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									       FAM 122 SALES/CONSUMER
          BEHAVIOR Session 9
•   My name: Dr. George Richard Feehery
•   Or
•   Cell-404-409-3645 – Roster
           Sales Presentation Outline
• 1. State who you are and who you represent, your and the firm’s
  qualifications and capabilities
• 2. Include a brief description of the product or service.
• 3. A brief statement of how you will add value to the prospect’s
  business by meeting a need or providing an opportunity.
  (improvement in revenues, cost reduction, process improvement in
  speed or efficiency).
• 4. Begin to probe about prospects needs or wants (target market)
  and confirm them.
• 5. Demonstrate an understanding of these while providing solutions
  and strategies that show how your product or service will meet those
                  Sales Presentations
•   Describe the difference between features, potential benefits,
    and confirmed benefits and the role they play in benefits
•   Construct complete selling points using feature and benefit
•   Discuss the advantages of using response-checks in the
    selling presentation.
•   List and explain the different forms of presentation tools and
    sales aids that can increase the impact of a presentation.
•   Delineate the four steps of the SPES process for effectively
    utilizing sales aids in presentations.
    –   State the Selling Point and Introduce the Sales Aid.
    –   Present the Sales Aid.
    –   Explain the Sales Aid.
•   Summarize.
                   Chapter 7

Michael Solomon
          The Power of Attitudes

Attitude: a lasting, general evaluation of people,
  objects, advertisements, or issues
• Attitude object (AO)
• Help to determine a number of preferences and
       Functional Theory of Attitudes

• Katz: attitudes exist because they serve some
           UTILITARIAN                 VALUE-EXPRESSIVE
           FUNCTION:                      FUNCTION:

     Relates to rewards and        Expresses consumer’s values
          punishments                    or self-concept

      Protect ourselves from
                                   Need for order, structure, or
    external threats or internal
 Functional Theory of Attitudes (cont.)

• Marketers emphasize the benefits a product
  serves for consumers
• Example: study of football fans identified three
   Cluster                Sports Marketer’s Strategy

   Die-hard team fans     Provide greater sports knowledge
                          Relate attendance to personal values
   Those who enjoy        Publicize aspects of visiting teams,
   cheering for winning   such as sports stars
   Those who look for     Provide improved peripheral benefits
   camaraderie            (e.g., improved parking)

• Imagine that you work for the marketing
  department of your college or university and
  have segmented students into four different
  clusters, each representing one of the four
  functions identified by Katz.
• Develop a marketing strategy based on each of
  the four functions to motivate students to stay in
  school and complete their degrees.
          ABC Model of Attitudes

Attitude has three components:
• Affect: the way a consumer feels about an
  attitude object.
• Behavior: person’s intentions to do something
  with regard to an attitude object.
• Cognition: beliefs a consumer has about an
  attitude object.
           Hierarchies of Effects

• Impact/importance of attitude components
  depends on consumer’s motivation toward
  attitude object

                     Figure 7.1
             Hierarchy of Effects
• Standard Learning Hierarchy
  – Results in strong brand loyalty
  – Assumes high consumer involvement
• Low-Involvement Hierarchy
  – Consumer does not have strong brand preference
  – Consumers swayed by simple stimulus-response
• Experiential Hierarchy
  – Consumers’ hedonic motivations and moods
  – Emotional contagion
  – Cognitive-affective model versus independence

• One person’s “contextual marketing” is another
  person’s “spyware”
• Is it ethical for marketers to track which Web
  sites you visit, even if by doing so they can
  provide you with information that might help you
  save money by buying a competing brand?
   Attitude Toward the Advertisement

• We form attitudes toward objects other than the
  product that can influence our product
• We often form product attitudes from its ads
  – Aad: attitude toward advertiser + evaluations of ad
    execution + ad evoked mood + ad arousal effects on
    consumer + viewing context
          Ads Have Feelings Too

Commercials evoke
• Upbeat feelings:
  amused, delighted,
• Warm feelings:
  contemplative, hopeful
• Negative feelings:
  critical, defiant, offended
             Attitude Commitment

Degree of commitment is related to level of
 involvement with attitude object
        Highest level: deep-seeded attitudes become part
                   of consumer’s value system

         Mid-level: attitudes formed in order to conform to
                      another person or group

         Lowest level: consumer forms attitude because it
             gains rewards or avoids punishments
          Consistency Principle

Principle of cognitive consistency:
• We value/seek harmony among thoughts,
  feelings, and behaviors
• We will change components to make them
  Cognitive Dissonance and Harmony

• Theory of cognitive
  dissonance: when a
  consumer is confronted
  with inconsistencies among
  attitudes or behaviors, he
  will take action to resolve
• Example: Two cognitive elements about
  the “dissonance”
  – “I know smoking causes cancer”
  – “I smoke cigarettes”
  – Consumer will resolve the dissonance by either
    satisfying urge to smoke or stopping the behavior

• Interview a student next to you regarding a
  behavior that he or she has that is inconsistent
  with his or her attitudes (e.g., attitudes toward
  healthy eating or active lifestyle, attitudes toward
  materialism, etc.).
• Ask the student to elaborate on why he or she
  does the behavior, then try to identify the way
  the person has resolved dissonant elements.
            Self-Perception Theory

• Self-perception theory: we use observations of
  our own behavior to determine what our
  attitudes are.
     Consumer is more likely to comply with a request if he has
          first agreed to comply with a smaller request

                     LOW-BALL TECHNIQUE
       Person is asked for a small favor and is informed after
              agreeing to it that it will be very costly.

                  DOOR-IN-THE-FACE TECHNIQUE
      Person is first asked to do something extreme (which he
           refuses), then asked to do something smaller.
           Social Judgment Theory

• Social judgment theory: we assimilate new
  information about attitude objects in light of what
  we already know/feel
   – Initial attitude = frame of reference
   – Latitudes of acceptance and rejection
      • Assimilation and contrast effects
      • Example: “Choosy mothers choose Jif Peanut Butter”
                  Balance Theory

• Balance theory: considers relations among
  elements a consumer might perceive as
  belonging together
• Involves triad attitude structures:
  – Person
  – Perception of attitude object
  – Perception of other person/object
     • Perception can be positive or negative
• Balanced/harmonious triad elements
  – Unit relation and sentiment relation
        Restoring Balance in a Triad

• Alex wants to date
  Larry; Alex has
  positive sentiment
  toward Larry
• Larry wears
  earring; Larry has
  positive attitude
  toward earring
• Alex doesn’t like
  men who wear
  earrings; has
  sentiment toward     Figure 7.2
Marketing Applications of Balance
            • “Basking in reflected
              glory:” consumers want to
              show association with a
              positively valued attitude
            • Example:
               – Consumers: college football
               – Attitude object: winning
                 college football team
            • Marketers use celebrity
              endorsers of products to
              create positive
• Students often bask in
  reflected glory of their
  college’s winning sports
  teams by showing team
  spirit or buying
                              Click photo for
• How do colleges use
  similar techniques
  among its alumni? What
  marketing strategies
  could be used to sell
  more merchandise?
      Multi-Attribute Attitude Models

• Multi-attribute models: consumer’s attitudes
  toward an attitude object depends on beliefs she
  has about several or many attributes of the
• Three elements
  – Attributes of AO (e.g., college)
     • Example: scholarly reputation
  – Beliefs about AO
     • Example: University of North Carolina is strong academically
  – Importance weights
     • Example: stresses research over athletics
                 Fishbein Model

Measures three components
  of attitudes:
• Salient beliefs about AO
• Object-attribute linkages
• Evaluation of each
  important attribute
• Aijk = ΣβijkIik
  – Overall Attitude Score =
    (consumer’s rating of each
    attribute for all brands) x
    (importance rating for that
     Marketing Applications of Multi-
             Attribute Model
• Capitalize on relative advantage: convince
  consumers that particular product attributes are
  important in brand choice
• Strengthen perceived product/attribute linkages:
  if consumers don’t associate certain attributes
  with the brand, make the relationship stronger
• Add a new attribute: focus on unique positive
  attribute that consumer has not considered
• Influence competitors’ ratings: decrease the
  attributes of competitors
         Extended Fishbein Model

Theory of reasoned action: considers other
  elements of predicting behavior
• Intentions versus behavior: measure
  behavioral intentions, not just intentions
• Social pressure: acknowledge the power of
  other people in purchasing decision
• Attitude toward buying: measure attitude
  toward the act of buying, not just the product
    Obstacles to Predicting Behavior

Fishbein model’s weaknesses include:
• Doesn’t deal with outcomes of behavior,
  including those beyond consumer’s control
• Doesn’t consider unintentional behavior, such as
  impulsive acts or novelty seeking
• Doesn’t consider that attitudes may not lead to
• Doesn’t consider the time frame between
  attitude measurement and behavior
• Doesn’t differentiate between consumer’s direct,
  personal experience, and indirect experience
              Theory of Trying

• Theory of trying: measures the reasoned action
  consumers take to reach a goal

                      Figure 7.3
     Theory of Trying: Example of
    Consumer Trying to Lose Weight
• Past frequency: How many times did he try to
  lose weight?
• Recency: Did he try in the past week?
• Beliefs: Did he belief it would be healthier?
• Evaluation of consequences: Will his girlfriend
  be happier if he succeeded in losing weight?
• Process: Would the diet make him feel
• Expectations of success and failure: Did he
  believe it likely that he would succeed?
• Subjective norms toward trying: Would loved
  ones approve of his efforts to lose weight?
        Tracking Attitudes over Time

• Attitude-tracking program:
  increases predictability of
  behavior by analyzing attitude
  trends during extended time
• Ongoing tracking studies
   – Gallup Poll
   – Yankelovich Monitor
                                    Click photo
                  Tracking Attitudes
          Percentage of 16- to 24-year-olds who agree
“We must take radical action to cut down on how we use our cars.”

                             Figure 7.4
Changes to Look For Over Time

             Attitude tracking should
             • Changes in different age
             • Scenarios about the
             • Identification of change

• Ch 8 Review questions 1, 4, 8, 9, 11 p 314

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