDP                                                                                           Page 8

unit is expected to identify the output and outcome            oriented    towards   accountability     and   external
measures that best capture the intended and actual             reporting; the latter focuses on a cycle of planning,
results of its efforts. These measures are then used as        periodic performance assessment and organizational
the basis for judging performance. They are also               learning.   In implementing RBM, UNDP made a
shared with other operating units in the hope that,            deliberate decision to emphasize management and
over     time,     best     practices    in   performance      learning. This was based on an unequivocal message
measurement will emerge and be replicated.                     from donors and staff that RBM must explicitly aim
                                                               at changing the way the organization is managed,
Measuring        performance      and   progress     towards   fostering a strategic orientation and culture of
performance in the first Report on Annual Results              performance.     Improved external reporting was
(1999 ROAR) has required the establishment of a                approached as a very important, but secondary,
simple and practical method in order to assess the             benefit.
wide range of results presented in the report. The
method adopted had to assess progress in relation to           At headquarters, SRFs will assist managers to judge
the intended outcomes stated in the SRF.                       whether the overall results of UNDP assistance
                                                               worldwide meet the goals, principles and standards
Overall percentage of success was calculated based
                                                               set out in the Mission Statement, Business Plans and
on the number of outcomes where progress was
                                                               Executive Board decisions as well as in operational
demonstrated in relation to the total number of
                                                               and thematic policies. As such, they are intended to
outcomes contained in the SRF. These percentage
                                                               improve UNDP substantive accountability to
figures were then aggregated at the level of Strategic
                                                               national stakeholders and the Executive Board and,
Areas of Support (SAS), sub-goals and goals.
                                                               for the first time, lay the basis for a funding strategy
                                                               to support approved programmes based on results
Based on this, the analysis was organized to yield
                                                               that are clearly identified and monitored.
assessments       that    could   be    compared      across
countries,    regions,     thematic     categories    and/or   6.   Focus on Outcomes and Partnerships
strategic approaches.        In many cases, comparison
and analysis of successful and less successful                 The problems associated with measuring and
experience was emphasized as it is often the case that         attributing development outcomes are well known
comparative, and not necessarily aggregate, data is            and widely lamented. It was nevertheless decided
of greatest management use.                                    that UNDP’s RBM system should ground its concept
                                                               of results at the outcome rather than the output level.
5.     Stressing Management Over Measurement                   While both levels of accomplishment are important
                                                               and prominently reflected in the system, this decision
The basic approach was to help managers manage                 to   emphasize    outcomes     was     based   on    two
better. In comparing RBM systems, the distinction is           considerations. One consideration was the crisis of
sometimes made between managing by results and                 confidence facing the development community as
managing for results. The former is principally
Managing Results in UNDP                                                                                      Page 9

many question the effects of investments in                The issue of attribution has been debated extensively
development.      It was felt necessary for UNDP to        in the professional literature. The focus in UNDP is
portray a significant and honest picture of the            to    accept   that   development     outcomes       are
consequences of its interventions.                         fundamentally dependent on the interacting strategies
                                                           and activities of many development parties. There are
Since many of UNDP’s most important contributions          few easy arithmetic equations that can easily measure
result    from    what     some   have   called    “soft   what one party has contributed to the overall
interventions” - advocacy, policy dialogue and             outcome. However, what is necessary is to record and
institutional strengthening, field presence - the          understand in a credible manner what an individual
decision to project and capture outcomes of these          agency is contributing and how its support is being
particularly hard-to-measure and hard-to-attribute         organised in collaboration with other partners.
areas became essential. While this continues to be a       Seeking to facilitate positive outcomes must therefore
work in progress, UNDP has committed itself to the         be founded on strategic partnerships, which in turn
proposition that “soft interventions need to have hard     require a clear understanding of the respective
outcomes” and to incorporating such interventions          strengths of the different parties. For this and other
into its system of results based management.               reasons, including the compelling issue of respecting
                                                           need and local priorities, the Executive Board
An important consequence of RBM has been to                decision on the MYFF clearly states that there will
reinforce the value of partnerships. RBM shifts the        therefore be no alteration in the existing allocation
focus of the organisation from outputs - which could       principle by broad category and type of country.
feasibly be produced by one organization - to
outcomes - which necessarily require the work of           VI.      Next Steps and Emerging Challenges
many groups working together. By putting the
emphasis on outcomes, there becomes a renewed              UNDP’s MYFF for the years 2000-2003 was
interest in seeing that UNDP fully invests in              presented and approved by the Executive Board in
partnerships.     Also, UNDP’s mission and goals           1999. As a planning instrument, the MYFF sets the
highlight the central role played by partnerships,         four-year framework for the intended work of the
cooperation and synergy.          As a result, the SRF     organization. It is against this framework that sets
structure places particular emphasis on defining these     out specific organsitional and programme goals and
partnerships in relation to specific outcomes and          intended results that the annual ROARs review the
specific countries.        Within the UN family, this      progress made in achieving them. The first ROAR
approach is intended to facilitate the formulation of      covering the year 1999 was presented to the April
the      United   Nations     Development     Assistance   2000 session of the Board.
Framework (UNDAF). UNDP has also expressed its
                                                           The process presents both large challenges and
commitment to harmonize the respective cycles of
                                                           opportunities ahead. Its implications are not only
the MYFF and the UNDAF.
                                                           large but they are likely to evolve as core
                                                           organisational practices are adjusted to RBM
Managing Results in UNDP                                                                                           Page 10

principles. Few current practices are likely to remain           with its demand. The SRF/MYFF exercise should
unaltered, given the comprehensive nature of the                 enable it to perform this role better by being
exercise and its objective of “providing a coherent              equipped, as an organisation to respond to the priority
framework          for    the     strategic   planning    and    needs of the programme countries.
management based on learning and accountability in
a decentralised environment”.                                    The emphasis and recommitment to development
                                                                 partnerships raises the possibility of developing new
By focusing on results and by providing a clear                  relationships, which focus on the value, added
picture of what areas and outcomes UNDP is                       provided in a partnership rather than on the basis of
engaged in, the exercise presents the opportunity of             claimed mandates. It raises an opportunity to link UN
creating a sharper, tighter alignment between                    agencies in a powerful substantive network in service
capacities     and       the    tasks   undertaken   by    the   of country priorities and highlights of the activities
organization. It also raises the challenge of finding            and roles that UNDP plays in donor coordination and
the right skills mix for the organisation and the                ‘partnership building’.
incentives necessary to establish UNDP as a world-
class organisation, providing quality, substantive               The MYFF is shaped by the empirical evidence on

services in the areas of its comparative advantage.              intended results as set out in the SRFs. This is

Even over a relatively short period, some of the pilot           essential given the nature of the organisation. In

countries restructured their offices along more                  particular it reflects and protects the close and trusted

substantive lines so that they could take full                   role played by UNDP at the country level – one of

advantage of the SRFs as a strategic management                  the comparative strengths of the organisation. The

tool.                                                            MYFF therefore provides a full reflection of the work
                                                                 actually planned or underway by UNDP at the
An opportunity presented by the RBM system is the                country and programme level. At the same time, it
integration        of     evaluation     information      with   enables UNDP to be more relevant by identifying the
management and accountability. The system allows                 capacities it needs to provide high quality advocacy
for a strategic, more relevant use of evaluation.                and technical assistance.
Monitoring and evaluation become priority concerns
of country office and organisational management.
The ROARs in particular are meant to create a ‘built-
in’ demand for lessons learned drawing upon country
reviews, evaluations and monitoring visits.


RBM in principle provides strong incentives for
learning      in    a    decentralised    environment.     By
‘requiring knowledge’, it provides a powerful
opportunity to match the provision of ‘knowledge’
Managing Results in UNDP                                                                                                Page 11


Annex 1 presents the over arching goal, goals and sub-goals for the six SRFs.

I.   THE ENABLING ENVIRONMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
Goal: Creation of an enabling environment for SHD.




Sub-goal 1                                                    Strategic areas of support
National, regional and global dialogue and cooperation that   1. Management of globalization to support the poor.
widens development choices for sustainable and equitable      2. Public awareness and policy dialogue on sustainable human
growth.                                                          development.
                                                              3. Policy, legal and regulatory reform to support private sector
                                                                 development.
                                                              4. Regional and sub-regional cooperation, including
                                                                 ECDC/TCDC.




Sub-goal 2                                                    Strategic areas of support
Strengthened capacity of key governance institutions.         1. Institutional capacity of parliamentary structures, systems
                                                                 and processes.
                                                              2. Electoral legislation and institutional capacity of electoral
                                                                 commissions, systems, and processes.
                                                              3. Administration of, and access to, justice.
                                                              4. Promotion of human rights.




Sub-goal 3                                                    Strategic areas of support
Increased social cohesion based on participatory local        1. Social cohesion through development planning and other
governance and stronger local communities and                    decision-making processes at the sub-national level.
institutions.                                                 2. Decentralization policies and allocation of resources to the
                                                                 sub-national levels.
                                                              3. Capacity of and partnerships between local authorities and
                                                                 civil society organizations.
                                                              4. Self-organization and development of alliances by the poor.




Sub-goal 4                                                    Strategic areas of support
An efficient and accountable public sector.                   1. Efficiency and accountability in the civil service.
                                                              2. Efficiency of public sector financial management.
                                                              3. Aid coordination and management.
Managing Results in UNDP                                                                                                   Page 12

II. POVERTY REDUCTION
Goal: Economic and social policies and strategies focused on the reduction of poverty.




Sub-goal 1                                                       Strategic areas of support
Human and income poverty addressed in national policy            1. Development and implementation of macro- and poverty-
frameworks.                                                         reduction policies and strategies.
                                                                 2. Monitoring of poverty and inequality.
                                                                 3. Comprehensive strategies to prevent the spread and
                                                                    mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS.




Sub-goal 2                                                       Strategic areas of support
The asset base of the poor expanded and protected (human,        1. Access to productive resources and assets.
physical and financial).                                         2. Access to basic social services and systems for risk
                                                                    management.
                                                                 3. Access to, and utilization of, information and
                                                                    communication technologies (ICTs).




III. ENVIRONMENT
Goal: Environmentally sustainable development to reduce human poverty.



Sub-goal 1                                                       Strategic areas of support
Sustainable environmental management and energy                  1. National policy, legal and regulatory framework for
development to improve the livelihoods and security of the          environmentally sustainable development.
poor.                                                            2. Institutional framework for sustainable environmental
                                                                    management and energy development.
                                                                 3. Monitoring and assessment of environmental sustainability.




Sub-goal 2                                                       Strategic areas of support
Regional and global instruments for environmentally              1. Regional cooperation and coordination in natural resources
sustainable development that benefit the poor.                      management and sustainable energy development.
                                                                 2. National capacity for participation in global conventions,
                                                                    regulatory regimes and funding mechanisms for
                                                                    environmentally sustainable development.
Managing Results in UNDP                                                                                                Page 13

IV. GENDER
Goal: Advancement in the status of women and gender equality.


Sub-goal 1                                                      Strategic areas of support
Gender equality in the decision-making process at all           1. Policy dialogue to improve the condition of women, and
levels.                                                            remove barriers to their advancement.
                                                                2. Advocacy, networking and partnerships for gender
                                                                   equality.
                                                                3. Institutionalization of tools and methods to track and
                                                                   measure changes in the condition of women.




Sub-goal 2                                                      Strategic areas of support
Advancement of women through the implementation of              1. Development and implementation of national action plans
global commitments.                                                for the advancement of women (implementation of the
                                                                   Beijing commitments), and the gender dimensions of all
                                                                   conference commitments (cross referenced to other
                                                                   thematic areas of the SRF).
                                                                2. Ratification, implementation and monitoring of CEDAW,
                                                                   including its Optional Protocol.
                                                                3. Measures to reduce violence against women.




V. SPECIAL DEVELOPMENT SITUATIONS
Goal: Reduced incidence of and sustainable recovery and transition from complex emergencies and natural disasters.



Sub-goal 1                                                      Strategic areas of support
Reduced risk of disasters in programme countries.               1. Policy development and advocacy on risk reduction.
                                                                2. Capacity development to manage and reduce risk of natural
                                                                   disasters.
                                                                3. Support to UN system coordination in natural disaster
                                                                   response, recovery and reduction.




Sub-goal 2                                                      Strategic areas of support
Conflict prevention, peace-building and sustainable             1. Advocacy and assistance for national and international
recovery and transition in countries emerging from crisis.         policy frameworks that link relief to development.
                                                                2. Capacity development of national institutions and civil
                                                                   society organizations to advance human security.
                                                                3. Peace-building and the prevention of relapses into conflict.
                                                                4. Recovery processes at the community level.
                                                                5. UN system coordination in post-conflict environments.
Managing Results in UNDP                                                                                          Page 14

VI. UNDP SUPPORT TO THE UNITED NATIONS
Goal: A coherent and effective UN System.




Sub-goal 1                                                  Strategic areas of support
Accelerated progress on the global agenda for development   1. Strategic leadership of the United Nations Development
(including follow-up to global conferences).                   Group (UNDG) on the global agenda for development:
                                                               headquarters level.
                                                            2. Strategic leadership of the resident coordinator system
                                                               (RCS) on the global agenda for development: country
                                                               level.




Sub-goal 2                                                  Strategic areas of support
Increasingly collaborative, efficient and effective         1. Harmonization and simplification of programming and
operational activities for development.                        administrative policies within the UNDG: headquarters
                                                               level.
                                                            2. Coordination and collaboration on programming and
                                                               administration through the Resident Coordinator System:
                                                               country level.
                                                            3. UNDP support to non-resident UN agencies: country level.
Managing Results in UNDP                                                                               Page 15




               SRF Example: The Enabling Environment for Sustainable
               Human Development (Governance)



       GOAL:               Creation of an enabling environment for sustainable human
                           development (Governance)




                   SUB-GOALS                              STRATEGIC AREAS OF
                                                          SUPPORT



       1.   National, regional and global dialogue
            and cooperation that widens                   •   Management of globalization to
            development choices for sustainable               support the poor.
            and equitable growth.
                                                          •   Public awareness and policy dialogue
                                                              on sustainable human development.

                                                          •   Policy, legal and regulatory reform to
                                                              support private sector development.
       2.   Strengthened capacity of key
            governance institutions.                      •   Regional and sub-regional
                                                              cooperation including ECDC/TCDC.



       3.   Increased social cohesion based on
            participatory local governance and
            stronger local communities and
            institutions.




       4. An efficient and accountable public
          sector.
Managing Results in UNDP   Page 16

				
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